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11 

iSI  LUCIUS  Q.  C.  EL2M:ER.  II 

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GAZETTEER 


STATE  OF  NEW  JERSEY. 


COMPREHENDING 


A  GENERAL  VIEW  OF  ITS  PHYSICAL  AND  MORAL  CONDITION, 


TOGETHER    WITH 


A  TOPOGRAPHICAL.  AND  STATISTICAIi  ACCOUNT 


COUNTIES,  TOWNS,  VILLAGES,   CANALS, 
RAIL  ROADS,  kc. 


ACCOMPANIED  BY  A  MAP. 


BY    /y 

THOMAS  F. Gordon, 


PUBLISHED  BY  DANIEL  FENTON. 

.lohn  C.  VUuk,  Piintor,  rinlii(l.l|.lii;i 

1834. 


Entered  l)y  Thomas  F.  Gordon,  according  to  Act  of  Congress,  in  the  year  1834,  in  the  Clerk'sK)fRce  of 
the  District  Court  for  tlie  Eastern  District  of  Pennsylvania. 


ADVERTISEMENT. 


The  author  of  the  following  work  has  sought  to  present  to  the 
public,  a  full  and  correct  portraiture  of  the  State  in  the  year  1833. 
To  this  end,  he  lias,  personally,  visited  almost  every  portion  of  it ; 
communed  with  many  of  its  most  distinguished  and  enlightened  citi- 
zens, and  collected,  from  numerous  but  scattered  sources,  a  mass  of 
useful  and  curious  information,  which  must  prove  alike  grateful  to 
the  present  and  succeeding  generations.  Errors  will  undoubtedly  be 
discovered  in  the  work ;  for  such  a  work  is  peculiarly  liable  to  them ; 
being  exposed,  not  only  to  the  misconceptions  of  the  author,  but,  to 
those  of  his  thousand  informants.  Distance  of  places  from  each 
other,  and  the  area  of  the  townships  and  counties  are,  specially,  sub- 
ject to  misstatement.  The  first  has  been  given  from  the  returns  of 
the  General  Post-Office,  measures  upon  the  map,  and  verbal  infor- 
mation of  residents;  the  only  and  best  sources,  save  actual  admea- 
surement. The  area  of  the  townships  has  been  obtained  from  cal- 
culation of  their  contents,  as  delineated  on  Mr.  Gordon^s  map,  by 
means  of  a  reticulated  scale  of  square  miles.  The  result  cor- 
responds, so  nearly,  with  the  returns  of  the  assessors  of  such  town- 
ships, as  contain  no  unimproved  lands,  as  to  give  considerable 
confidence  in  its  approximation  to  the  truth.  It  must  be  observed, 
however,  that  this  area  comprises  roads,  lakes,  ponds,  marshes 
and,  in  a  word,  every  thing  within  the  lines. 

The  abstract  which  has  been  given  of  the  laws  relating  to  the 
administration  of  the  government,  generally,  and  of  the  counties 
and  townships,  specially,  will  appear,  to  many,  trite  and  familiar ; 
but  to  the  great  mass  of  the  people,  particularly,  to  the  rising  gene- 
ration, it  will  not  prove  the  least  acceptable  portion  of  the  work. 
To  those  about  to  enter  on  the  duties  of  the  citizen,  it  will  commu- 


IV  ADVERTISEMENT. 

iiicate  mucli  valuable  knowledge;  and  will  be  useful  to  all,  tor  occa- 
sional reference ;  compi'ising,  in  a  small  compass,  matter  of  daily 
interest,  which  must,  elsewhere,  be  sought,  in  many  volumes.  More 
of  this  species  of  information  might  have  been  usefully  given ;  but, 
the  volume  collected,  exceeds,  by  one-third,  the  quantity  originally 
proposed ;  and  to  get  it  witiiin  the  size  of  a  convenient  manual, 
resort  has  beeji  had  to  a  small  type  foi*  the  prefatory  chapters. 

To  the  many  gentlemen  to  whom  tiie  author  is  indebted  for 
communications,  he  tenders  his  unfcigi.ed  thanks ;  and  solicits 
from  them,  and  othei-s,  such  corrections  and  additions  as  may  ren- 
der the  next  edition  of  his  work,  still  more  valuable. 

Philadelphia,  January  1,  1834. 


GAZETTEER  OF  I¥EW  JERSEY. 


PREFATORY  CHAPTER. 

TILRT  Z. 

Containing  a  Physical  Vieio  of  the  Stale. 

I.  General  Boundary. — II.  Principal  Divisions. — III.  Southern  and  Alluvial  Division. — 
Bounds — Surface — J\'crisink  Hiils — Sandy  Hook — Sea  Beach — Bays  or  Lagtines — 
Soil:  Forest — Pine  Lands — Oak — Cedar  Swamp- — Marl — Ferruginous  Sand — Pro- 
portions of  Marl  7ised  in  Agriculture. —  Cidtivation  of  the  Alluvial  District. — Bog 
Ore — Streams. — IV.  Middle  and.  Secondary  District :  Bounds — Area — Formation — 
Trap  Ridges — Bergen  Ridge — First  and  Second  Mountains — Bituminous  Coal — 
Mountains  from  Springfield  to  Pluckemin. — Pompton  Plain  :  Abundance  of 
Minerals  there — Ridges  extending  to  the  Delaicare — Character  of  the  surrounding 
Country — (Quarries  of  Freestone  near  Princeton — Sandy  Hill — Primitive  Rocks 
near  Trenton. —  Copper  Mines:  at  Belleville,  Brunswick,  Somerville,  Grcenbrook. — 
V.  Mountaimms  District:  Extent — Blended  Geological  Formation — Limits — Pri- 
mitive Ridges,  Minerals  of — Tongue  of  Transition  Formation,  Minerals  of — Primi- 
tive resumed — Valley  of  the  Wallkill,  or  of  Sparta — Singular  Geology  and  Mine- 
ralogy—  Valley  of  Paulin's  Kill — Alternation  of  Slate  and  Limestone — Blue  or 
Kittatinney  Mountains — Transition  Limestone  on  Delaware  River — Precious  Mar- 
bles— Manganese — Rivers  and.  Lakes  of  the  Third  Section — Timber  of  the  Middle  and 
JVor them  Sections. — VI.  Turnpike  Roads. — VII.  Rail  Roads :  Camden  and  Amboy, 
West  Jersey,  Patterson  and  Hudson,  Patterson  Junction,  Patterson  and  Fort  Lee, 
Elizabethtoicn  and  Somerville,  J\'eiD  Jersey,  JVeio  Jersey,  Hudson  and  Delaware, 
Dela.zcare  and  Jobstoiim. — VIII.  Canals:  Morris,  Delcncare  and  Raritan,  Manas- 
(juan,  Salem. — IX.  Population — Increase — Tables — Slavery. — X.  Statistical  Table. 
XI.  Agriculture,  Manufactures  and  Commerce. — XII.  Climate. 

I.  The  State  of  New  Jersey  is  bounded  on  the  N.  E.  by  Orange  and  Rockland  coun- 
ties, of  the  State  of  New  York  ;  on  the  E.  by  Hudson  River  and  Bay,  Staten  Island 
Sound,  Raritan  Bay  and  the  Atlantic  Ocean;  on  S.  E.  and  S.  by  the  Atlantic;  on 
S.  W.  by  the  Delaware  Bay,  dividing  it  from  the  State  of  Delaware;  and  on  the  W. 
and  N.  W.  by  the  Delaware  River,  separating  it  from  Pennsylvania.  The  N.  E. 
line  from  Carpenter's  Point,  at  the  mouth  of  the  Nevisink,  or  Mackackomack 
River,  in  north  lat.  41°  21',  to  a  point  on  the  Hudson  River,  in  41°  north  latitude; 
is  in  length  45  miles;  the  E.  60;  the  S.  E.  from  Sandy  Hook  to  Cape  May,  120; 
and  the  S.  W.,  W.  and  N.  W.  from  Cape  May  to  Carpenter's  Point,  220  miles — 
making  the  extent  of  its  exterior  limit  445  miles.  The  extreme  length  of  the  State, 
by  a  line  almost  due  north  from  Cape  May,  to  the  northern  angle  on  the  Delaware, 
is  164  miles;  its  greatest  breadth  due  E.  and  W.  through  Salem,  Gloucester,  Bur- 
lington and  Monmouth  counties,  about  75  miles;  and  through  Warren,  Sussex, 
Morris  and  Bergen  counties,  to  the  extreme  N.  E.  point,  on  the  Hudson  River,  about 
60  miles.  It  may  be  crossed,  however,  by  a  direct  line  from  S.  W.  to  N.  E.,  from 
Bordentown  to  South  Amboy,  in  about  30  miles.  The  nearest  approximation  we 
can  make  to  its  area,  measuring  the  map  by  a  reticulated  scale  of  square  miles,  is 
about  7,276  square  miles,  or  4,656,330  acres,  contained  between  38°  58'  and  41°  21' 
northern  latitude.* 

II.  This  area  is  distributed  into  three  strongly  marked  divisions  ;  the  alluvial  and 
southern  ;  the  secondary,  hilly  and  middle  ;  and  the  mountainous  and  northern,  com- 
prising primitive  and  transition  formations. 

III.  The  triangular  peninsula,  or  southern  division,  bordered  on  the  S.  and  E.  by 
Delaware  Bay  and  the  Ocean,  on  the  N.  and  W.  by  the  Delaware  River,  about  110 
miles  in  length,  and  75  in  breadth,  is  entirely  alluvial.  South  of  the  Nevisink  Hills, 
the  surface  seldom  rises  60  feet  above  the  sea.  Those  hills,  adjacent  to  the  Ocean, 
are  310  feet  above  its  level ;  and  stand  where  the  waves  formerly  rolled,  resting  in 
some  places  on  banks  of  oyster  shells  and  other  marine  relics,  blended  with  clay  and 

*  Morse  s>ives  S,320  square  miles,  or  5,324,800  acres;  Smith's  Hist.  N.  J.  4,800,000 
acres;  and  Darby  6,851  square  miles,  or  4,384,000  acres. 

A 


2  GENERAL  DESCRIPTION. 

sea  mud.  A  sandy  earth,  highly  coloured  by  oxide  of  iron,  and  imbedding  reddish 
brown  sand  and  puddingsione,  cemented  by  iron,  composes  the  higher  strata;  and 
large  rocks  and  beds  of  ferruginous  sandstone,  apparently  in  place,  of  a  more  recent 
formation  than  the  alluvial  below,  containing  sufhcient  metal  to  be  called  an  ore  of 
iron,  are  of  frequent  occurrence.  Particles  of  iron  are  blended  with  the  sands  of  the 
beach  ;  and  some  of  the  streams  which  descend  from  the  top  of  the  clay  strata,  are 
red  with  iron  oxide.  Efflorescences  of  the  sulphates  of  iron  and  alumine,  are  often 
observed ;  and  flame,  proceeding  from  the  spontaneous  combustion  of  gases,  gene- 
rated, probably,  in  beds  of  sulphuret  of  iron,  has  been  noticed  here.  The  strata  of  the 
steep  eastern  declivity  are  exposed  by  frequent  land  slips. 

A  small  portion,  only,  of  these  hills  is  cultivated.  They  are  rough,  broken,  and 
covered  with  wood,  in  which  deer  still  find  covert.  From  their  summit,  a  view  is 
disclosed  of  the  ocean,  unrivalled  in  grandeur  upon  the  seaboard  of  this  State  ;  and 
the  coast  on  the  N.  E.  and  S.  may  be  seen  as  far  as  the  ej'e  can  reach.  The  land 
prospect,  though  not  so  extensive,  is  scarce  less  interesting.  In  this  hill,  on  the  side 
of  a  branch  of  the  Nevisink  River,  is  a  remarkable  cave,  30  feet  long  by  15  broad, 
divided  into  three  apartments.  The  entrance  and  roof  are  low,  the  latter  arched,  and 
of  soft  rock,  through  which  the  water  percolates;  the  bottom  is  of  loose  sand. 

Sandy  Hook,  east  of,  and  divided  from,  the  Nevisink  Hills  by  a  narrow  bay,  is  six 
miles  in  length.  It  was  formerly,  and  is  now,  isolated  by  a  channel  running  from 
Shrewsbury  River,  which  was  first  opened  in  1778,  closed  in  1810,  but  reopened  in 
1830.  Tlie  beach  running  northward  several  miles  from  Long  Branch,  invites  to  a 
promenade  on  the  hard  sand  when  the  tide  is  low;  but  the  wrecks  of  vessels,  visible 
at  short  intervals,  oppress  the  spectators  with  recollections  of  the  perils  of  the  sea. 
From  the  Hook,  this  beach  extends  12-5  miles  to  Cape  May,  varying  in  width  from 
half  a  mile  to  two  miles,  but  broken  in  several  places  by  channels  communicating 
with  the  sea.  South  of  Manasquan  it  covers  a  number  of  bays  or  salt  water  lakes, 
of  which  Barnegat,  Little  Egg  Harbour,  and  Great  Egg  Harbour,  are  the  chief.  West 
of  these  runs  a  belt  of  marsh,  in  some  places  from  four  to  five  miles  wide,  intersected 
by  small  rivers,  with  broad  and  shallow  estuaries. 

The  soil  of  this  alluvial  district  consists  of  sand  and  clay,  sometimes  one  overlay- 
ing the  other;  but  frequently  intimately  blended,  forming  a  tolerably  fertile  loam, 
which  prevails  on  its  northern  and  western  border  with  a  variable  breadth.  Above 
Salem,  this  breadth  is  from  five  to  twelve  miles,  but  below  that  town  it  is  sometimes 
contracted  to  a  mile.  East  of  this  strip  of  loam,  and  west  of  the  marsh  which  girds 
the  sea  shore,  lies  an  immense  sandy  plain,  scarce  broken  by  any  inequality,  and 
originally  covered  by  a  pine  and  shrub-oak  forest — a  great  portion  of  which  has  been 
once,  and  some  of  it  twice,  cut  over.  There  are  many  square  miles  on  which  there 
is  not  a  human  inhabitant,  and  where  the  deer,  foxes  and  rabbits  are  abundant,  and 
the  wolf  and  the  bear  find  a  lair  to  protect  their  race  from  extirpation.  But  in  many 
places  the  echo  is  awakened  by  the  woodman's  axe,  and  the  louder  din  of  the  forge 
hammer,  and  the  forest  glares  with  the  light  of  the  furnace  or  glass  house.  In  this 
sandy  desert  there  are  found  veins  of  generous  soil,  which  yield  a  compensatory 
crop  of  corn  and  rye  to  the  labours  of  the  husbandman. 

This  immense  forest  covers  probably  four-fifths  of  the  alluvial  district;  and  forty 
years  ago  a  large  portion  of  it  was  not  worth  more  than  from  six  to  ten  cents  the 
acre.  There  was  little  demand  for  the  timber,  oak  being  preferred  for  architectural 
and  economical  uses,  nor  was  the  land  worth  clearing  for  agricultural  purposes. 
The  establishment  of  furnaces  and  glass  manufactories  first  gave  additional  value  to 
the  woodland  near  their  locations  ;  but  for  a  while  they  made  little  apparent  reduc- 
tion of  the  vast  wilderness.  Then  came  the  steamboats,  which  for  some  years  tra- 
versed our  waters,  propelled  by  timber  from  New  Jersey,  without  sensibly  diminish- 
ing the  density  of  the  forest.  In  a  few  years  more,  however,  tiieir  number  was 
doubled,  trebled,  quadrupled.  Their  huge  maws,  though  fed  with  thousands  of 
shallop  loads  of  pine  wood,  were  insatiable.  The  demand  for  fuel  became  immense; 
the  almost  worthless  pine  lands  rose  rapidly  in  value,  and  the  hitherto  almost  idle 
population  of  t!io  sea-board,  found  abundant  and  profitable  employment  in  supplying 
the  growing  markets.  The  introduction  of  anthracite  coal  diminished  the  consump- 
tion of  oak  wood  as  fuel,  l)ut  increased  that  of  pine,  vast  quantities  of  charcoal  being 
required  to  ignite  the  fossil.  Yet  the  invention  of  the  simple  portable  culinary  fur- 
nace increased  tlie  demand  still  more,  thousands  of  these  convenient  utensils  being 
constantly,  during  the  summer  months,  fed  by  charcoal.  These  circumstances  have 
produced  an  entire  revolution  in  the  value  of  pine  lands.     They  have  risen  from  ten 


SOUTHERN  DIVISION.  3 

cents,  to  an  average  price  of  six  dollars  the  acre;  and,  where  very  well  timbered,  and 
convenient  to  market,  bring  from  fifteen  to  twenty-five  dollars.  Indeed,  the  soil,  de- 
nuded of  the  timber,  is  worth  from  four  to  sixteen  dollars  the  acre,  tlie  purchaser  look- 
ing to  the  growth  of  wood  for  profit  on  his  investment.  Where  tlie  forest  has  been 
felled,  an  extraordinary  change  takes  place  in  the  subsequent  product.  The  oak 
springs  up  where  the  pine  has  flourished,  and  pine  where  the  oak  lias  grown.  The 
second  growth  becomes  fit  for  the  axe,  in  a  space  varying  from  2-5  to  40  years. 

Upon  the  clay  and  loam  soils,  oak  grows  abundantly;  frequently  of  great  size,  and 
of  quality  much  valued  in  the  construction  of  ships.  It  is  the  common  timber  of  the 
western  border,  and  covers  almost  exclusively  the  central  portion  of  the  county  of 
Cape  May.  In  the  sandy  region,  are  extensive  swamps  wiiich  bear  the  beautiful 
and  valuable  white  cedar,  much  sought  for  fencing,  and  which  sells  readily  at  from 
one  to  three  hundred  dollars  the  acre. 

Throughout  a  great  portion  of  the  alluvial  district,  from  four  to  twenty  feet  be- 
neath the  surface,  is  a  species  of  greenish  blue  earth,  mixed  with  shells,  and  gene- 
rally known  as  marl.  As  this  substance  is  of  great  importance  to  the  agricultural 
interest  of  the  section,  some  remarks  on  its  physical  properties  and  use  will  not  be 
out  of  place  here.  The  essential  ingredient  of  marl,  as  a  manure,  is  lime;  and  its 
value  depends  upon  tiie  proportion  of  calcareous  matter  which  it  contains.  When 
this  abounds  in  connexion  witii  sand  only,  it  produces  indurated  marl,  classed  with 
the  limestones,  and  frequently  forming  marble  of  great  variety  and  beauty.  We, 
have  discovered  none  of  this  precious  character;  but  shell  limestone,  similar  to  that 
of  the  alluvion  of  North  Carolina,  Georgia,  and  Mississippi  Territory,  has  been  dis- 
covered in  several  places,  and  is  burned  for  lime  on  the  banks  of  the  Rancocus,  be- 
tween Eayrstown  and  Vincent-town.  The  Jersey  marls,  at  present,  are  chiefly 
known  as  the  shell,  clay  and  stone  marls.  The  first  is  composed  of  testaceous  mat- 
ter, in  various  quantities  and  degrees  of  combination;  and  sometimes  imbeds  bones 
of  marine  and  land  animals.*  The  quantity  of  clay  in  union  with  calcareous  sub- 
stances, gives  name  to  the  second  sort.  This  absorbs  and  retains  moisture  better 
than  other  kinds,  and  varies  greatly  in  colour — being  brown,  blue,  rod  and  yellowish. 
In  the  third  species,  sand  is  combined  with  calcareous  and  argillaceous  matter,  giving 
hardness  proportionate  to  its  quantity;  when  of  thin  and  laminar  structure,  this  is 
termed  slate  marl.  From  tlie  clay  they  contain,  all  these  species  are  softened  by 
water,  and,  when  exposed  to  the  atmosphere,  gradually  fall  into  powder. 

By  reason  of  their  calcareous  principle,  all  marls  effervesce  with  acids ;  but  as 
water,  alone,  frequently  produces  the  same  effect  when  poured  on  dry  clay,  it  may 
be  necessary,  in  order  to  guard  against  mistake,  in  making  trials  upon  substances 
supposed  to  be  marl,  to  let  them  remain  a  short  time  in  mixture  with  water,  pre- 
vious to  the  test  of  acids.  The  best  marls  containing  the  largest  proportion  of  cal- 
careous earth,  it  is  important  to  know  how  to  ascertain  the  quantity.  Some  are  so 
poor  as  to  have  only  a  thirtieth  part  of  their  weight  of  lime.  A  simple  method  has 
been  suggested,  founded  on  the  fact,  that  marl  commonly  contains  about  forty  per 
cent,  of  its  weight  of  fixed  air  or  carbonic  acid.  It  is  merely  by  saturating  the  marl 
with  muriatic  or  some  otlier  acid,  and  marking  correctly  the  loss  of  weight  which  it 
sustains  by  the  extrication  of  the  fixed  air.  So,  also,  if  the  substance  supposed  to 
be  marl  falls  readily  to  powder  when  exposed  to  the  air  ;  if  the  powder,  when  dry 
and  thrown  on  hot  coals,  crackles  like  salt ;  and  if,  when  dry,  and  mixed  with  water, 
it  have  a  soapy  feel  and  eflfervesces  much,  its  quality  may  be  pronounced  good. 

Some  marls  in  England,  and  probably  here,  have  eighty-four  per  cent,  of  carbonate 
of  lime,  which  is  more  than  limestone  generally  possesses;  and  the  refuse  being 
often  of  peaty  substances,  is  more  useful  as  manure  than  that  of  limestone,  which 
is  mostly  sand  or  clay.  Such  marl  may  be  converted  into  quicklime  by  burn- 
ing; and  its  solution  changes  vegetable  colours  to  green,  possessing  all  the  other 
properties  of  caustic  lime.  Marl  is  further  distinguished  by  its  feeling  fat  and  unc- 
tuous, and  appearing  when  dry,  after  exposure  to  the  weather,  as  if  covered  with  hoar 
frost,  or  sprinkled  with  fine  salt;  and  even  when  mixed  with  the  land,  giving  to  the 
whole  surface  a  whitish  appearance. 

The  farmers  in  Staffordshire,  England,  consider  the  soft  blue  marl,  commonly 

*  Among  the  latter,  it  is  said,  are  bones  of  the  rhinoceros  and  other  animals  of  the  eastern 
coTitinent,  some  of  them  of  extinct  species;  elephant's  teeth,  deer's  liorns,  bones  of  the 
whale,  shark's  teeth,  and  entire  skeletons  of  fish,  together  with  grapliytos,  lielemnites,  car- 
dites, and  various  shell-fish. 


4  GENERAL  DESCRIPTION. 

found  under  clay,  or  low  black  ground,  at  the  depth  of  seven  or  eight  feet,  the  best 
for  arable  land,  and  the  grey  sort  for  pasture.  But  that  which  is  of  a  brownish 
colour,  with  blue  veins,  and  small  lumps  of  chalk  or  limestone  lying  under  stiff  clays 
and  very  hard  to  dig,  is  most  esteemed  in  Cheshire.  The  marl  having  a  light  sand 
in  its  composition,  usually  found  at  the  depth  of  two  or  three  feet,  on  the  sides  of 
hills,  and  in  wet,  boggy  grounds,  is  fat  and  close,  and  reckoned  the  strongest  and 
most  beneficial  on  sandy  lands.  It  is  usually  called  peat  or  delving  marl.  What  is 
sometimes  called  paper  marl,  frequently  lies  near  coals,  and  flakes  like  leaves  or 
pieces  of  brown  paper,  being  of  somewhat  lighter  colour.  That  which  some  call 
clay  marl  is  very  fat,  and  is  sometimes  mixed  with  chalk  stones.  There  is  another 
sort  of  marl,  which  breaks  of  itself  into  square  cubical  bits.  The  two  last  kinds  ge- 
nerally lie  under  sand  and  clay  ;  sometimes  about  a  yard  deep  under  the  former,  but 
often  much  deeper  under  the  latter.  The  stone,  slate  or  flag  marl,  which  is  a  kind 
of  soft  stone,  or  rather  slate,  of  a  bluish  colour,  is  generally  allowed  very  good.  It 
easily  breaks  down,  and  dissolves  with  frost  or  rain;  is  found  near  rivers  and  on  the 
sides  of  hills,  and  is  very  lasting  when  used  as  manure. 

In  many  places  marl  discovers  itself  to  the  most  negligent  eye,  particularly  on  the 
sides  of  broken  hills  or  deep  hollow  roads.  Many  rivers  are  bordered  with  a  vast 
treasure  of  this  sort,  which  is  plundered  by  every  flood.  Boggy  lands  frequently 
cover  it,  and  in  them  it  seldom  lies  above  three  feet  deep.  It  is  somewhat  lower 
under  stiff"  clays  and  marshy  levels.  The  lowest  parts  of  most  sandy  lands  abound 
with  it,  at  the  depth  of  three,  seven,  nine  or  more  feet.  The  depth  of  the  marl 
itself  can  seldom  be  found  ;  for  when  the  upper  crust  is  removed,  all  that  can  be 
seen  or  dug  is  marl,  to  so  great  a  depth  that  there  are  few  if  any  instances  of  a  pit 
having  been  exhausted.  Much  of  the  preceding  description  of  the  English  marls 
is  applicable  to  those  of  New  Jersey. 

The  marl  region  of  this  State,  is  classed  by  some  authors  with  the  ferruginous  sand 
formation  of  the  United  States.  It  may  be  located,  so  far  as  it  has  yet  been  explored, 
between  two  lines;  one  drawn  from  Amboy  Bay  to  Trenton,  the  other  from  Deal,  on 
the  Atlantic,  to  the  mouth  of  Stow  Creek,  in  Cumberland  county,  upon  the  Dela- 
ware River  :  but  there  is  much  reason  to  believe  that  this  formation  occupies  a  great 
portion  of  the  triangular  peninsula  south  of  the  Raritan  River.  Much  of  the  ferru- 
ginous sand  region,  however,  is  overlaid  by  deposites  of  clay  containing  lignite. 
Above  these  is  an  almost  uniform  covering  of  grey  sand  ;  yet  in  many  places  the 
marl,  with  its  pecuUar  fossil,  is  found  immediately  beneath  the  soil.  This  formation 
has  been  traced  southward  in  many  places,  and  most  probably  extends  nearly  the 
whole  length  of  the  Atlantic  frontier  of  the  United  States. 

In  all  its  localities,  it  has  been  identified  by  similar  genera  and  species  of  organic 
remains,  though  all  the  genera  do  not  exist  in  every  locality.  Thus,  at  the  Deep  Cut 
of  the  Delaware  and  Chesapeake  Canal,  the  strata  are  characterized  by  great  num- 
bers of  ammonites,  baculiles,  and  other  multilocular  univalves.  These  remarks  apply 
to  various  parts  of  Burlington  and  Monmouth  counties,  in  New  Jersey.  Near  New 
Egypt,  are  ten  or  twelve  beds,  one  above  the  other,  with  the  genera  terebratula  and 
gryphcca.  {Uslrca,  Sa.y.)  Near  Horner's  Town,  the  marl  is  extremely  indurated  ; 
and  contains  terebratuliE  exclusively.  Near  Walnford,  the  fossils  are  chiefly  exogyrte 
andbelemnites;  while  at  Mullica  Hill,  in  Gloucester  county,  the  beds  contain  bi- 
valves, and  ([uantitiesof  belemnites  ;  and  the  calcareous  beds  of  this  county  contain 
gryphaja,  teredo,  alcyonium  .=  sparangus,  and  several  species  of  Linnican  madre- 
pores. 

The  mineralogical  characters  vary  considerably.  Of  the  species  of  marl  in  minute 
grains,  loose  and  friable,  and  of  an  uniform  dull  bluish  or  greenish  colour,  often  with 
a  shade  of  grey,  and  called  gunpowder  marl,  Mr.  Seybert  has  given  the  following 
constituents:  silex  -19.83,  ahimine  6.00,  magnesia  1.8:},  potash  10.12,  water  9.80, 
protoxide  of  iron  51.53,  loss  89=100  grains.  A  less  cautious  analysis  by  Mr.  J.  P. 
Wetherill  and  Dr.  S.  G.  Morton,  of  a  specimen,  apparently  similar,  from  another  lo- 
cality, gave  silex  19.00,  protoxide  of  iron  50.00,  ;iliimine  5.50.  lime  4.70;  tiie  re- 
mainder being  chiefly  waier  and  carbonic  acid.  Hence  the  predominant  constituents 
of  these  marls  are  silex  and  iron.  They  often  contain  beds  of  a  dark  bluish  tenacious 
clay,  sometimes  mixed  with  the  marl,  forming  marley  clay  ;  at  olliers,  the  marl  and 
clay  alternate. 

Ao-ain,  marl  is  seen  of  a  yellowish  brown  colour,  friable  or  compact,  and  filled 
with  green  specks  of  the  silicate  of  iron.  Some  of  the  greenish  varieties  are  also 
very  compact,  rendering  it  extremely  difficult  to  separate  the  fossils  from   their 


SOUTHERN  DIVISION,  5 

matrix.  The  friable  blue  marls  often  contain  a  large  proportion  of  mica,  in  minute 
scales. 

Other  localities  present  beds  of  silicious  gravel,  the  pebbles  varying  from  the 
size  of  coarse  sand,  to  one  and  two  inches  in  diameter,  cemented  together  by  oxide 
and  phosphate  of  iron,  and  containing  fossils,  similar  to  those  above  described. 
The  most  striking  instance  of  this  kind  is  at  Mullica  Hill.  Some  of  the  blue  marls, 
which  effervesce  strongly  with  acids,  contain  but  five  per  cent,  of  lime.  But  we 
find  large  beds  of  calcareous  marl,  containing  at  least  thirty-seven  per  cent.;  the  re- 
mainder being  silex,  iron,  &c.  Also  a  hard,  well  characterized,  subcrystalline  lime- 
stone, filled  with  zeophytes.  All  these  diversified  appearances  pass,  by  insensible 
degrees,  into  each  other,  exhibiting  an  almost  endless  variety  of  mineralogical 
character. 

The  mineral  substances  found  in  these  beds,  are  iron  pyrites  in  profusion  ;  chert 
in  the  calcareous  beds,  amber,  retinasphalt,  lignite  and  small  spherical  masses  of  a 
dark  green  colour,  and  compact  texture,  apparently  analogous  to  those  found  in  the 
green  sand  of  France.  Their  structure  does  not  appear  to  be  organic,  although 
they  have,  often,  a  shark's  tooth,  or  a  small  shell  for  a  nucleus.  Larger  spherical 
bodies  also  occur,  resembling  the  nodules  of  clay  in  ironstone,  common  in  some 
parts  of  England. 

As  the  quality  of  the  marl  varies  greatly,  so  does  the  quantity  used  in  manuring 
lands.  In  Monmouth  county,  south  of  the  Shrewsbury  River,  there  is  marl  so  strong, 
that  five  cart-loads  the  acre  are  as  much  as  the  land  will  bear  advantageously  :  in 
other  places,  from  twenty  to  one  hundred  and  forty  loads  to  the  acre  are  profitably 
used.  It  is  asserted,  that  a  good  dressing  will  last  from  twelve  to  twenty  years.  It 
would  be  difficult  to  calculate  the  advantages  which  the  state  has  gained,  and  will 
yet  derive  from  the  use  of  marl.  It  has  already  saved  some  districts  from  depopula- 
tion, and  increased  the  inhabitants  of  others;  and  may,  one  day,  contribute  to  con- 
vert the  sandy  and  pine  deserts  into  regions  of  agricultural  wealth. 

Pine  lands,  in  the  counties  of  Columbia,  Albany,  and  Saratoga,  and  other  parts 
of  the  state  of  New  York,  of  a  character  similar  to  those  of  New  Jersey,  have  been 
rendered  very  valuable  by  gypsum,  and  rotation  of  crops,  often  producing  from 
twenty  to  twenty-five  bushels  of  wheat  to  the  acre.  The  sandy  soil  is  in  time 
changed  to  a  rich  vegetable  mould — and  gypsum,  therefore,  may  probably  be  used 
with  marl  to  render  the  pine  lands  of  this  State  productive. 

The  occupation  of  a  vast  proportion  of  the  inhabitants  of  this  section  is  agricultu- 
ral. Upon  the  loam  soils  large  quantities  of  grass  and  grain,  particularly  rye, 
corn  and  oats,  are  produced;  and  the  sandy  lands,  treated  with  marl,  also  give 
abundant  crops  of  grain  and  grass.  In  convenient  situations  for  supplying  the  mar- 
kets of  New  York  and  Philadelphia,  the  farmers  give  much  attention  to  the  more 
profitable  culture  of  garden  vegetables,  potatoes,  melons,  fruit,  &c.  The  peach 
orchards  of  E.  and  W.  Jersey,  give  abundance  of  that  delicious  fruit  to  both  cities; 
so  low,  at  times,  as  fifty  cents  the  bushel.  At  a  distance  from  the  navigable  wa- 
ters, and  from  market,  the  grain  is  commonly  fed  to  stock,  and  i'ew  portions  of  the 
United  States,  of  equal  area,  produce  more,  or  better,  pork,  than  the  counties  of 
Monmouth,  Burlington  and  Gloucester ;  scarce  less  famed  for  the  quality  of  their 
horses.  In  the  counties  of  Gloucester,  Cumberland  and  Salem,  upon  the  fresh 
waters  of  their  streams  whose  shores  are  subject  to  overflow  by  the  tides,  many 
thousand  acres  have,  by  embankment,  been  converted  into  productive  meadows, 
which  maintain  large  herds  of  cattle,  and  furnish  adequate  means  for  enriching  the 
upland.  Adjacent  to  the  Delaware  Bay  and  sea  coast,  are  wide  tracts  of  salt  mea- 
dow, some  of  which  have  also  been  reclaimed  by  embankment ;  and  the  rest  afford 
abundance  of  coarse  hay,  free  in  many  places  to  all  who  seek  it,  and  valuable  in  the 
maintenance  of  stock  and  making  manure.  The  climate  is  so  mild,  near  the  coast, 
that  herds  of  cattle  subsist,  through  the  winter,  upon  these  meadows,  and  in  the 
neighbouring  thickets,  without  expense  to  the  proprietors.  The  sea  coast  is  said 
also  to  be  favourable  to  the  production  of  good  mutton  and  wool.  The  great  in- 
ducements to  enterprise  and  industry  constantly  operating  in  the  markets  upon  the 
borders  of  this  section,  have  already  produced  wonderful  effects,  and  cannot  fail  to 
excite  the  inhabitants  to  still  greater  efforts  to  improve  the  advantages  they  possess. 

Extensive  beds  of  the  variety  of  argillaceous  oxide  of  iron,  called  bog  ore,  are 
common  throughout  this  district,  which  when  mixed  with  mountain  ore,  in  the  fur- 
nace, makes  good  iron  for  castings  and  the  forge.  From  these  furnaces,  and  those 
of  the  glass-houses,  fed  by  the  wood  of  the  forest,  a  considerable  portion  of  the  an- 


6  GENERAL  DESCRIPTION. 

nually  growing  wealth  of  the  district  is  derived ;  and  if  we  add  to  these,  the  cord 
wood,  and  lumber,  and  vessels  built  upon  its  southern  waters,  we  shall  have  enu- 
merated the  chief  sources  of  the  prosperity  of  the  peninsula.  In  this  part  of  the 
state,  14  furnaces,  including  cupolas,  and  14  forges,  one  extensive  rolling  and  slit- 
ling  mill  and  nail  factory,  and  11  glass  manufactories,  engaged  in  the  manufacture 
of  window-glass  and  hollow  ware,  provide  a  valuable  and  steady  market  for  large 
portions  of  the  agricultural  product. 

The  whole  of  this  district  is  tolerably  well  watered  ;  but  the  streams  are  neither 
laro-e  nor  rapid,  and  are  remarkable  for  the  depth  of  their  beds,  which  cause,  indeed, 
almost  the  only  inequalities  of  its  surface.  Those  of  the  northern  part  of  the  penin- 
sula interlock  their  sources  in  various  ways;  some  flow  N.  and  N.  E.  as  the  Mill- 
stone and  the  South  Rivers,  with  their  many  tributaries;  some  E.  to  the  Atlantic,  as 
the  Swimmino-,  Shark,  Manasquan,  Metetecunk  and  Tom's  Rivers;  whilst  others  seek 
the  Delaware,  as  the  Assunpink,  the  Crosswicks,  the  Rancocus,  Cooper's,  Big 
Timber,  Mantua  and  Oldman's  Creeks.  Those  on  the  south  either  flow  S.  E.  to 
the  ocean,  as  the  Mullica.  Great  Egg  Harbour  and  Tuckahoe  rivers,  or  run  S.  W. 
into  the  bay,  as  Salem,  Stow  and  Cohansey  creeks  and  Maurice  River.  Most  of 
the  streams  have  a  crooked  course,  and  flowing  through  a  flat  country,  are  com- 
monly navigable  some  miles  from  their  mouth.  Unlike  the  rivers  of  hilly  countries, 
they  are  steady  in  their  volumes,  and  uniform  supplies  of  water  can  be  more  confi- 
dently relied  upon. 

IV.  The  second  of  our  divisions  of  the  State  is  included  by  a  line  drawn  from 
Hoboken  runnino-  S.  of  New  Brunswick  to  Trenton,  and  another  from  the  Ramapo 
Mountains,  on  the  boundary  of  New  York,  curving  by  the  Pompton  Mountain  or 
Highlands,  Morristown,  Baskingridge  and  Flemington,  to  the  Delaware,  between 
Alexandria  and  Milford.  This  section,  from  N.  E.  to  S.  W.  has  about  70  miles  in 
length,  and  an  average  breadth  of  about  twenty  miles.  It  possesses  considerable 
variety  of  surface  and  soil,  but  is  strikingly  distinguished  by  its  geological  formation, 
which  is  chiefly  secondary  or  old  red  sandstone,  upon  which  rest  hills  of  greater  or 
less  elevation,  crowned  with  trap  or  greenstone  rock.  Its  area  includes  four-fifths  of 
Berwen  county,  the  whole  of  Essex,  a  small  portion  of  Morris,  nearly  all  of  Somerset, 
one-half  of  Middlesex,  and  one-half  of  Hunterdon  counties.  The  sandstone  base  is 
found  in  various  states  of  induration  and  aggregation.  Generally,  on  the  eastern 
portion  of  the  section,  from  the  Palisades,  on  the  North  River,  westerly  to  Hunterdon 
county,  it  is  compact,  hard,  and  well  adapted  for  building,  frequently  assuming  the 
form  of  puddingstone  and  wacke,  and  occasionally  affording  considerable  organic 
remains.  Between  the  south  branch  of  the  Raritan  and  Delaware,  still  underlaying 
mountain  and  valley,  the  red  rock  assumes  a  slaty,  shaly  form,  has  more  clay  in 
its  composition,  and,  taken  from  whatever  depth,  readily  disintegrates  into  loam 
more  fertile  than  that  formed  from  the  harder  stone.  But  for  the  trap  hills  which 
have  been  thrown  upon  it,  the  whole  of  this  section  would  be  a  vast  plain,  whose 
only  inequalities  would  be  formed  by  the  excavations  made  by  the  streams  in  their 
tortuous  and  generally  sluggish  passage  to  the  Ocean. 

From  this  general  formation,  however,  we  must  admit  the  following  exceptions. 
The  alluvial  borders  the  first  south-eastern  trap  ridge,  known  as  the  first  Newark 
Mountain,  from  Boundbrook  to  Springfield,  and  westward  it  approaches  the  Ra- 
ritan within  two  miles,  forming  the  bed  of  that  river  a  little  below  Brunswick. 
Wherever  excavations  have  been  made  in  this  alluvial  tract,  strata  of  sand,  gravel, 
and  clay  are  disclosed,  but  no  rocks  in  place.  Ociires  of  good  quality  have  been 
found  in  many  parts  of  it,  and  at  Uniontown,  near  Springfield,  compact  peat  of  su- 
perior quality,  resting  on  marl,  supposed  to  extend  through  a  morass  of  five  hundred 
acres.  Bones  of  the  mastodon  were  discovered  a  few  years  since  in  this  swamp. 
Extensive  beds  of  white  pipe  clay,  composed  principally  of  alumine,  and  infusible, 
have  been  observed  between  Woodbridge  and  Amboy,  and  marine  shells  in  various 
parts  of  the  district. 

The  alluvial  section  we  have  just  described,  is  connected  with  another  five  miles 
in  breadth  by  twenty  in  length,  formed  of  the  deposits  of  the  Ilackensack  and  Passaic 
Rivers,  between  the  secondary  valley  and  the  Bergen  ridge.  In  this  tract,  the 
depth  of  the  deposit  is  from  12  to  20  feet,  its  basis  sand  and  shells  like  the  shore  of 
the  sea.  The  whole  was  formerly  covered  with  wood,  of  which  some  groves  of 
cedar  still  remain,  and  bodies  of  trees  but  little  decayed  are  frequently  found  at  va- 
rious depths.  Indeed,  so  abundant  and  sound  are  the  logs  on  these  marshes,  tliat 
they  are  used  for  the  foundation  of  the  New  .lersey  Rail-road,  now  being  constructed 


MIDDLE  DIVISION.  7 

here.  In  this  bog,  N.  of  the  turnpike  road,  between  Newark  and  Jersey  City,  rises 
an  island  (Sccaucus)  about  four  rniles  long  by  one  wide,  composed,  like  the  adjacent 
shores,  of  red  and  grey  sandstone,  and  having  a  promontory  at  either  end.  That 
on  the  south  known  as  Snake  Hill,  has  a  conical  form,  is  of  trap  rock  on  sand- 
stone rising  into  mural  precipices,  and  having  cubical  masses  of  the  trap  piled  at 
its  southern  base.  From  its  wood  clad,  rocky  and  precipitous  summit,  the  spectator 
may  behold  the  Hackensack  and  Passaic  Rivers  almost  at  his  feet,  and  for  several 
miles  dragging  their  slow  length  through  a  sea  of  verdure;  on  the  west,  populous  vil- 
lages and  ranges  of  mountains;  on  the  east  the  great  city  of  New  York,  and  on  the 
south  the  wide  expanded  ocean.  Through  the  grey  sandstone  of  this  island,  mi- 
caceous iron  ore  is  abundantly  dispersed;  and  pectenites  and  other  marine  shells  are 
found  on  its  elevated  parts. 

The  trap  ridges  which  traverse  this  division  excite  much  interest.  Trapstone  is 
known  in  many  cases  to  have  an  igneous  origin.  Whether  it  may  be  ascribed  to 
the  same  cause  in  all,  is  still  a  vexed  question.  That  it  has  been  found  here  subse- 
quently to  the  sandstone  on  which  it  reposes,  is  most  obvious;  but  when  or  how  it 
has  been  poured  over  its  base,  throughout  such  great  extent  of  country,  in  Connec- 
ticut, New  York,  and  Pennsylvania,  will  probably  never  be  discovered.  We  observe 
the  first  mountainous  range  of  this  district,  on  the  eastern  border  adjacent  to  the 
Hudson  River.  It  rises  gradually  from  Bergen  Point,  bounds  the  State  for  about 
28  miles,  and  runs  a  greater  distance  into  the  State  of  New  Y''ork.  In  this  State 
this  ridge  has  an  average  widtli  of  two  and  a  half  miles,  with  a  summit  of  table  land. 
From  its  western  brow  there  is  a  gradual  descent  into  the  valley  of  the  Hackensack 
and  Passaic.  On  its  eastern  side  it  is  uniformly  precipitous.  At  Weehawk,  four 
miles  N.  of  the  City  of  Jersey,  the  mountain  presents  a  perpendicular  wall,  elevated 
200  feet  above  the  Hudson,  commanding  a  fine  view  of  the  surrounding  country. 
From  Weehawk  to  Fort  Lee,  a  distance  of  about  7  miles,  there  is  an  alternation  of 
precipitous  ledges  and  steep  declivities,  mostly  clothed  with  various  verdure.  The 
hills,  retiring  at  intervals  from  the  shore,  give  room  for  narrow  but  fertile  and  well 
cultivated  strips  of  ground,  adorned  with  neat  dwellings,  environed  by  fruit  trees 
and  diversified  crops.  From  Fort  Lee  to  the  state  line,  the  mountain  has  a  uniform 
appearance.  The  eastern  front  rises  perpendicularly  from  200  to  550  feet;  nu- 
merous vertical  fissures  cross  each  other  at  various  angles,  forming  basaltic  columns, 
from  which  the  name  of  Palisades  has  been  derived^  The  face  of  the  ledge  is  bare, 
but  vegetation  is  occasionally  seen  in  the  crevices.  From  the  base  of  the  precipice 
to  the  edge  of  the  water,  a  distance  of  3  or  400  feet,  there  is  a  steep  declivity  co- 
vered with  angular  blocks  of  stone  fallen  from  the  heights,  and  shaded  with  trees. 
The  summit  of  the  mountain  is  slightly  undulating  table  land,  gradually  rising  to 
the  north,  with  an  average  width  of  about  two  miles,  generally  covered  with  wood  in 
all  the  wildness  of  nature.  The  western  side  of  the  mountain  has  a  very  gradual  de- 
scent, is  cleared  and  well  cultivated,  and  neat  farm  houses  of  freestone  line  its  base, 
like  a  village  street,  for  near  20  miles.  The  prospect  is  one  of  the  most  delightful ;  nu- 
merous farms,  rich  in  luxuriant  vegetation,  and  extensive  alluvial  meadows  through 
which  the  Hackensack  and  its  tributaries  flow,  are  bounded  by  the  mountain  ranges 
of  the  west.  The  greenstone  of  this  mountain,  resting  on  sandstone,  is  not  so  dark 
as  that  of  New  Haven,  and  is  an  aggregate  of  hornblende,  feldspar,  and  epidote, 
with  which  prehnite  compact  and  radiated  is  sometimes  associated.  At  the  base  of 
the  mountain  bordering  the  river,  in  many  places,  secondary  argillaceous  shist, 
conglomerate,  red,  white,  yellow  and  purple  sandstone,  and  indurated  clay,  alternate, 
exhibitino-  a  stratification  nearly  horizontal,  the  underlaying  inclination  being  from 
8  to  10  degrees.  These  layers  are  sometimes  visible  on  the  mountain's  side,  at  con- 
siderable elevations  above  the  river.  The  sandstone  is  generally  a  coarse  aggre- 
gate of  quartz  and  feldspar,  often  friable,  but  sometimes  very  firmly  combined  ;  ex- 
hibiting winding  vertical  fissures.  In  this  base  may  be  observed,  in  some  ?&w 
places,  a  compact  white  sandstone,  resembling  the  Portland  stone  of  England. 

A  metallic  vein  was  worked,  at  Foil  Lee,  at  the  commencement  of  the  revolu- 
tionary war,  under  the  impression  that  it  contained  gold;  but  Dr.  Torrey  has  deter- 
mined, that  the  ore  is  pyritous  and  green  carbonate  of  copper;  and  the  matrix 
quartz,  dipping  under  the  greenstone. 

Two  other  prominent  mountain  ranges  intersect  the  country  now  under  view. 
They  rise  near  the  primitive  highlands,  two  miles  north  of  Pompton,  and  run  about 
sixty  miles  in  an  almost  semicircular  course.  The  first  ridge,  at  its  commencement, 
is  about  twenty  miles  E.  from  the  Palisades;  but  at,  and  south  of  Patterson,  it  is  not 


8  GENERAL  DESCRIPTIOiN. 

more  than  twelve,  from  the  North  River.  The  most  elevated  point  of  these  moun- 
tains is  six  miles  N.  VV.  from  Patterson,  where  a  sugar-loaf  peak  rises  near  1000 
feet  above  the  level  of  the  ocean.  Its  trap  rock  is  generally  covered  with  a  thin 
mould  and  verdant  surface  ;  and  a  walnut  grove,  without  underwood,  occupies, 
exclusively,  about  forty  acres  upon  the  summit,  from  which  there  is  a  very  exten- 
sive view,  towards  the  E.  N.  E.  and  N.  over  a  tolerably  level  country.  On  the  N. 
W.  the  waving  tops  of  the  Preakness  ridge  are  observed,  extending  for  several 
miles,  indented  by  ponds  of  considerable  magnitude  and  depth.  North  of  this  ridge 
is  another  high  and  detached  hill,  sweeping  in  a  semicircle,  rising  and  terminating 
near  the  Highlands.  Many  of  the  summits  are  under  cultivation,  and  afford  fine 
views  of  t.iie  great  secondary  valley,  bounded  by  the  Highlands,  the  Hudson  and 
the  Preakness  ridge.  On  the  east  of  the  last  chain  is  another  section  of  the  trap 
ranges,  called  the  Totoway  mountain.  It  rises  near  the  Preakness  mountain,  six 
miles  from  Patterson,  and  unites  with  the  Newark  chain,  at  the  Great  Falls.  It  is 
in  many  places  free  from  rocks,  but  on  the  east  side  are  precipices  of  considerable 
height  and  extent,  with  waving  or  denticulated  mural  faces,  presenting  columns  of 
basaltic  regularity.  An  insulated  semicircular  wall  of  greenstone,  with  projecting 
columns,  bearing  some  resemblance  to  a  castle  or  fort  in  ruins,  occupies  a  summit  of 
the  Totoway  ridge.  Sandstone  quarries  are  opened  in  several  places  at  the  base 
of  the  greenstone;  and  one,  three  miles  from  Patterson,  on  the  Preakness  moun- 
tain, affords  the  best  freestone  of  New  Jersey.  Fine  red  and  grey  sandstone  sprin- 
kled with  mica,  alternates  with  argillaceous  strata,  dipping  under  the  greenstone, 
with  a  western  inclination  of  about  12^.  Bituminous  coal,  in  layers  two  inches 
thick,  has  frequently  been  found  in  this  and  other  parts  of  the  Preakness  ridge,  in 
connexion  with  sandstone  and  sliale,  and  the  neighbourhood  is  supposed  to  exhibit 
indications  of  more  valuable  beds  of  this  combustible.  Gneiss,  granite,  pudding 
and  sandstone,  in  rolled  masses,  abundantly  cover  the  surface,  in  many  parts  of 
this  region.  The  greenstone  of  the  Preakness  range  rarely  offers  interesting  im- 
bedded minerals;  but  prehnite,  agate,  chalcedony,  and  a  mineral  resembling  cach- 
elong,   have  been  discovered  in  it. 

At  the  falls  of  the  Passaic,  in  Patterson,  perpendicular  mural  precipices  of  green- 
stone, with  wide  vertical  fissures  and  amorphous  masses  at  their  base,  may  be  ob- 
served. The  lower  strata  of  this  rock  contain  much  argillaceous  matter,  which  par- 
tially takes  the  place  of  hornblende.  The  ledges  rest  on  porous  rocks,  horizontally 
posited,  resembling  the  toadstone  of  Derbyshire.  Carbonate  of  lime  and  other  mi- 
nerals, subject  to  decay,  are  imbedded  in  it ;  and  by  their  decomposition  give  a  cel- 
lular and  volcanic  appearance.  A  friable  amygdaloid,  with  an  argillaceous  base,  en- 
closino-  nodules  of  carbonate  of  lime  of  a  spheroidal  oval  or  almond  shape,  from  the 
size  of  a  pea  to  that  of  a  walnut,  may  also  be  noticed.  The  nodules,  easily  disen- 
gaged from  the  base,  exhibit  a  smooth  dark  green  surface  of  chlorite.  The  layers 
beneath  tiie  amygdaloid,  are  red  and  grey  conglomerate,  connected  with  red  sand- 
stone, too  porous  for  use,  absorbing  nmch  moisture  and  breaking  by  the  expansive 
power  of  frost.  Good  freestone  in  nearly  a  horizontiil  position,  is  the  basis  layer, 
and  forms  the  bed  of  the  Passaic.  In  marjy  places  the  greenstone  occupying  the 
summit  appears  but  a  few  feet  in  thickness;  and  it  is  not  arranged  in  columns  of  ba- 
saltiform  regularity.  Prehnite,  calcareous  spar  and  carbonate  of  copper,  zeolite, 
stilbite,  analcime  and  datholite,  have  been  found  here. 

Mural  precipices  of  dark  fine  grained  fissile  greenstone,  are  observed  at  the  Little 
Falls  of  the  Passaic,  five  miles  above  Patterson.  Vertical  seams  cross  each  other 
here,  at  various  angles,  in  the  ledges,  giving  to  detached  pieces  a  regular  prisma- 
tic form,  with  three  or  four  sides,  often  truncated  on  one  or  more  of  the  lateral 
edges — the  tabular  form  is  common.  Rock  of  similar  character  is  observable  in 
other  parts  of  the  Preakness  ridge.  Marine  organic  remains,  such  as  urthorrritcs, 
madrepores,  tubipores,  pectenites,  terebratulas,  encrinites,  bilabites,  seipulites, 
and  other  species,  generally  in  an  argillaceous  base,  in  mountain  and  valley,  have 
been  observed  here,  as  in  other  parts  of  this  region. 

From  Patterson  to  Springfield,  the  trap  ridges  are  called  first  and  second  New- 
ark mountains,  and  Caldwell  mountain.  Their  direction  is  nearly  south,  with 
great  unifi>rmity  of  altitude ;  their  eastern  declivity  steep,  their  western  descent 
gradual,  as  is  common  with  mountains  of  North  America.  Mural  precipices  are 
rarely  seen,  except  at  Patterson  and  Sjn-ingfield.  Wherever  ledges  appear,  the 
mountain  side  is  covered  with  small  amorphous  stones.  Tlie  red  sandstone  appears 
in  place,  both  upon  the  sides  and  base.     Much  of  the  eastern  side  is  under  cultiva- 


MIDDLE  DIVISION.  9 

tion;  the  summit  and  western  declivity  are  generally  covered  by  coppice  of  small 
oak,  chesnut,  walnut,  butternut  and  cedar.  The  second  Newark  mountain  runs 
a  parallel  course  with,  and  is  distant  from,  the  first,  about  a  mile.  It  is  less  ele- 
vated and  rocky,  and  has  a  more  gradual  ascent  than  the  other.  The  view  from 
the  first  embraces  the  thickly  settled  and  highly  cultivated  valley,  whose  surface 
appears  like  a  plain,  painted  with  meadows,  grain  fields  and  orcliards,  and  studded 
with  the  villages  of  Bloomfield,  North  and  South  Orange,  and  the  large  towns  of 
Newark  and  Elizabeth; — beyond  which  we  have  in  sight  the  salt  meadows,  the  city 
and  harbour  of  New  York,  parts  of  Long  and  Staten  Islands  and  the  distant  ocean. 
In  this  valley,  fine  red  and  grey  freestone  alternates  with  shale.  Bituminous  coal, 
in  thin  layers,  is  associated  with  argillaceous  sliale,  in  freestone  quarries,  adjacent 
to  the  Passaic.  At  the  termination  of  the  Newark  Mountain,  at  Springfield,  and 
in  many  parts  of  the  trap  ranges,  smoke,  and  in  some  instances,  flame  issuing 
from  the  crevices  of  the  rock,  have  been  observed  by  the  inhabitants;  proceeding 
probably  from  carbonated  hydrogen  gas  indicating  coal  below.  Animal  and  vegeta- 
ble organic  remains  have  been  observed  in  this  freestone.  Near  Belleville  a  tooth, 
almost  two  inches  in  length,  was  discovered,  some  years  since,  fifteen  feet  below 
the  surface. 

The  Newark  Mountains  terminate  at  Springfield,  where-  the  continuity  of  the 
trap  range  is  broken.  From  this  place  the  greenstone  ridges  take  a  S.  W.  direc- 
tion of  seventeen  miles  to  the  vicinity  of  Boundbrook,  and  thence,  N.  W.  about  tea 
more  to  Pluckemin  :  the  second  mountain  following  the  curvature  of  the  first.  Se- 
condary greenstone  is,  exclusively,  the  rock,  in  place,  of  the  summits  and  sides  of 
both  ridges,  but  it  seldom  appears  in  ledges  of  magnitude.  Sandstone  is  as  usual 
the  base,  and  has  been  observed  under  the  greenstone,  in  nearly  a  horizontal  posi 
tion,  with  a  small  dip,  sometimes  alternating  with  secondary  compact  limestone,  in 
layers,  from  two  inches  to  two  feet  in  thickness.  Frehnite  is  found  in  considera- 
ble quantities,  near  the  foot  of  the  mountain,  in  amygdaloid  with  a  greenstone 
base,  much  of  it  partly  decomposed.  It  is  sometimes  imbedded  in  the  rock,  in 
long  parallel  columns  in  various  directions,  its  fibres  radiating  from  the  centre.  Ze- 
olite, stilbite,  crystals  of  quartz,  and  carbonate  of  lime,  are  frequently  seen  in  the 
valley  between  the  mountains.  North  of  Scotch  Plains,  sulphat  of  barytes  appears 
associated  with  carbonate  of  lime.  A  small  portion  only  of  these  ranges  is  cleared 
and  cultivated. 

The  mountain,  running  a  S.  W.  course  from  Springfield,  has  been  termed,  by 
some  geologists,  tlie  Granite  Ridge.  It  is  described  as  passing  through  the  State, 
bordering  the  oceanic  alluvial,  and  having  its  highest  point  near  Hoboken — alluding, 
doubtless,  to  the  height  near  Weehawk.  The  Greenstone  Ridge  would  be  the  more 
appropriate  name.  For  excepting  the  serpentine,  at  Hoboken,  there  are  no  primi- 
tive rocks  in  place,  between  the  Hudson  and  Highland  chains;  the  sununit  rock  of 
all  the  ranges  being,  uniformly,  secondary  greenstone.  The  Highland  chain  runs 
from  S.  E.  to  N.  W.,  tlie  general  direction  of  the  primitive  strata;  but  none  of  the 
secondary  ranges  of  New  Jersey  pursues  a  course  parallel  with  the  primitive.  The 
latter,  in  many  places,  preserve  for  miles  an  even  summit  of  table-land,  whilst  the 
Highland' ridges  display  sugar  loaf  eminences,  and  a  waving  profile,  characteristic 
of  the  primitive.  The  extensive  secondary  range  commencing  near  Pompton, 
within  half  a  mile  of  the  Higlilands,  and  extending  in  a  semi-circular  course  until 
it  again  approaches  them,  corroborates,  by  its  direction  and  the  character  of  its  sum- 
mit, the  correctness  of  these  positions.  The  broad  valley,  encircled  by  the  Green- 
stone ridge  and  the  Highlands,  contains  much  fresh  water  alluvial.  Many  of  its 
small  hills  have  no  rock  in  place.  The  plain  bordering  the  Passaic  is  generally  ex- 
tensive— in  some  places  four  miles  wide.  Peat  is  observed  in  several  places  be- 
tween the  source  of  the  river  and  Little  Falls;  and  a  considerable  quantity  has  been 
cut,  adjacent  to  the  Newark  and  Morristown  turnpike,  and  tlie  bed  discovered  to  be 
more  than  six  feet  deep. 

Pompton  Plain,  near  twenty  miles  in  circumference,  and  environed  by  mountains, 
presents  a  decided  fresh  water  alluvion — strata  of  gravel,  sand,  and  clay,  without 
rocks  in  place,  have  uniformly  been  found  wherever  wells  have  been  dug;  and  it 
was,  probably,  at  a  remote  period,  the  bed  of  a  lake.  The  waters  of  the  Pequannock 
Long  Pond  and  Ramapo  Rivers  pass  through  it.  The  southern  and  much  of  the 
western  part  of  the  plain  is  marshy,  and  embraces  about  1-500  acres  of  peat  ground, 
apparently  of  good  quality,  judging  by  a  ditch  of  four  miles  in  length  which  has  been 
dug  through  it.     In  the  southern  part  of  the  plain,  good  granular  argillaceous  oxide 

B 


10  GENERAL  DESCRIPTION. 

of  iron,  or  pea  ore,  is  found  over  a  space  of  about  200  acres.  The  Highlands  form 
the  west  and  north-west  boundary  of  the  plain,  which  in  other  directions  is  skirted 
by  the  Pacganack  Mountain,  pursuing  a  serpentine  course  from  North  Pompton,  to 
the  vicinity  of  Morristown,  separating  the  wide  alluvial  plains  watered  by  the  Pomp- 
ton  and  Passaic  Rivers.  Upon  this  range,  tjie  summit  rock,  in  place,  is,  uniformly, 
a  fine  grained  dark  secondary  greenstone,  olten  in  a  state  of  partial  decomposition, 
exhibitino-  mural  precipices  of  considerable  height  and  extent,  with  sandstone  at  the 
sides  and  base.  The  first  contains  prehnite,  zeolite,  analcime,  chalcedony,  agate, 
amethyst,  jasper,  crystals  of  quartz,  and  narrow  veins  of  satin  spar,  in  jasper.  The 
part  of  this  range  adjacent  to  Pompton  Plains,  may,  perhaps,  from  the  abundance  of 
these  minerals,  be  useful  to  the  lapidary,  as  well  as  to  the  mineralogist.  The  agates 
are  from  the  size  of  a  pin's  head  to  three  pounds  weight,  mostly  chalcedony — The 
eyed  and  fortification  agate  has  been  observed  here  in  a  few  instances.  A  mineral 
specimen  was  found  in  this  mountain  by  Judge  Kinsey,  of  near  16  pounds  weight, 
containing  agate,  amethyst,  and  white  quartz. 

Another  greenstone  range,  of  minor  extent,  called  Long  Hill,  is  situate  in  the 
great  valley,  under  review,  rising  near  Chatham,  and  running  westerly  about  ten 
miles.  The  trap  of  this  ridge  is  in  such  state  of  decay,  that  rocks  seldom  appear  in 
place.  The  Passaic  pursues  a  winding  course  along  the  base  of  the  mountain,  some- 
times concealed  in  groves,  at  others  glancing  sheen  in  the  verdant  meadows.  About 
the  centre  of  Long  Hill  are  mural  precipices,  composed  of  what  the  farmers  call 
shell  rock,  resembling  the  stone  on  the  banks  of  the  Raritan. 

This  secondary  formation  accompanies  the  Highlands  to  the  Delaware,  and  is 
pierced  in  several  places  by  broken  ridges  of  the  same  trap  character  we  have  de- 
scribed. Such  is  the  Rocky  or  Nashanic  Mountain,  the  heights  near  Rocktown, 
Lambertville,  Belmont,  Herberttown,  and  Woodville,  and  Rocky  Hill,  immediately 
north  of  Princeton.  The  sandstone,  generally,  in  this  portion  of  the  section,  differs 
materially  from  that  of  the  Passaic.  It  extends  northerly  to  the  first  primitive  ridge, 
north  of  Flemington,  and  forms  the  soil  of  the  broad  red  shale  valley,  spreading 
from  that  ridge  to  the  Rocky  Hills,  underlays  the  last,  and  extends  south  of  Pening- 
ton.  Its  colour  is  of  a  darker  red  than  the  Newark  stone — it  appears  to  be  without 
grain,  yields  a  strong  argillaceous  odour  when  breathed  upon,  and  is  readily  decom- 
posed by  exposure  to  air  and  moisture.  It  is,  probably,  composed  of  iron,  alumine, 
and  silex,  with  a  small  portion  of  sulphur,  and  may  be  termed  ferruginous  shist. 
The  rock  is  stratified,  splitting  readily  into  thin  brittle  lamin®,  and  is  said  to  rest  in 
some  places  on  good  freestone.  But  on  the  S.  E.  near  Princeton,  are  quarries  of 
excellent  red  and  while  freestone,  similar  to  that  of  the  Preakness  ridge. 

Sandy  Hill,  an  elevation  of  the  secondary  region,  situate  between  Kingston  and 
Brunswick,  is  alluvial,  like  the  Nevisink  Hills,  composed  of  sand,  white  and  co- 
loured clay,  containing  beds  of  ferruginous  sand  and  puddingstone. 

Upon  the  south-western  angle  of  this  district,  and  particularly  at  and  around 
Trenton,  there  is  a  small  portion  of  primitive,  rising  through  the  secondary,  into 
abrupt  rocks  of  granitic  character,  varying  from  loose  micaceous  shale  to  massive 
granite,  but  composed  chiefly  of  hard  and  compact  gneiss.  This  rock  forms  the 
Falls  of  the  Delaware  at  the  head  of  tide,  and  stretches  away  in  a  S.  W.  direction 
through  Pennsylvania.  From  a  mass  in  the  bed  of  the  river,  large  and  beautiful 
specimens  of  zircon  have  been  taken. 

The  portion  of  New  Jersey  which  we  have  now  described,  is  the  most  populous, 
and  perhnpsthe  most  wealthy  of  tiie  State.  Its  soil  is  not  so  productive  as  the  lime- 
stone of  tiie  primitive  and  transition  regions;  but  there  is  less  of  it  waste,  than  in 
those  regions,  and  it  is  divided  into  smaller  farms,  and  more  assiduously  laboured, 
under  the  excitement  of  proximity  to  the  markets  of  New  York  and  Philadelphia, 
and  that  created  in  the  eastern  portion  by  its  own  manufacturing  towns  ;  as  Pat- 
terson, Little  Falls,  Godvvinsville,  New  Prospect,  Bloomfield,  Belleville,  North  and 
South  Orange,  Si)rinirfield,  Plainfield,  Newark,  Elizabethtown,  Rahway,  Wood- 
bridge,  New  Brunswick,  Princeton,  Trenton,  &c. 

Besides  the  minerals  already  mentioned,  large  deposits  of  copper  ore  have  been 
discovered  in  tiiis  section,  at  Belleville,  at  Griggstown,  near  Brunswick,  Wood- 
bridge,  Greenbrook,  Somerville,  and  Pluckemin  ;  and  it  would  seem  probable  that  a 
vein  of  this  metal  extends  S.  W.  across  the  secondary  region  from  Fort  Lee. 

The  following  account  of  the  mine  near  New  Brunswick  is  extracted  from  Morse's 
Gazetteer; — 

"  About  the  yeari  1748,  1749,  1750,  several  lumps  of  virgin  copper,  from  5  to  30 


MIDDLE  DIVISION.  11 

lbs.  weight,  (in  the  whole  upwards  of  200  lbs.)  were  ploughed  up  in  a  field  belong- 
ing to  PJiilip  French,  Esq.,  within  a  quarter  of  a  mile  of  the  town.  This  circum- 
stance induced  Mr.  Elias  lioudinot  to  take  a  lease  of  the  land  of  Mr.  French,  for  99 
years,  with  a  view  to  search  for  copper  ore.  A  company  was  formed,  and  about  the 
year  1751,  a  shaft  was  commenced  in  the  low  ground  300  }'ards  from  the  river. 
The  spot  selected  had  been  marked  by  a  neighbour,  who,  passing  it  in  the  dark,  had 
observed  a  flame  rising  from  tlie  ground,  nearly  as  large  as  the  body  of  a  man.  At 
about  15  feet,  the  miners  struck  a  vein  of  blue  stone,  about  two  feet  thick,  between 
loose  walls  of  red  sand  stone,  covered  with  a  sheet  of  pure  copper,  somevi'hat  thicker 
than  gold  leaf.  The  stone  was  filled  with  grains  of  virgin  copper,  much  like  copper 
filings,  and  occasionally  lumps  of  virgin  copper  of  from  5  to  30  pounds  were  found 
in  it.  This  vein  was  followed  about  tiiirty  feet,  when  the  accumulation  of  water 
exceeded  the  means  of  the  company  to  remove  it.  A  stamping  mill  was  erected, 
where,  by  reducing  the  ore  to  powder,  and  washing  it,  many  tons  of  pure  copper 
were  obtained  and  exported  to  England.  Sheets  of  copper  of  the  thickness  of  two 
pennies,  and  three  feet  square,  have  been  taken  from  between  the  rocks,  within  four 
feet  of  the  surface,  in  several  parts  of  the  hill.  At  about  fifty  or  sixty  feet  deep,  a 
body  of  fine  solid  ore  was  struck  in  the  same  vein,  but  between  rocks  of  white  flinty 
spar,  which  was  soon  worked  out." 

Some  efforts  were  made  to  renevs^  the  mining  operations  here,  at  various  periods, 
but  never  with  encouraging  success.  The  excavations  have  been  extensive.  A  shaft 
of  great  depth  is  yet  visible  ;  an  adit,  it  is  said,  was  driven  several  hundred  yards  be- 
neath the  bed  of  tlie  river,  and  hydraulic  pumps  were  worked  by  Lyell's  Brook  to  free 
the  mine  from  water.  The  stones  around  the  vicinage  are  every  where  coloured  by 
the  oxide  of  copper,  and  beautiful  copper  pyrites  are  obtained  from  the  neighbour- 
ing quarries. 

The  Schuyler  copper  mine,  near  Belleville,  on  the  left  bank  of  the  Passaic,  seven 
miles  from  Jersey  City  and  Hoboken,  was  discovered  about  the  year  1719,  by  Arent 
Schuyler.  The  ore  cropping  out  on  the  side  of  a  hill  was  easily  raised  ;  and  as  the 
policy  of  Great  Britain  prohibited  every  species  of  manufacture  in  the  colonies,  it 
was  exported  in  the  crude  state  to  England.  From  the  books  of  the  discoverer,  it 
appears  that  before  the  year  1731,  he  had  shipped  1,386  tons  to  the  Bristol  copper 
and  brass  works.  His  son.  Col.  John  Schuyler,  prosecuted  the  work  with  more  nume- 
rous and  skilful  hands  ;  but  the  quantity  of  ore  raised  by  him  is  unknown,  his  books 
having  been  lost  during  the  war. 

In  1761,  the  mine  was  leased  to  a  company,  who  erected  a  steam  engine,  of  the 
imperfect  construction  then  in  use,  and  worked  the  mine  profitably  for  four  years. 
In  1765,  however,  a  workman,  who  had  been  dismissed,  having  set  fire  to  the  engine- 
house,  the  works  were  discontinued.  Several  gentlemen  in  England,  acquainted 
with  the  superior  quality  of  the  ore  of  this  mine,  obtained  permission  from  the 
crown  to  erect  works  for  smelting  and  refining  copper  in  America,  and  otfered  to 
purchase  the  estate  of  Mr.  Schuyler,  containing  the  mine,  at  £100,000  sterling. 
This  offer  he  refused,  but  agreed  to  join  them  in  rebuilding  the  engine  and  working 
the  mine.  But  the  revolutionary  war,  and  the  deranged  state  of  ihe  country  subse- 
quent thereto,  and  other  circumstances,  caused  the  mine  to  be  neglected  until  1793, 
when  a  new  company  undertook  the  work  with  much  vigour,  but  it  would  seem  with 
little  prudence.  They  collected  miners  from  England  and  Germany,  purchased  a 
freehold  estate,  convenient  for  the  erection  of  furnaces  and  manufactories,  with  an 
excellent  stream  of  water,  rebuilt  the  engine,  and  commenced  and  partly  completed 
other  works.  Their  labours  were  interrupted  by  the  death  of  the  principal  share- 
holder in  the  company,  the  whole  interest  of  which  soon  after  was  vested  in  Mr. 
Nicholas  I.  Roosevelt,  whose  many  engagements  debarred  him  from  prosecuting  this 
enterprise. 

Another  company,  organized  in  1825,  procured  some  Cornish  miners,  and  cleared 
out  two  adit  levels,  three  old  shafts,  and  sunk  one  new  one  about  60  feet  deep ; 
erected  a  new  steam  engine,  and  prepared  most  of  the  necessaries  for  working  the 
mine  in  the  deep  levels.  But,  when  they  were  ready  to  break  out  ore,  some  ineffi- 
cient machinery  designed  to  pump  the  water  from  the  vein  to  the  great  shaft,  gave 
way,  and  the  funds  or  patience  of  the  company  were  insufficient  to  prosecute  the 
enterprise  further.  Their  lease,  conformable  to  its  terms,  was  forfeited.  We  under- 
stand that  during  the  present  year  (1833),  a  new  association  has  been  formed  for 
working  this  mine. 

There  are  luany  veins  well  worth  working,  particularly  those  near  the  surface, 
containing  what  is  termed  stamp  ore.     The  principal  vein,  which  has  proved  very 


12  GENERAL  DESCRIPTION. 

profitable,  is  imbedded  in  a  stratum  of  freestone,  from  20  to  30  feet  thick,  and  is 
called  a  pipe  vein.  It  dips  about  12  degrees  from  the  horizon,  rather  by  steps  than 
a  strai<>lit  line,  and  increases  in  richness  with  its  depth.  It  has  been  followed  212 
feet  below  the  surface,  and  about  112  feet  beneath  the  adit  cut  for  draining  ;  hence, 
the  water  must  be  pumped  to  that  level.  A  large  shaft  has  been  sunk  140  feet 
below  tlie  adit,  30  feet  of  which  have  been  filled  with  mud  and  rubbish.  The  engine 
at  the  mine  has  a  cylinder  31^  inches  in  diameter,  and  eight  feet  stroke,  and  has 
ample  power  to  free  the  mine  from  water.  Excellent  cast  iron  pumps  are  fixed  from 
the  level  of  the  vein  to  the  adit,  and  from  the  adit  to  the  surface,  for  supplying  the 
engine.  The  vein  has  been  worked  about  150  feet,  horizontal!}',  from  the  shaft,  de- 
clining from  the  entrance  a  few  feet:  hence,  though  tiie  leakage  is  inconsiderable, 
some  method  is  required  to  carry  it  into  the  shaft,  which  may  be  readily  done  if  the 
shaft  be  cleared  to  tlie  bottom. 

The  ore  of  the  principal  vein,  it  is  said,  yields  from  60  to  70  per  cent,  of  copper; 
and  the  vein  will  produce,  it  is  supposed,  from  100  to  120  tons  of  ore  annually, 
which  yields  from  four  to  seven  ounces  of  silver  to  the  hundred  pounds;  and,  like 
most  copper  ores,  a  small  portion  of  gold.  When  pure  copper  was  sold  in  England  at 
£75  sterling  the  ton,  the  ore  of  this  mine  was  shipped  from  New  York  for  that  mar- 
ket at  £70  the  ton.  The  quality  of  the  ore,  and  condition  of  the  mine,  are  attested 
by  several  respectable  persons,  who  have  skill  and  proper  means  to  judge  of  them. 
If  the  statement  respecting  the  proportion  of  silver  in  this  ore  be  correct,  it  is 
more  productive  than  many  of  the  much-worked  and  highly  valued  mines  of  Mexico. 
The  mines  of  Biscayna,  of  Royas,  of  Teliuilotepec,  and  of  Gautla,  do  not  j'ield 
more  than  three  ounces  of  pure  silver  to  one  quintal  of  the  ore;  vi'hilst  the  remarka- 
ble rich  mines  of  the  Count  de  la  Valenciana,  at  Guanaxuato,  gave  only  .5.1-10 
ounces  the  quintal.  The  mean  product  of  the  whole  Mexican  mines,  when  in 
their  best  condition,  did  not  exceed  2^  ounces  the  quintal ;  and  that  of  the  ores  of 
Peru  was  still  less;  giving  at  most  at  Potosi,  53-100,  and  at  Pasco,  1.3-50  ounces,  the 
quintal.  If  tlie  ores  of  the  Schuyler  mine  give  from  four  to  seven  ounces  of  silver 
t^e  quintal,  and  are  abundant,  they  must  be  better  worth  working  for  the  silver  alone 
than  most  of  tlie  silver  mines  of  th^  world;  and  the  copper  product  must  add  enor- 
mously to  their  value. 

The  copper  mine  in  the  trap  ridge,  two  miles  north  of  Somerville,  commonly 
known  as  Caramam's,  has  been  wrought  at  intervals  for  many  years,  but  without 
profit;  more,  it  is  said,  because  of  the  want  of  capital,  and  public  confidence  in  the 
operators,  than  from  the  poverty  of  the  ores.  The  following,  according  to  Dr. 
Torrey,arethe  principal  minerals  found  here, viz:  native  copper  in  irregular  masses, 
weighing  from  one  ounce  to  eight  pounds,  and  one  block  has  been  obtained  of  23 
pounds;  phosphate  of  copper,  massive,  and  of  a  verdigris  colour,  generall)'  accom- 
panying native  copper ;  carbonate  of  copper,  green,  in  connexion  with  tlie  phos- 
phate; red  oxide  of  copper;  the  massive  variety  of  which  is  the  common  ore  of  the 
mine,  found  crystallized  in  octaliedra,  whose  surfaces  are  extremely  brilliant  and 
beautiful;  native  silver,  in  small  masses,  disseminated  througii  the  phosphate  and 
crystallized  oxide;  green  quartz,  in  tabular,  partly  noded  masses,  a  beautiful  mine- 
ral, resembling  chrysoprase;  prehnite,  in  cavities  in  the  greenstone,  very  fine;  and 
mountain  leather,  in  thin  plates,  very  tenacious  when  moistened.  Drifts  have  been 
made  in  various  directions  in  this  mine,  and  the  ore  is  said  to  be  abundant,  yielding 
from  25  to  75  per  cent,  of  pure  metal. 

Nortli  of  the  village  of  Greenbrook,  in  the  same  ridge,  a  vein  of  copper,  many 
years  since,  was  wrought  to  a  considerable  extent ;  but  it,  too,  has  been  long  aban- 
doned. 

To  these  locations  of  copper,  we  are  now  to  add  another,  lately  discovered,  near 
Flemington,  in  a  vein  remarkably,  but  not  yet  extensively,  explored. 

V.  The  third  section,  into  which  we  have  divided  the  State,  and  which  we  have 
called  the  mountainous,  is  in  breadth  from  10  to  40  miles,  measured  at  right  angles 
with  the  direction  of  the  mountains.  This  district  is  tlie  most  interesting,  as  it  is 
the  most  varied,  in  its  geological  formation,  surface,  soil,  mineral  and  vegetable  pro- 
ductions. 

The  geological  formations  here  are  much  blended  and  confounded  ;  and  the  most 
we  can  attempt  is  to  designate  and  describe  the  strongly  marked  divisions.  The 
secondary  section  we  liave  above  noticed,  is  bounded  on  the  N.  W.  throughout  its 
range  by  a  broad  distrirt  of  primitive  ;  containing,  however,  a  large  proportion  of 
transition.  The  southern  limits  of  this  district  are  marked  by  the  cliain  of  liighlands 
running  S.  W.  from  the  Kamapo  and  Pompton  Mountains,  on  the  line  of  New  York, 


NORTHERN  DIVISION.  13 

by  Morristown,  Baskingridge  and  Flemington  to,  and  across,  the  Delaware,  near  Sax- 
tonville.  The  extension,  northward,  is  limited  to  a  line  running  west  of  the  Wallkill 
Mountains,  and  thence  crossing  the  Delaware  in  the  neighbourhood  of"  Belvidere.  A 
belt  of  transition,  having  an  average  breadth  of  about  six  miles,  including  Long 
Pond,  R,aftenberg  and  Greenpond  Mountains,  continues,  we  believe,  along  the  eastern 
foot  of  Musconetcong  and  Schooley's  Mountains,  across  the  State.  The  continuity  of 
tlie  eastern  ridges  of  the  primitive,  with  its  belt  of  transition,  is  interrupted  in  many 
places  by  the  streams  ;  yet  the  hills  form  few  valleys  of  considerable  extent,  and  are 
generally  less  elevated  in  this  State  than  in  the  vicinity  of  the  Hudson  River,  where 
they  rise  to  1600  feet.  They  are  usually  crowned  by  sugarloaf  eminences,  forming 
a  waving  profile,  characteristic  of  primitive  regions.  The  summits  are  commonly 
covered  with  masses  of  rock,  which  render  them  unfit  for  culture. 

The  primitive  ridges  contain  rocks  of  pretty  uniform  character;  in  general  coarse, 
well  crystallized  aggregates  of  quartz  and  feldspar;  often  enclosing  shorl,  garnets, 
hornblende  and  epidote,  with  little  mica;  and  in  many  places,  for  a  considerable  ex- 
tent, none.  These  simple  materials,  variously  combined,  form  granite,  gneiss  and 
sienite.     Primitive  greenstone  is  observable  also  in  some  cases. 

In  the  transition  section,  grauwacke  and  grauwacke  slate,  are  the  most  common 
rocks.  The  extensive  ranges  in  Bergen  and  Morris  counties,  of  Long  Pond,  Raflfen- 
berg,  and  Green  Pond  Mountains,  for  miles  present  stupendous  mural  precipices, 
facing  the  east,  of  a  reddish  brown  grauwacke,  composed  of  red  and  white  quartz, 
red  and  grey  jasper,  and  indurated  clay.  The  rocks  are  stratified,  inclining  to  the 
north-west  at  an  angle  of  about  40°.  They  are  scattered  in  abundance  on  the  banks 
of  the  Pequannock,  from  Newfoundland  to  Pompton.  Grauwacke,  in  place,  is  some- 
times observed,  resting  on  sienite  adjacent  to  the  Pequannock.  Extensive  beds  of 
magnetic  iron  ore  are  found  on  these  ranges  at  Ringwood  and  Mount  Pleasant,  and 
at  Suckasunny,  at  the  mines  of  General  Dickenson,  being  on  the  strata  which  ex- 
tends 300  miles  from  the  White  Hills  of  Newhampshire,  to  the  end  of  the  primitive 
ridge  near  Black  River.  These  beds  are  from  8  to  12  feet  thick;  and  the  ore  from 
the  mine  of  General  Dickenson  produces  the  best  iron  manufactured  from  highland 
ore.  Calcareous  spar  and  asbestos  are  frequent,  and  sulphuret  of  iron  abounds  in 
various  parts  of  the  Highlands.  Probably,  the  most  extensive  bed  of  the  last  is  in 
Morris  county,  near  the  eastern  base  of  Copperas  Mountain,  and  opposite  to  Green 
Pond.  Copperas  was  manufactured  here  extensively  during  the  late  war  with  Great 
Britain.  Many  rich  beds  of  iron  ore  in  this  region,  are  rendered  useless  for  the  forge 
by  sulphur.     Graphite  or  black  lead,  in  various  stages  of  purity,  is  common. 

At  Monro  Iron  Works,  (N.  Y.)  on  the  River  Ramapo,  large  plates  of  black  mica., 
crystallized  in  hexaedral  form,  are  seen  sometimes  a  foot  in  diameter.  Compact 
feldspar  and  epidote,  are  in  the  elevated  primitive  ranges  west  of  the  transition  dis- 
trict, and  compact  limestone  at  various  parts  of  the  transition  range ;  and  in  the  vici- 
nity of  New  Germantown,  and  on  a  line  running  N.  E.  and  S.  W.  from  that  point, 
pudding  limestone,  not  inferior  in  beauty  to  that  employed  in  the  capitol  of  Wash- 
ington, is  abundant,  and  frequently  converted  into  lime.  In  the  primitive  range  of 
Morris  county,  west  of  Pompton  Plains,  called  Stony  Brook  Mountains,  chlorite 
slate  is  common,  and  granular  limestone  has  recently  been  found  in  the  same  moun- 
tain. The  latter  is  in  colour  clear  white,  admits  of  good  polish,  and  is  often  asso- 
ciated with  beautiful  amianthus  and  talc,  alternating  in  narrow  veins.  In  the  same 
vicinit}'  there  is  a  greyish  white  marble,  rendered  porphyritic  by  grains  of  noble  ser- 
pentine disseminated  through  it.  It  is  hard  and  receives  a  fine  polish.  In  t!ie  talc, 
metallic  crystals  supposed  to  be  chromate  of  iron,  have  been  observed.  From  the 
last  mentioned  mineral  an  acid  is  extracted,  which,  united  with  lead,  forms  chromate 
of  lead,  a  valuable  pigment.  Galena  has  been  observed  in  the  grauwacke  rancres 
adjacent  to  Green  Pond,  and  beautiful  tremolite  is  connected  with  the  white  granu- 
lar limestone  of  Stoneybrook. 

North-west  of  the  transition,  the  primitive  resumes  its  empire,  and  includes  the 
Wallkill  and  Hamburg  Mountains,  which  are  continued  in  Schooley's  and  the  Mus- 
conetcong Mountains,  from  the  line  of  New  York  to  the  line  of  Pennsylvania,  un- 
divided by  any  stream.  In  this  ridge  and  the  portion  of  the  primitive  sections  west 
of  it,  the  primitive,  the  transition,  and  the  secondary  formations  seem  combined. 
This  region  also  includes  Marble  Mountain,  Scott's  Mountain,  Jenny  Jump,  Furnace 
Mountain,  Pimple  Hill,  Pochuck  Mountain,  and  other  innominate  hills.  This,  also, 
is  a  remarkable  mineral  district.  Schooley's  Mountain  and  the  Musconetcong, 
abound  with  highly  magnetic  iron  ore,  blended  however  with  foreign  substances, 


14  GENERAL  DESCRIPTION 

which  render  liquefaction  difficult.     Along  the  valleys  and  hill  sides  of  this  moun- 
tain there  is  an  abundance  of  excellent  flints  suitable  for  guns. 

West  of  the  Hamburg  Mountain  lies  the  valley  of  the  Wallkill,  or,  as  it  is  some- 
times called,  the  Valley  of  Sparta;  running  east  of  north  twenty  miles  to  the  State 
of  New  York,  much  noted  for  the  number  and  variety  of  its  minerals.  A  white 
crystalline  limestone  and  marble  occupies  the  bottom  of  the  valley,  and  rises  on  the 
west  into  a  low  subsidiary  ridge  following  the  course  of  the  stream  eight  or  nine  miles. 
The  metalliferous  deposits,  however,  claim  the  greatest  interest.  The  first  or  eastern 
bed,  which  at  Franklin  appears  like  a  black  mountain  mass,  contains  an  ore  of  iron 
commonly  little  magnetic,  and,  as  a  new  metalliferous  combination,  has  received  the 
name  of  Franklinite,  and  is  composed  of  66  per  cent,  of  iron,  16  of  zinc,  and  17  of 
the  red  oxide  of  manganese.  On  its  supposed  richness  the  great  furnace  of  Frank- 
lin was  built,  but  it  was  soon  discovered  that  this  ore  was  not  only  irreducible  to 
metallic  iron,  but  that  it  obstructed  the  fusion  of  other  ores.  If  employed  in  quan- 
tity exceeding  one-tenth  of  the  magnetic  oxide  of  iron  with  which  it  was  economi- 
cally mixed,  there  resulted  what  the  smelters  term  a  salamander  ;  an  alloy  of  iron 
with  manganese,  which  resisted  fusion  and  crystallized  even  under  the  blast,  so  that 
all  the  metal  was  lost,  the  hearth  demolished,  and  10  or  12  yoke  of  oxen  required 
to  drag  away  the  useless  mass.  At  Franklin,  it  is  but  sparingly  intermixed  with 
the  red  oxide  of  zinc.  About  two  miles  north,  the  bed  ceases  to  be  apparent  at  the 
surface,  but  may  be  traced  seven  miles  to  the  south-east.  Three  miles  from  the  fur- 
nace, at  Stirling,  is  another  huge  mass  of  this  mineral,  but  so  combined  with  the  red 
oxide  of  zinc,  that  the  crystals  of  Franklinite  are  imbedded  in  the  zinc,  forming  a 
metalliferous  porphvr3-.  This  ore,  merely  pounded  and  mixed  with  copper,  was 
profitably  employed  during  the  late  war  for  foruiing  brass.  Often,  within  a  few  feet 
west  of  the  Franklinite,  appear  beds  of  well  characterized  magnetic  oxide  of  iron, 
but  always  accompanied  by  hornblende  rock.  A  species  of  this  last  ore,  found  near 
the  furnace,  is  intimately  blended  with  plumbago.  Here,  also,  are  curious  beds  of 
yellow  garnet,  imperfect  sienitic  granite,  in  which  are  beautiful  opaque  blackish 
brown  masses  of  garnet  of  a  high  resinous  lustre,  and  crystallized  on  the  surface, 
accompanied  with  laminated  epidote;  white  and  compact  massive  or  minutely  lami- 
nated augite,  in  some  parts  intimately  blended  with  specks  of  violet,  granular  feld- 
spar, resembling  petrosilex;  sphene,  brown  garnet,  dark  green  granular  augite,  like 
the  cocolite  of  Lake  Champlain;  phosphate  of  lime;  spinelle  and  black  spinelle  or 
fowlerite,  from  Dr.  Fowler,  of  Franklin,  its  discoverer;  specular  iron  ore  ;  brucite, 
bronzite,  pargazite  and  idocras,  zircon,  tremolite,  imbedded  in  crystals  of  white  au- 
gite; actynolite,  short  crystals  of  augite  almost  black,  like  those  of  volcanic  rocks; 
apatite,  a  beautiful  apple  green  feldspar,  in  crystalline  carbonate  of  lime,  accom- 
panied with  perfect  crystals  of  mica,  and  hexagonal  plates  of  plumbago,  soft  and 
almost  as  fusible  as  hornblende  ;  a  very  brilliant  pale  green  hornblende,  passing  into 
actynolite,  which  has  been  denominated  maclureite,  in  honour  of  him  who  has  done 
so  much  for  American  geology,  and  natural  science  in  general; — blue  and  white 
sapphire,  enormous  green  crystals  of  augite,  at  least  an  inch  and  a  half  in  diame- 
ter, presenting  hexaedral  or  octahedral  prisms,  with  almost  equal  faces,  and  termi- 
nated by  oblique  tetrahedral  pyramids,  accompanied,  near  the  junction  of  granite 
and  crystallized  carbonate  of  lime,  with  large  crystals  of  feldspar;  scapolite,  or  wer- 
nerite  ;  arsenical  pyrites,  mixed  with  others  resembling  the  sulphuret  of  cobalt,  or 
nickel,  with  a  substance  like  blende,  accompanied  by  dendrodite,  and  argillaceous 
fluate  of  lime. 

The  crystalline  calcareous  rock  which  here  alternates  with  granitines  of  feldspar 
and  quartz,  or  with  beds  of  sienitic  granite,  at  other  places,  disappears,  and  a  conflu- 
ent grauwacke,  almost  porpl.yritic,  and  contemporaneous,  apparently,  with  the  other 
formations,  is  observed,  directly  overlaid  by  a  bed  of  leaden,  minutel}^  granular,  se- 
condary limestone,  containing  organic  remains  of  the  usual  shells  and  corallines,- 
and  layers  of  blackish  hornstone  or  petrosilex.  This  rock,  as  well  as  the  grau- 
wacke hcncalh  has  disseminated  crystals  of  blue  fluate  of  lime.  In  the  limestone 
the  cavities  are  sometimes  very  numerous,  and  lined  both  with  pseudnmorphous 
masses  and  cubes,  and  while  fluate  and  cjuartz  crystals.  Thus  we  have  here  before 
us,  as  at  Lake  Champlain,  the  rare  and  interesting  spectacle  of  an  union  of  every 
class  of  rocks,  but  passing  decidedly  into  each  other,  as  if  almost  contemporaneous. 
This  singular  formation,  to  which  slate  should  be  added,  extends  into  Orange  coun- 
ty. State  of  New  York.  Immense  masses,  some  miles  in  length,  of  the  red  oxide 
of  zinc,  lie  in  the  mountains,  near  Sparta;  and  as  thia  ore  may  be  easily  converted 


NORTHERN  DIVISION.  15 

into  metal,  they  will  probably  one  day  add  greatly  to  the  wealth  of  this  portion  of 
the  State.  The  white  crystalline  limestone,  which  is  so  interesting  a  feature  of 
this  reo-ion,  has  been  distinctly  traced  from  Mounts  Adam  and  Eve,  in  the  state  of 
New  York,  to  Byram  township  of  Sussex  county,  in  an  uninterrupted  line  of  twen- 
ty-five miles,  with  a  width  varying  from  two  and  a  half  miles,  to  that  of  a  few  rods, 
its  greatest  breadth  being  at  the  state  line.  Its  inclination,  except  at  Mounts  Adam 
and  Eve,  is  low,  often  falling  below  the  adjoining  limestone  of  more  recent  date. 
It  crops  out,  only  here  and  there,  in  large  masses;  and  its  continuity  is  to  be  ob- 
served, solely,  by  boulders  and  loose  stones,  scattered  over  the  surface.  It  most 
probably  extends,  with  occasional  breaks,  to  Easton  on  the  Delaware.  Silver 
and  gold  are  asserted  to  have  been  found  in  several  places  of  the  primitive  re- 
gion, and  attempts  have  been  made  at  various  times,  by  the  ignorant,  wiio  have 
been  self-deceived,  and  by  the  knavish  who  have  deceived  others,  to  work  veins  of 
pyrites,  which  have  a  resemblance  to  those  metals. 

Among  these  primitive  ridges,  we  must  notice,  upon  the  S.  W.,  Scott's  Moun- 
tain, and  Jenny  Jump,  in  both  of  which,  are  extensive  deposits  of  magnetic  iron 
ore,  and  other  interesting  minerals.  In  tlie  first,  near  Oxford  furnace,  the  mijiing 
of  iron  was  many  years  ago  very  extensively  conducted,  and  shafts  of  great  depth, 
and  drifts  of  great  length,  are  still  visible.  The  works,  however,  had  been  long 
abandoned,  when  Messrs.  Henry  and  Jordan,  from  Pennsylvania,  with  praisewor- 
thy enterprise  recommenced  them  in  1832.  They  are  now  prosecuting  a  vein  of 
productive  magnetic  ore,  blended  with  carbonate  of  lime,  fiom  10  to  12  feet  wide, 
enclosed  by  parietes  of  mica  shale.  Throughout  these  mountains,  the  elements  of 
primitive  rock  may  be  found  variously  and  curiously  combined  ;  but  we  are  not 
aware,  that  they  have  been  subjected  to  minute  examination  by  the  naturalist. 

N.  W.  of  the  primitive  hills  we  have  described,  there  lies  a  valley,  having  an 
average  breadth  of  about  10  miles,  but  broadest  near  tlie  Delaware,  extending  over 
the  northern  parts  of  Sussex  and  Warren  counties.  It  is  drained  for  the  greatest 
part  by  Paulin's  Kill,  flowing  to  the  Delaware,  and  may,  therefore,  properly  be 
termed  Paulin's  Kill  Valley.  It  is  bounded  on  the  N.  W.  by  the  Blue  Mountain. 
The  valley  is  covered  with  knolls  and  low  ridges,  at  first  view  apparently  in  much 
confusion,  but  which  may  be  traced  on  the  inclination  of  the  mountains.  Transi- 
tion limestone  alternates  here  with  slate.  A  notable  ridge  of  the  latter  bounds  the 
Paulin's  Kill  on  the  S.  E.  side,  from  near  its  mouth  to  Newton,  whilst  the  N.  W. 
side  is  as  strikingly  distinguished  by  its  range  of  limestone,  which  may  be  traced 
to  Orange  county.  New  York.  North  of  the  limestone,  there  is  another  ridge  of 
slate,  of  a  character  well  adapted  for  roofing  and  ciphering  slate,  quarries  of  which 
are  extensively  worked  on  the  Delaware.  Between  this  slate  and  the  Blue  Moun- 
tain lies  a  bed  of  grauwacke.  The  mountain  contains  the  usual  species  of  transition 
rocks,  grauwacke,  in  every  variety  of  aggregation,  slate,  mountain  limestone,  and 
greenstone,  and  rising  from  1400  to  1600  feet  high,  is  covered  with  wood,  in  which 
the  deer,  bear,  wolf,  and  most  wild  animals,  indigenous,  still  roam.  N.  W.  of  the 
mountain,  bounded  by  the  Delaware  River,  lies  a  fertile  tract  of  transition  lime- 
stone land,  watered  by  the  Flat  Kill,   and  varying  in  width  from  one  to  seven  miles. 

The  mountains  of  this  third  section  are,  generally,  in  a  state  of  nature.  There 
are,  however,  some  cultivated  spots,  which  reward  the  husbandman.  But  the  val- 
leys form  the  most  fertile  portions  of  the  State.  They  are  generally  based  on  lime- 
stone; and  since  lime  has  been  extensively  adopted  as  manure,  they  have  rapidly 
improved.  This  is  especially  the  case  among  the  Highlands,  at  Clinton,  New  Ger- 
mantown,  in  the  valleys  of  the  north  and  soutii  branches  of  the  Raritan  and  of  La- 
mington  rivers,  in  the  valleys  of  the  Musconetcong,  the  Pohatcong,  the  Pequest 
and  its  tributaries,  and  valleys  of  Paulin's  Kill  and  Flat  Kill.  All  these  produce 
wheat  in  abundance,  and  where  wheat  abounds  and  finds  a  ready  way  to  market, 
no  other  good  thing  is  absent.  Wheat  and  iron  are  the  staples  of  the  country,  which 
in  the  lower  part  of  the  section,  seek  the  market  by  the  Morris  canal.  There  were, 
in  1832,  by  the  report  of  the  assessors,  fifteen  furnaces  and  eighty-seven  forcre  fires 
in  operation  in  the  counties  of  Sussex,  Warren,  Morris  and  Bergen.  By  the  com- 
pletion of  the  Morris  canal,  the  iron  mines  are  growing  into  vast  importance;  great 
demand  for  the  ores  liaving  been  created  in  West  Jersey,  Pennsylvania  and  New 
York.  From  the  valley  of  the  Musconetcong  immense  quantities  of  wheat  are 
exported,  individual  farmers  raising  from  one  thousand  to  three  thousand  bushels 
per  annum. 

Marble  for  ornamental  architecture  ia  abundant  in  this  district.     At  Mendham, 


16  GENERAL  DESCRIPTION. 

Morris  county,  it  occurs  with  dendritic  impressions  in  which  it  resembles  the  beau- 
tiful marble  of  Florence.  White  marble  and  noble  serpentine,  we  are  told,  are 
found  in  large  masses  on  the  Pompton  Mountain,  and  also  near  Phillipsburg.  Man- 
ganese, too,  is  said  to  be  abundant  in  various  parts  of  the  section,  and  a  water 
lime,  similar  to  that  of  New  York,  has  been  discovered  at  Mendham  and  other 
places. 

South-east  of  the  Musconetcong  Mountain,  this  district  is  drained  by  the  Rama- 
po  River,  which  divides  the  primitive  formation  from  the  secondary,  in  Bergen 
county;  by  Longpond  or  Ringvvood  River,  which  rises  in  Longpond  or  Greenwood 
Lake;  by  the  Pequannock,  which  has  its  source  in  the  Wallkill  Mountains  :  these 
streams  uniting  in  Pompton  and  Saddle  River  townships,  Bergen  county,  form  the 
Pompton  River,  which  joins  the  Passaic,  about  four  miles  N.  W.  of  the  Little  Falls. 
The  Passaic  receives  also  the  Rockaway,  Whippany  and  Dead  Rivers.  The  re- 
mainder of  this  part  of  the  section  is  tributary  to  the  Raritan  River,  which  receives 
from  it,  three  of  its  main  branches;  the  North,  the  Lamington  and  the  South;  each 
of  which  has  a  tortuous  course,  and  waters  a  great  extent  of  surface,  bat  all  hav- 
ing their  source  S.  W.  of  the  Musconetcong  and  Hamburg  Mountains,  which  sepa- 
rate entirely  the  whole  of  tiie  section. 

There  are  several  lakes,  of  from  four  to  six  miles  in  compass,  and  others  larger. 
The  principal  is  Greenwood  Lake,  upon  the  confines  of  New  York,  about  16  miles 
in  circumference  ;  lying  in  a  narrow  valley  of  the  Highlands,  scarce  a  mile  wide. 
Mackepin,  in  the  soutiiern  part  of  Pompton  township,  covers  less  surface,  and  is 
supposed  to  be  600  feet  above  the  waters  of  an  adjacent  mountain  valley.  Green- 
pond,  on  the  south  of  tiie  Hamburg  turnpike  and  near  the  valley  of  Newfoundland, 
is  a  beautiful  slieet  of  water,  about  eight  miles  in  circumference,  bounded  E.  by 
the  woodclad  Copperas  Mountain,  and  W.  by  a  high  and  savage  hill,  which  bears 
its  name.  Two  or  three  farm  houses,  pleasantly  situated,  on  a  sandy  beach,  on  its 
northern  bank,  serve  as  an  hostelrie,  for  the  sportsmen  of  Morris  and  Bergen  coun- 
ties, when  resorting  to  this  their  favourite  spot.  Some  of  the  lakes  in  the  transition 
region  have  their  borders  girded  by  lofty  walls  of  grauwacke,  and  rival  in  their  ro- 
mantic scenery  the  celebrated  sheets  of  Cuniberland  and  Westmoreland.  '  Budd's 
Pond  upon  Schooley's  Mountain  is  also  remarkable  for  its  fish,  as  were  Hurds  and 
Hopatcong  Lakes  ;  but  the  last  is  now  celebrated  as  the  perennial  source  of  the  sup- 
ply of  water  for  the  Morris  Canal,  being  on  the  summit  level,  and  the  principal 
feeder.  In  its  natural  state  the  Hopatcong  poured  forth  its  waters  to  the  Delaware, 
only,  by  tiie  Musconetcong  Creek,  which  courses  the  north-western  base  of  the 
Musconetcong  Mountain. 

The  streams  that  drain  the  interval,  between  the  Musconetcong  and  the  Blue 
Mountain,  westwardly,  are.  the  Musconetcong,  Pohatcong,  Lapatcong,  Pequest, 
and  Paulinskill ;  and  eastwardly,  the  Wallkill.  In  this  valley  there  are  also  several 
small  lakes,  the  most  curious  of  which  are  the  White  Ponds,  near  Marksboro',  and 
Pimple  Hill,  both  noted  for  the  quantity  of  the  shells  of  the  small  white  fresh  water 
snail,  which  covers  the  bottom  and  banks.  At  the  first,  the  ma.'ss  of  these  shells  is 
enormous,  covering  the  sides  and  bottom  of  the  pond  many  feet  thick.  North  of  the 
Blue  Mountain  the  only  stream  worth  special  notice  is  liie  Flatkill. 

Oak,  walnut,  beach,  birch,  ash,  elm  and  sugar  maple,  are  the  predominant  timber 
of  the  third  section.  Pine,  hemlock,  and  cedar,  are  scattered  through  tlie  forest,  adja- 
cent to  the  lakes  and  streams.  On  the  high  points  of  ground,  walnut  and  oak  are 
the  most  common  trees.  Shrub  oak  is  the  most  frequent  in  the  transition  highland 
district  which  passes  throagh  Morris  county.  It  occupies  almost  exclusively  an  ex- 
tensive level  interval  on  the  north  of  Suckasunny  Plain,  attaining  the  heigiit  of  six 
or  eight  feet,  and  forming  an  entangled  thicket,  beneath  which  the  ground  is  co- 
vered with  loose  stones. 

We  have  already  mentioned  the  number  of  peach  orchards  in  the  alluvial  of  the 
State,  and  we  may  observe  here,  tliat  tlie  apple  orchards  of  the  secondary,  primitive, 
and  transition  sections,  are  not  less  worthy  of  notice.  The  cider  of  New  Jersey  is 
justly  preferred  to  any  otiier  of  tlie  United  States,  and  the  quantity  of  ardent  spirit 
distilled  from  it,  may  be  conjectured  by  a  glance  at  the  list  of  distilleries  in  the  ge- 
neral statistical  table. 

For  a  more  particular  notice  of  the  rivers  of  tlie  State,  and  of  the  bridges  which 
cross  them,  we  refer  the  reader  to  the  names  of  the  streams,  respectively,  in  the 
subsequent  part  of  the  work.  But  we  will  conclude  this  physical  sketch  by  a  view 
of  the  turnpike  roads,  rail  roads,  and  canals,  which  traverse  the  State 


NORTHERN  DIVISION.  17 

VI.  Turnpikes.  Since  March,  1801,  authority  has  been  given  for  making  54 
turnpike  roads.  The  object  of  these  improvements  seems  threefold.  1.  Tlie  facili- 
tating the  communication  between  the  great  cities  of  New  York  and  Philadelphia. 
2.  The  more  ready  approach  from  the  interior  to  the  markets  of  New  York  and  Eas- 
ton,  for  the  products  of  agriculture  and  the  mines  ;  and  3.  The  drawing  the  produce 
of  the  Delaware  river,  to  the  waters  of  East  Jersey  and  New  York,  all  which  has 
been  much  aided  by  the  capital  of  that  great  city.  The  following  list  gives  the  titles 
of  these  acts,  the  dates  of  their  enactment,  with  their  respective  supplements. 
Those  marked  with  an  asterisk,  (*)  have  been  wholly,  or  partially,  carried  into  ef- 
fect. 

1801,  March  9.  *1.  Morris  Turnpike,  from  Elizabethtown,  through  Morristown  and 

Newton,  over  the  Minisink  Mountain,  at  Culver's  Gap,  to 
the  Delaware,  opposite  Milford.     Supplement,  Nov.  10,  1803. 

1802,  Nov.  30.  *2.  Hackensack  and  Hoboken.     Supplement,  Nov.  16,  1807. 
1804,  Feb.  23.  *3.   Union,  from  Morristown  to  Sparta. 

1806,  Nov.  11.   *4.  Union  continued  from   Sparta,  through   Culver's   Gap,  to  the 

Delaware.     Supplement,  Feb.  4,  1815. 
1804,  Nov.  14.  *5.  Trenton  and   New  Brunswick.     Supplement,   Nov.  28,  1806. 

Feb.  1,  1814. 
1804,  Dec.     1.   *6.   City  of  Jersey  and  Hackensack.     To  which  the  state  subscribed 

$12,500.      Supplement,  Nov.  4,  1808. 
1806,  Feb.   24.  *7.   Newark  and  Pompton.     Supplement,  Nov.  28,  1806.     Jan.  28, 
1830. 
„  27.  *8.   Newark  and  Mount  Pleasant.     Supplement,  May  9,  1820. 

„  *9.  Jersey,  from  New  Brunswick   to  Easton  Bridge,  on  the  Dela- 

ware.    Supplement,  Nov.  28,  1806.    Feb.  22, 1811.    Feb.  14, 
1815.     Feb.  15,  1816.     Feb.  16,  1831. 
,,  March  3.  *10.  Essex  and  Middlesex,  from  New  Brunswick  to  Newark.     Sup- 
plement, Nov.  17,  1821. 
„         ,,  *11.  Washington,  from  Morristown  to  the  Delaware,  opposite  to  Eas- 

ton.    Supplement,  Nov.  15,  1809. 
„         J,  *12.  Patterson  and  Hamburg,  from  Acquackanonck  landing  to  Deck- 

ertown.     Supplement,  Nov.  26,  1806.     Nov.  23,  1822. 

1806,  March  3.   14.  Springfield  and  Newark. 

,,  *15.  Franklin,  from  New  Prospect  to  the  New  York  line. 

,,    March  12.  16.   Hunterdon  and  Sussex. 

1807,  Dec.    3.  *17.  Princeton  and  Kingston — branch  of  Trenton  and  New  Bruns- 

wick turnpike. 

„  „  18.  Jefferson,  through  Berkshire  valley  to  the  Patterson  and  Ham- 

burg road. 

„  Nov.  16.  19.  Belleville,  from  Belleville  bridge  to  the  Newark  and  Pompton 
road,  between  Bloomfield  and  Cranetown. 

1808,  Nov.  22.  *20.   Perth  Amboy,  to  Boundbrook.     Supplement,  Feb.  18,  1820. 

„  „         *21.  Woodbridge,  from  New  Brunswick,  through  Piscataway  and 

Woodbridge,  to  Rah  way. 
,,     Nov.  24.    22.  Burlington,  through  Bordentown,  to  intersect  the  Trenton  and 

New  Brunswick  turnpike.     Supplement,  November,  1809. 

Feb.  6,  1811. 
„     Nov.  28.    23.  Jersey  and  Acquackanonck,  from  Acquackanonck  to  Belleville 

turnpike. 
„  28.  *25.  Deckertown  and  Milford.     Supplement,  Feb.  10,  1813.     Dec. 

7,  1825.     Dec.  16,  1826. 

1809,  Nov.  28.  *13.   Patterson  and  Hamburg,  continued  from  Deckertown  over  the 

Blue  Mountain,  to  the  Delaware  opposite  to  Milford.     Sup- 
plement, Feb.  11,  1815.     Feb.  15,  1816.     January  23,  1818. 

„  29.  *24.  Parsippany  and  Rockaway,  from  Vanduyns,  tJirough  Rockaway, 

to  the  Union  turnpike. 
1811,  Feb.     8.    26.  Water  Gap,  from  the  Morris  and  Sussex  turnpike,  near  the  34 
mile  post,  through  Milton  and  Hope,  to  the  Delaware,  near 
the  Water  Gap.'    Supplement,  Feb.  3,  1813. 

„  9.  *27.  Ringwood  and  Longpond,  and  division  line  between  the  29th 

and  30th  mile  stones.     Supplement,  Feb.  10,  1813.     Feb.  6, 
1819. 

C 


18  GENERAL  DESCRIPTION. 

1811,  Feb.  9.  28.  Farmers,  from  Springfield,  through  New  Providence,  Long 
Hill,  Pluckemin,  to  the  Jersey  turnpike  near  Potterstown. 

„  11.  "29.   Newark  and  Morris,  from  Newark,  through  S.  Orange  to  Bot- 

tle Hill  or  Morristown.  Supplement,  Feb.  12,  1817.  Jan. 
15,  1818.     Feb.  7,  1820.     Dec.  5,  1823. 

„  14.    30.  Vernon,  from  the  division  line,  near  Decay's,  to  the  Patterson 

and  Hamburg  turnpike. 

„  31.  New  Milford,  from  the  division  line  between  the  29th  and  30th 

mile  stones. 

1813,  Jan.   12.  32.   Dover,  to  Suckasunny. 

„  ''33.  Spruce  Run,  from  Clinton,  in  Hunterdon  county,  to  the  Wash- 

ington turnpike  road,  near  Sherard's  mill,  in  Sussex  county. 
Supplement,  Jan.  26,  1814.     Jan.  27,  1818. 

,,     Feb.  11.     34.   Hope  and  Hackettstown. 

*3.5.  New  Germantown,  from  Bayle's  Mill  and  White  House  to  New 
Germantown. 

1814,  Jan.  27.  *36.   Deckertown  and  Newton.     Supplement,  Feb.  4,  1817.    Feb.  4, 

1831. 
jj  37.  Vernon   and  Newton,  from  Decay's,  in  the  division  line,  by 

Hamburs:,  to  Sussex  Court  House. 
„     Feb.  11.     38.   New  Brunswick  and  Middleburg. 

1815,  Jan.  18.  "39.  Hackensack  and  Hoboken.     Supplement,  Jan.  21,  1818. 

,,     Feb.     6.  *40.   Patterson  and  Hackensack.    Supplement,  Feb.  27,  1824.     Nov. 

6,  1827. 
„     Feb.  11.     41.   Mount  Hope  and  Longwood.     Feb.  7,  1820. 
„  42.  New  Providence,  from  Morristown  to  Scotch  Plains. 

1816,  Feb.   15.    43.   Georgetown  and  Franklin.     Supplement,  Jan.  20,  1819.    Dec. 

12,  1823.     Feb.  25,  1828. 
.,     Feb.  16.  *44.  Bordentown    and    South   Amboy.     Supplement,    January   20, 

1817.     Nov.  6,  1819.     Dec.  8,  1826. 
,j  45.  Belleville,  to  the  Newark  and  Pompton  road,  at  the  Little  Falls. 

„  46.   Woodbridge,  to  the  New  Blazing  Star. 

„  47.   Patterson  and   Hamburg,  to  the  Hudson,  from  Acquackanonck 

Bridge,    to    the   Hackensack   and   Hoboken   roads   near   the 

Three  Pigeons.      Supplement,  Dec.  7,  1824. 

1817,  Feb.  12.  *48.  Pochuck,  from  Hamburg  to  Goshen,  N.  Y. 

1819,  Jan.  21.    49.  Columbia  and  Walpack,  to  intersect  the  Sussex  and  Morris 
turnpike. 
„     Feb.    6.    50.  Newton,  from  near  Andover  furnace,  through  Newton,  to  the 
third  district  of  the  Morris  and  Essex  turnpike,  near  the  Blue 
Mountain. 
1825,  Nov.  23.  51.  Patterson  and  New  Prospect. 

„  52.   Patterson  and   New   Antrim,  from  Patterson  through  Saddle 

River  and  Franklin  townships. 
1828,  Jan.  23.  53.   Hackensack  and  Fort  Lee. 

,,  54.  Passaic,  from  Patterson  to  Little  Falls. 

Not  more  than  half  the  projects  for  roads,  which  have  received  legislative  sanc- 
tion, have  been  executed  ;  but  in  some  instances  the  new  laws  were  wholly,  or 
partly,  substituted  for  others,  of  which  the  designated  routes  had  been  abandoned. 
There  have  been  made,  however,  about  550  miles  of  turnpike  road,  principally  of 
earth  and  gravel.  We  do  not  recollect  to  have  seen,  in  any  direction,  five  conti- 
nuous miles  of  road  paved  with  stone.  The  main  iiighways  of  the  State  are  pre- 
served in  pretty  good  condition,  and  generally  during  the  summer  and  fall  seasons 
may  be  travelled  with  pleasure,  in  every  direction.  Some  of  them  are  preferable  to 
the  turnpikes,  particularly  such  as  pass  over  the  slate  and  sandstone  regions,  where 
the  hard  rock  approaches  the  surface. 

VII.  Up  to  the  year  1833,  nine  companies  have  been  chartered  for  making  rail- 
roads, with  authority  to  employ  the  sum  of  $7,140,000  towards  these  objects.  The 
Camden  and  Amboy  Rail-road  Company  was  incorporated  under  the  act  of  February 
4th,  1830,  authorizing  a  capital  stock  of  $1,000,000,  with  privilege  to  increase  it 
$500,000,  divided  into  shares  of  $100  each,  to  be  employed  in  the  construction  of 
ml-road  or  roads,  with  all  necessary  appendages,  from  the  Delaware  River,  at  some 


NORTHERN  DIVISION.  19 

point  between  Cooper's  and  Newton  Creeks,  in  the  county  of  Gloucester,  to  some 
point  on  the  Raritan  Bay  ;  the  road  to  be  one  hundred  feet  wide,  with  as  many  set 
of  tracks  as  may  be  necessary,  with  a  lateral  road  to  Bordenlown  ;  reserving  to  the 
legislature  the  right  to  subscribe  one-fourth,  or  less,  of  the  capital  stock,  within  a  limi- 
ted time — which  right  was  not  exercised — with  condition,  also,  that  the  road  should 
be  commenced  within  two,  and  be  completed  within  nine,  years;  and  that  the  com- 
pany should  make  quarterly  returns  of  the  number  of  passengers,  and  tons  of  mer- 
chandise, transported  upon  the  road,  to  the  state  treasurer;  and  pay  a  transit  duty 
of  ten  cents  for  each  passenger,  and  fifteen  cents  for  each  ton  of  merchandise,  in 
lieu  of  all  other  taxes.  The  company  was  empowered  to  decide  upon  the  descrip- 
tion of  carriages  to  be  used  on  tiie  road,  the  weight  to  be  transported  on  each,  the 
times  of  starting  and  rates  of  travelling,  and  to  regulate  the  tolls ;  and  was  required 
to  provide  suitable  steam  or  other  vessels,  at  either  extremity  of  the  road,  for  the 
transportation  of  passengers.  The  State,  also,  reserved  to  itself  the  right  to  pur- 
chase the  road  at  and  after  the  expiration  of  thirty  years,  at  a  valuation  to  be  made 
according  to  law  ;  stipulating,  that  if  the  legislature  shall  authorize  the  construc- 
tion of  any  other  rail-road  for  the  transportation  of  passengers  across  the  State  from 
New  York  to  Philadelphia,  which  road  shall  be  constructed  and  used,  and  which 
shall  commence  and  terminate  within  three  miles  of  the  commencement  and  termi- 
nation of  the  road  authorized  by  the  act,  then  the  transit  duties  shall  cease  ;  and 
that  such  other  rail-road  shall  be  liable  to  a  tax  not  less  than  the  amount  payable  to 
the  State  by  this  company. 

By  an  act  passed  4lh  February,  1831,  it  was  further  stipulated  between  the 
State  and  the  company,  tJiat  the  latter  should  transfer  to  the  former  1000  shares  of 
the  capital  stock,  the  instalments  thereon  to  be  paid  by  the  company  ;  the  State  to 
appoint  one  director,  on  condition,  that  it  should  not  be  lawful  to  construct  any  rail- 
road for  the  transportation  of  passengers  across  the  State,  within  three  miles  of  the 
road  of  the  company,  until  after  the  expiration  of  the  term  of  nine  years  from  the 
date  of  the  act  of  incorporation,  (Feb.  4th,  1830.)  And  that  when  any  other  rail- 
road for  the  transportation  of  passengers  and  property  between  New  York  and  Phila- 
delphia shall  be  constructed  and  used,  by  virtue  of  any  law  of  this  State  or  of  the 
United  States,  authorizing  or  recognising  such  road,  that  the  dividends  on  the  stock 
should  cease,  and  the  stock  be  retransferred  to  the  company. 

By  the  act  of  15th  February,  1831,  the  Camden  and  Amboy  Rail-road  and  the 
Delaware  and  Raritan  Canal  Companies  were  consolidated,  for  the  purposes  of  com- 
pleting the  canal  and  road,  subject  to  the  provisions,  reservations  and  conditions  of 
their  respective  charters ;  the  directors  appointed  under  which  are  empowered  to 
manage  the  affairs  of  the  companies  in  joint  meeting  ;  and  the  companies  are  jointly 
liable  on  the  contracts  made  by  either;  and  are  prohibited  from  charging  more  than 
three  dollars  for  the  transportation  of  passengers  from  and  to  the  cities  of  New 
York  and  Philadelphia.  This  act  further  provides  that  the  canal  and  rail-road  shall 
be  completed  within  the  time  specified  in  the  respective  charters ;  and  that  if  one  of 
the  works  at  the  expiration  of  such  time  be  completed  without  the  other,  that  the 
work  completed  shall  be  forfeited  to  the  State. 

By  the  act  of  2d  March,  1832,  1000  shares  of  the  joint  capital  stock  are  transfer- 
red to  the  State;  and  tlie  companies  contract  that,  if  within  one  year  from  the  time 
that  the  rail-road  shall  be  completed,  the  transit  duty  received  by  the  acts  incorpora- 
ting such  companies,  and  the  dividends  on  the  stock  so  transferred,  shall  not  amount 
to  $30,000,  the  companies  shall  pay  the  deficiency  to  the  State  ;  and  so,  annually, 
out  of  the  joint  funds,  and  before  any  dividend  be  made  to  the  stockholders,  so  as  to 
secure  to  the  State  the  sum  of  $30,000  at  least,  annually,  during  the  charter;  and 
that  the  State  may  appoint  one  director  to  represent  the  stock,  but  shall  not  vote 
thereon  at  any  election  of  the  stockholders.  The  state  directors  are  appointable  by 
the  governor.  The  companies  further  covenant  to  construct  a  lateral  rail-road  from 
the  village  of  Spottswood  to  the  city  of  New  Brunswick,  to  be  completed  so  soon  as 
any  rail-road  shall  be  made  from  that  city  to  the  Hudson  River ;  and  that  they  will 
not  charge  more  than  $2. -50  for  every  passenger  carried  to  and  from  the  cities  of 
New  Brunswick  and  Philadelphia.  The  condition  of  these  grants,  however,  is,  that 
it  shall  not  be  lawful  at  any  time  during  the  rail-road  charter,  to  construct  any  other 
rail-road  in  the  State,  without  the  consent  of  the  companies,  which  shall  be  intended 
or  used  for  the  transportation  of  passengers  or  merchandise  between  the  cities  of 
New  York  and  Philadelphia,  or  to  compete  in  business,  with  the  Camden  and  Amboy 
Rail-road. 


20  GENERAL  DESCRIPTION 

The  united  companies  have  completed  one  track  of  rail-road  from  a  point  below 
Bordentown,  on  the  Delaware  River,  to  South  Amboy,  passing  through,  or  rather 
over,  Hight's  Town  and  by  Spottswood,  a  distance  of  35  miles,  at  an  expense,  it  is 
said,  of  more  than  J^18,()00  the  mile.  Upon  this  road  passengers  and  merchandise 
have  been  carried  since  February,  1833.  It  is  constructed  in  a  very  substantial  man- 
ner of  cast  iron  rails,  supported  upon  blocks  of  stone,  or  wooden  sleepers,  placed 
three  feet  distant  from  each  other  in  the  line.  Until  September,  1833,  the  carriages 
were  commonly  drawn  by  horses ;  at  that  time  steam  locomotives  were  applied  to 
one  of  the  three  daily  lines  which  traverse  it. 

The  remainder  of  the  road  from  Bordentown  to  Camden  is  in  progress,  and  is 
being  constructed  of  wood,  faced  with  iron  bars;  it  being  supposed  that  it  will  not 
be  employed  more  than  two  or  three  montlis  in  the  year,  and  will  therefore  not  re- 
quire the  strength  of  the  portion  between  Bordentown  and  New  York. 

By  the  power  which  this  company  has  to  regulate  the  tolls  on  the  road,  they  are 
enabled  to  exclude  all  other  persons  from  its  use,  and  to  secure  to  themselves  a  mo- 
nopoly thereof;  and  this  they  have  effected. 

The  West  Jersey  Rail-road  was  designed  to  be  connected  with  the  Camden  and 
Amboy  Rail-roads,  at  Camden;  and  to  run,  thence,  to  any  point  upon  the  Delaware 
River,  in  the  township  of  Penn's  Neck,  in  the  county  of  Salem.  The  company  was 
authorized  to  have  a  capital  of  half  a  million,  and  to  increase  it  to  one  million  of 
dollars;  and  the  road  was  to  be  commenced  within  two  years  from  the  passage  of 
the  act,  (12th  February,  1831.)  and  to  be  completed  within  five  years.  The  road 
not  having  been  commenced,  the  charter  may  be  deemed  void. 

The  Patterson  and  Hudson  River  Rail-road  Company^  was  incorporated  under  the 
act  of  21st  January,  1S31,  with  a  capital  of  !|;250,000,  and  the  privilege  to  extend  it 
to  half  a  million;  and  was  authorized  to  make  a  rail-road  or  lateral  roads  from  one 
or  more  suitable  places  in  the  town  of  Patterson,  one  at  least  of  which  to  commence 
at  or  pass  in  its  course  within  50  feet  of  the  corner  of  the  present  lower  race-way 
in  the  town  of  Patterson,  at  the  intersection  of  Congress  and  Mill  streets,  near  the 
Catholic  Chapel,  to  Weehawkin  ;  and  from  thence  to  any  other  suitable  place  or 
places  on  the  Hudson  River  opposite  to  the  city  of  New  York,  within  50  feet  of 
high- water  mark,  not  exceeding  66  feet  wide,  with  as  many  tracks  as  they  may  deem 
necessary,  crossing  the  Hackensack  River  upon  or  near  the  bridge  of  the  New  Bar- 
badoes  Company.  By  act  ISth  November,  1831,  the  company  was  empowered  to 
locate  the  road  from  the  east  side  of  Berry's  Hill,  in  the  county  of  Bergen,  to  the 
Hudson  River,  and  on  making  a  tunnel  through  Bergen  Hill,  to  charge  additional 
toll. 

The  company  are  empowered  also  to  purchase  and  employ  all  means  necessary  in 
the  transportation  of  merchandise,  passengers,  &c.  upon  the  road,  but  the  road  is 
declared  a  public  highway,  free  to  all  persons  paying  the  prescribed  toll,  and  may  be 
purchased  by  the  State  after  the  expiration  of  fifty  years  from  its  completion.  The 
treasurer  of  the  company  is  required  to  make  to  the  State  treasurer  annual  returns 
of  the  number  of  passengers,  and  tons  of  merchandise,  &e.  transported  on  the  road, 
and  after  the  expiration  of  five  years  from  the  passing  of  the  act,  to  pay  to  the  State, 
annually,  one-quarter  of  one  per  cent.,  and  after  the  expiration  of  ten  years,  one-half 
per  cent,  on  the  capital  stock  paid  in,  in  lieu  of  all  taxation. 

B}'  an  act  of  3d  February,  1831,  tlie  Patterson  Junction  Rail-road  Company  was 
incorporated  with  a  capital  of  ^20,000,  which  may  be  increased  to  ,^40,000,  and 
a  power  to  construct  a  rail-road  or  lateral  roads  from  the  Morris  Canal,  distant  not 
more  than  one  and  a  half  miles  from  the  corner  of  Congress  and  Mill  streets,  in  the 
town  of  Patterson,  to  intersect  the  Patterson  and  Hudson  River  Rail-road,  within 
the  town  of  Patterson.  This  is  also  declared  a  public  highway,  and  the  compan}' 
are  required,  when  the  road  shall  be  completed,  to  file  a  statement  of  its  cost  in  the 
office  of  the  secretary  of  state,  and  annually  tiiereafter  to  report  to  the  legislature 
the  proceeds  of  the  road,  until  they  shall  amount  to  seven  per  cent,  upon  its  cost, 
and  afterwards  annually  to  pay  to  the  State  a  tax  of  one-half  per  cent,  on  such  cost 
in  lieu  of  all  taxes.  And  the  legislature  have  reserved  the  right  to  purchase  such 
road  upon  terms  similar  to  those  annexed  to  the  charter  of  the  Patterson  and  Hud- 
son River  Rail-road  Company;  and  the  charter  of  tliis,  as  of  that  company,  is  de- 
clared void,  if  the  road  be  not  commenced  in  one  year,  and  finished  in  five  years  from 
the  4lh  July,  1831. 

The  Patterson  and  Fort  Lee  Rail-road  Company,  incorporated  by  the  act  of 
8th  Mfl.rch,  1832,  has  authority  to  employ  a  capital  of  f  200,000  in  making  a  road 


NORTHERN  DIVISION.  21 

from  the  town  of  Patterson  to  Fort  Lee,  on  the  Hudson  River,  not  further  than  50 
feet  from  high-water  mark ;  to  be  commenced  within  one  year  from  the  4th  July, 
1832,  and  completed  within  six  years  from  that  time,  under  penalty  of  forfeiture  of 
the  charter;  and  subject  to  be  purchased  by  the  State  at  the  expiration  of  thirty 
years  from  the  completion  of  the  road,  and  to  a  transit  duty  of  the  one-quarter  of 
one  per  cent,  yearly,  after  the  expiration  of  six  years  from  the  passage  of  the  act, 
and  the  half  of  one  per  cent,  after  tlie  expiration  of  ten  years,  upon  the  capital  stock, 
in  lieu  of  all  other  taxes. 

The  Elizabethtown  and  Somerville  Rail-road  Company,  by  the  act  of  9th  Fe- 
bruary, 1831,  was  empowered  to  construct  a  road  from  the  village  of  Somerville  to 
Elizabethtown,  passing  as  near  as  practicable  by  Boundbrook,  Plainfield,  Scotch 
Plains  and  Westfield,  subject  to  a  tax  of  one-half  of  one  per  cent,  upon  the  cost,  an- 
nually, after  the  proceeds  of  the  road  shall  yield  seven  per  cent,  thereon,  and  to  the 
avoidance  of  the  charter  in  case  the  road  be  not  completed  within  seven  years  from 
the  4th  July,  1831.  This  road  is  to  be  a  public  highway,  and  may  be  purchased 
by  the  State  on  the  terms  established  in  the  case  of  the  Patterson  and  Hudson  road, 
and  the  Slate  may  subscribe  $25,000  to  the  stock  of  the  company,  at  any  time  before, 
or  within,  twelve  months  after  the  road  shall  be  completed. 

The  capital  stock  originally  permitted  to  the  company,  was  $200,000,  with  the 
privilege  of  increase  to  $400,000;  but,  by  the  act  of  8th  February,  1833,  authority 
was  given  to  add  $500,000  immediately  to  the  stock,  and,  eventually,  should  it  be 
found  necessary,  $500,000  more;  and  to  extend  the  road  from  the  village  of  Somer- 
ville, by  the  village  of  Clinton,  in  the  county  of  Hunterdon,  to  the  Delaware  River, 
opposite  to  the  village  of  Belvidere,  in  the  county  of  Warren,  with  a  branch,  if  the 
company  deem  it  expedient,  to  the  Delaware  River,  between  the  mouth  of  the  Mus- 
conetcong  Creek  and  the  Easton  Delaware  Bridge  ;  subject  to  all  the  restrictions 
and  reservations  made  by  the  original  act.  The  great  object  of  this  extension'of  the 
road,  is  to  unite  it  with  the  North-western  Rail-road,  which  it  is  proposed  to  com- 
mence at  the  Delaware,  opposite  Belvidere,  and  to  run  through  the  Blue  Mountain 
at  the  Water  Gap,  and  by  Stroudsburg,  through  a  densely  wooded  country  to  Pittston, 
on  the  Susquehanna;  being  located  for  about  18  miles  upon  an  inexhaustible  coal 
bed.  From  this  coal  region,  the  road  may  be  connected  with  several  authorized 
roads  into  western  New  York.  If  this  road  be  executed,  it  will  open  a  convenient 
way  to  the  New  York  market,  not  only  from  one  of  the  most  fertile  and  interesting 
portions  of  the  State  of  New  Jersej^,  but  will  give  a  direction  to  the  produce  of  a 
portion  of  New  York  territory,  otherwise  destined  to  reach  the  city  of  Philadelphia. 
A  portion  of  the  stock  for  this  route  has,  we  understand,  been  subscribed. 

The  New  Jersey  Rail-road  and  Transportation  Company  was  incorporated  by  the 
act  of  7th  March,  1832,  with  a  capital  of  $750,000,  and  the  privilege  to  double  it, 
divided  into  shares  of  .$50  each;  with  power  to  make  a  rail-road  not  more  than  66 
feet  wide,  with  as  many  tracks  as  they  may  deem  proper,  from  such  point  in  the 
city  of  New  Brunswick,  as  shall  be  agreed  upon  by  them  and  the  corporation  of 
that  city,  through  or  near  the  villages  of  Railway  and  Woodbridge,  within  half  a 
mile  of  the  market  house,  in  Elizabethtown,  and  through  Newark,  by  the  most 
practicable  route,  and  thence  contiguous  to,  or  south  of  the  bridges,  over  the  Hack- 
ensack  and  Passaic  River;  crossing  Bergen  Ridge,  south  of  the  turnpike  road  to 
some  convenient  point  not  less  than  50  feet  from  high-water  mark,  on  the  Hudson 
river,  opposite  to  the  city  of  Nev/  York  :  and  to  make  a  branch  road  to  any  ferry 
on  the  Hudson  opposite  to  New  York,  which  shall  join  the  main  road  within  100 
yards  of  the  Hackensack  River,  if  the  main  road  cross  that  river  within  100  yards 
of  the  present  bridge:  but  if  more  than  100  yards  from  that  bridge,  then  the  branch 
to  join  it,  at  such  point,  west  of  the  river,  as  shall  best  give  to  the  ferries  equal  fa- 
cilities of  communication  with  Newark.  And  if  the  company  do  not  construct  such 
branch,  as  soon  as  the  main  road  from  Newark  to  the  Hudson  shall  be  made,  then 
the  law  authorizes  the  owner  of  the  ferry  so  to  do,  with  the  same  power  and  liabi- 
lities as  the  company.  The  act,  also,  empowers  the  company  to  regulate  the  time 
and  manner  of  transporting  goods  and  passengers,  the  description  and  formation  of 
carriages;  and  the  rates  and  modes  of  collecting  toll  within  the  following  limits;  viz. 
for  empty  carriages,  weighing  less  than  a  ton,  two  cents;  more  than  one,  and  less  than 
two  tons,  four  cents;  above  three  tons,  eight  cents  per  mile  ;  and  in  addition  thereto, 
six  cents  per  ton  for  goods,  and  three  cents  for  each  passenger,  per  mile.  Provided, 
that  no  farmer  of  the  State  shall  pay  toll  for  carrying  the  produce  of  his  farm,  in 
hig  own   wagon,  not  weighing   more  than  a  ton,  when    such   produce   does  not 


22  GENERAL  DESCRIPTION. 

weigh  more  than  1000  lbs.:  but  shall  pay,  only,  for  carriages,  as  if  empty.  It  also 
authorizes  the  company  to  construct  branches  to  any  landing,  on  or  near  the  Pas- 
saic, not  north  of  Belleville,  and  to  any  place  in  the  township  of  Newark;  and 
requires  them  to  commence  the  road  at  Jersey  City  and  New  Brunswick,  within 
one  year,  and  to  complete  the  whole  route  in  five  years,  under  penalty  of  forfeiture 
of  their  charter.  The  company  are  further  empowered  to  purchase  any  turnpike 
road  and  bridges  on  the  route;  but  the  act  reserves  to  the  State  and  individual 
stockholders  of  the  Newark  Turnpike  Company,  the  right,  at  any  time,  within  two 
years  from  the  opening  of  the  books,  to  take  stock  of  the  company  in  exchange,  or 
to  sell  to  the  companj',  at  market  value;  but  the  Newark  turnpike  and  the  bridges 
over  the  Raritan,  Passaic  and  Hackensack,  are  to  be  kept  as  public  roads,  without 
obstruction :  to  build  or  purchase  carriages  for  the  transportation  of  persons  or  pro- 
perty ;  but  not  to  charge  more  than  six  cents  a  mile  for  transporting  passengers  and 
each  ton  of  goods,  nor  more  than  $1.25  for  carrying  passengers  from  New  York 
to  New  Brunswick  :  to  hold  real  estate,  at  the  commencement  and  termination  of 
their  roads,  not  exceeding  three  acres  at  each  place  ;  and  to  build  thereon,  ware- 
houses, stables,  machine  shops,  &c.  and  over  the  Hackensack  and  Passaic  Rivers, 
such  bridges,  piers,  &c.  as  may  be  necessary.  The  State  has  reserved  the  right  to 
purchase  the  road  after  the  expiration  of  the  charter,  (30  years)  and  of  subscribing 
one-fourth  of  the  stock,  and  has  imposed  an  annual  tax  of  1-4  per  cent,  upon  the 
capital  paid  in  ;  and  should  the  road  be  continued  across  the  State,  a  transit  duty  of 
8  cents  for  each  passenger  and  12  cents  for  every  ton  of  goods  transported  over  the 
whole  road.  By  a  supplement  to  the  act  relative  to  the  Delaware  and  Raritan  Canal, 
and  Amboy  Rail-road,  the  companies  are  required  to  construct  a  lateral  rail-road 
from  the  village  oi'  Spottswood  to  the  city  of  New  Brunswick,  as  soon  as  a  rail-road 
shall  be  made  from  New  Brunswick  to  the  Hudson  River;  consequentl}^,  when  the 
Camden  and  Amboy  Rail-road  and  the  New  Jersey  Rail-road  shall  be  completed, 
there  must  be  a  rail-road  through  the  state,  from  Jersey  City  to  Philadelphia. 

The  New  Jersey  Rail-road  Company  commenced  operations  in  the  summer  of 
1832,  and  have  confident  expectations  of  completing  the  road  from  Hackensack 
River,  through  Newark  to  Elizabethtovvn,  by  the  fall  of  1833;  and  from  the  Hud- 
son to  Elizabethtown  in  the  summer  of  1834;  and  the  whole  line,  from  the  Hudson 
to  New  Brunswick,  within  two  years.  The  estimated  cost  of  the  whole  road  for 
one  track,  with  suitable  passing  places,  including  the  purchase  from  the  Bridge  and 
Newark  Turnpike  Companies,  the  bridges  over  the  Hackensack,  Passaic  and  Rari- 
tan, and  the  moving  power,  cars,  &c.  as  per  report  of  N.  Beach,  the  engineer, 
is  - $718,912 

Cost  of  superstructure  for  a  second  track  on  the  whole  line,  30  miles, 
at  $4,710  80  per  mile,       -  -  -  -  -  -  141,324 

Total,  -  -  -  $860,236 

Upon  this  capital,  the  company,  after  paying  for  annual  repairs,  cost  of  moving 
power,  cars,  &c.  the  sum  of  $35,640  per  anwum,  anticipate  to  receive  a  profit  of 
$134,775,  equal  to  15-^  per  cent. 

By  an  arrangement  with  Ihe  Patterson  Rail-road  Company,  the  road  for  both 
companies,  from  the  west  side  of  Bergen  Ridge,  through  the  Deep  Cut,  and  across 
the  heavy  embankments,  on  the  east  of  the  Ridge,  and  to  the  Hudson  River,  is  to 
be  constructed  under  the  charter  of  this  company,  as  joint  property  of  the  two  com- 
panies; the  Patterson  company  paying  two-fifths,  and  this  company  three-fifths  of 
the  expense  of  construction,  each  company  using  the  road  without  accounting  to 
the  other.  This  arrangement  reduces  the  expense  of  the  New  Jersey  Company 
$55,171. 

The  company,  in  order  to  avoid  litigation,  has  purchased  of  the  United  Passaic 
and  Hackensack  Bridge  Companies  their  stock,  at  $150,000,  equal  to  $150  per 
share,  upon  which  amount  it  had,  for  some  years,  paid  seven  per  cent,  and  created 
a  surplus  fund  of  .$30,000.  With  this  stock,  they  obtained  also  all  the  right  which 
the  bridge  company  possessed,  to  pass  the  Passaic  and  Hackensack  Rivers,  by  bridges, 
for  sixty  years  to  come.  A  very  large  majority  of  the  stockholders  of  the  bridge 
companies  used  the  right  of  election  stipulated  for,  to  take  rail-road  stock,  and  have 
thus  become  identified  in  interest  with  the  compan}'. 

The  New  Jersey,  Hudson  and  Delaware  Rail-road  Company  was  incorporated  by 
an  act  of  8th  March,  1832,  with  a  capital  stock  of  $1,000,000,  and  authority  to  in- 
crease it  to  $2,000,000,  to  be  employed  in  making  a  rail-road  and  public  highway, 


NORTHERN  DIVISION.  23 

commencing  at  any  point  on  the  Delaware  River,  between  the  New  York  state  line 
and  the  mouth  of  Paulin's  Kill,  (and  constructing  a  bridge  over  said  river,)  and  to 
run  thence  to  SnufFtown,  in  the  county  of  Sussex,  and  thence  to  the  Hudson  River, 
opposite  the  city  of  New  York ;  or  to  join  any  rail-road  chartered  or  to  be  chartered, 
leading  to  or  terminating  at  the  Hudson  River,  opposite  the  city  of  New  York  :  but 
if  extended  to  the  Hudson,  not  to  cross  the  Passaic  south  of  the  village  of  Belle- 
ville, nor  to  approach  any  point  within  three  miles  of  the  present  bridge  over  the 
Passaic,  at  Newark,  nor  to  run  south  of  the  turnpike  road,  a  causeway  leading  from 
Newark  to  Jersey  City  ;  such  road  to  be  commenced  within  two  and  finished  within 
twenty  years;  and  when  the  dividends  upon  its  stock  shall  amount  to  seven  per 
cent,  to  be  subject  to  a  tax  of  one-half  of  one  per  cent,  per  annum  on  the  cost  of 
the  road  and  appendages,  in  lieu  of  all  taxes  ;  reserving  to  the  State  the  right,  at 
any  time  within  three  years  after  the  expiration  of  ninety-nine  years,  of  taking  the 
road  and  appendages  at  cost. 

The  Delaware  and  Jobstown  Rail  or  Macadamized  Road  Company,  was  incorpo- 
rated under  the  act  of  lUh  February,  1833,  with  a  capital  of  $60,000,  and  liberty 
to  increase  it  to  ^200,000,  for  the  purpose  of  making  a  public  road  from  the  mouth  of 
Craft's  Creek,  upon  the  Delaware  River,  by  the  villages  of  Columbus,  Jobstown  and 
Juliustown,  to  New  Lisbon,  a  distance  of  13  miles  ;  the  road  to  be  commenced  within 
three  and  completed  within  ten  years  from  the  passage  of  the  act,  on  penalty  of  for- 
feiture of  the  charter:  and  when  the  annual  net  proceeds  shall  amount  to  more 
than  seven  per  cent,  to  pay  half  per  cent,  tax  annually  to  the  State  ;  reserving  the 
right  to  the  State  to  purchase  thejoad  upon  appraisement  after  the  expiration  of  fifty 
years.    The  stock  of  this  road,  we  are  told,  is  subscribed. 

VIII.  There  are  four  canals  in  the  State  completed  or  about  to  be  completed,  viz. 
the  Morris  Canal,  the  Delaware  and  Raritan  Canal,  the  Salem  Creek  Canal,  and  the 
Manasquan  Canal. 

The  Morris  Canal  is  among  the  most  original  and  boldest  efforts  of  the  spirit  of 
internal  improvement.  The  idea  of  making  it  was  first  conceived  by  George  P. 
M'Culloch,  Esq.  of  Morristown,  whilst  on  a  fishing  party  at  the  Hopatcong  Lake, 
near  the  summit  of  the  Musconetcong  Mountain,  more  than  900  feet  above  the  level 
of  the  sea,  and  the  enterprise  was  commenced  through  his  zealous  and  active  exer- 
tions. This  lake,  the  source  of  the  Musconetcong  River,  in  its  original  state  covered 
an  area  of  about  five  square  miles.  To  dam  up  its  outlet,  husband  the  spring  fresh- 
ets, to  double  its  capacity,  and  by  leading  its  accumulated  waters  to  the  eastern  de- 
clivity and  valley  of  the  Rockaway,  to  pursue  the  western  descent  until  a  practical 
route  could  be  obtained  across  the  country  to  Easton,  were  the  means  he  proposed  to 
open  the  way  to  market  for  the  rich  mineral  products  and  the  iron  manufactured  at 
the  many  furnaces  and  forges  of  this  mountainous  district.  At  one  period,  81 
forges  and  12  furnaces  flourished  in  the  di.strict,  biit  when  the  canal  was  proposed, 
30  of  the  former  and  9  of  the  latter  had  fallen  into  ruins;  whilst  the  remainder 
were  greatly  limited  in  their  operations  by  the  growing  scarcity  of  fuel  and  increas- 
ing cost  of  transportation.  A  ton  of  iron  might  haye  been  brought  to  New  York 
from  Archangel  on  the  White  Sea,  at  nearly  the  same  price  it  could  have  been  trans- 
ported from  Berkshire  valley  ;  and  thus,  this  great  branch  of  manufacture,  alike  inte- 
resting to  the  State  and  the  Union,  was  in  imminent  danger  of  perishing. 

But  how  might  a  canal  penetrate  from  the  Delaware  to  the  Hudson,  100  miles, 
througli  the  mountainous  chain  repeatedly  crossing  its  path  ^  How  might  the  eleva- 
tion, rapid  and  unavoidable,  be  surmounted,  and  how  should  the  pecuniary  sources  be 
provided  for  an  enterprise  vast,  novel,  hazardous  and  expensive.'  The  lake  at  the 
summit  level  would  supply  water  to  be  sure;  but  to  raise  boats  900  feet  high,  and 
again  to  lower  them  to  their  first  level  of  lockage,  would  have  required  an  amount 
of  money  for  the  construction,  and  of  time  in  the  passage,  alike  fatal  to  the  enter- 
prise. Mr.  M'Culloch,  therefore,  adopted  the  expedient  of  inclined  planes  for  the 
greater  lifts,  and  locks  for  the  less.  Sucli  planes  had  never  before  been  applied  to 
boats  of  much  magnitude,  nor  to  an  operation  so  extensive. 

Mr.  M'Culloch  endeavoured  to  induce  the  State  to  adopt  the  enterprise;  and  at 
the  instance  of  him  and  others,  the  legislature,  by  act  15th  November,  1822,  ap- 
pointed G.  M'Culloch,  Charles  Kinsey,  of  Essex,  and  Thomas  Capner,  Esqrs.  com- 
missioners, with  authority  to  employ  a  scientific  engineer  and  surveyor  to  explore, 
survey  and  level  the  most  practicable  route  for  this  canal ;  and  to  report  an  estimate 
of  the  expense  thereof,  with  such  information  relative  to  the  minerals  along  its 
lines  as  they  could  obtain,  and  to  deposit  specimens  thereof  in  the  state  library.  The 


24  GENERAL  DESCRIPTION. 

commissioners  reported,  in  1823,  and  received  the  thanks  of  the  legislature  for  the 
intelligence,  industry  and  zeal  displayed  in  the  execution  of  their  commission.  But 
that  cautious  and  prudential  policy  which  has  hitherto  prevented  the  State  from 
yielding  her  treasury  and  resources  to  the  blandishment  of  projectors,  charm  they 
ever  so  wisely,  deterred  her  from  making  the  Morris  Canal  a  state  enterprise.  A 
private  company  was  therefore  formed,  and  incorporated  under  the  act  of  31st  De- 
cember, 1824,  with  a  capital  of  .$1,000,000,  and  the  right  to  increase  it  to  $1,500,000, 
for  canal  purposes;  and,  likewise,  to  employ  in  banking  operations,  additionally,  the 
sum  of  $200,000,  for  every  $200,000  actually  expended  on  the  canal,  so  that  the 
banking  capital  did  not  exceed  a  million  of  dollars. 

The  route  of  the  canal  was  selected,  and  the  estimate  of  cost  made,  by  Major 
Ephraim  Beach,  under  whose  direction  the  work  was  executed.  This  route,  and 
the  estimate  of  cost,  were  approved  by  General  Bernard  and  Major  Totten,  of  the 
engineer  corps  of  the  United  States,  and  by  Judge  Wright;  and  the  plan  of  inclined 
planes,  suggested  by  professor  James  Renvvick,  of  Columbia  College,  New  York, 
also  received  the  sanction  of  the  like  authority;  but  much  modification  was  after- 
wards found  necessary  in  this  particular. 

In  1825,  the  excavations  were  prosecuted  with  alacrity,  while  the  planes  were  de- 
ferred; an  arrangement  which  experience  proves  should  have  been  reversed,  since 
the  latter  could  be  perfected  only  by  many  and  tedious  experiments.  The  erection 
of  the  planes,  too,  was  entrusted  to  ordinary  mechanics,  who,  deficient  in  scientific 
knowledge  and  manual  skill,  caused  much  disappointment,  which  was  aggravated  by 
great  and  useless  expenditure  ;  but,  finally,  proper  engineers  were  employed,  and 
the  planes  have  become  effectual  to  establish  a  regular  intercourse  along  the  line  of 
the  canal  with  the  Delaware  and  Lehigh  Rivers,  and  with  the  Hudson  The  ma- 
chinery of  the  inclined  plane,  so  far  as  we  have  examined  it,  consists  of  a  double  rail- 
way connecting  the  upper  and  lower  portions  of  the  canal,  up  which  a  carriage  sup- 
porting a  boat  is  drav.-n  by  means  of  iron  chains,  wound  round  a  cylinder,  set  in  mo- 
tion by  a  water  wheel  turned  by  a  stream  from  the  upper  level ;  whilst  another  chain 
regulates  the  descent  of  another  boat  to  the  lower  level,  if  there  be  one  to  pass,  or  if 
none,  of  the  empty  cradle. 

The  cost  of  the  canal,  originally  estimated  at  $817,000,  has  been  about  $2,000,000. 
The  length  completed  is  about  90  miles  from  the  Passaic  River,  at  Newark,  to  the 
Delaware,  at  Philipsburg,  opposite  to  Easton;  11 J  miles  between  Jersey  City  and 
Newark  remain  to  be  executed,  and  are  estimated  to  cost  $100,000;  but  the  cost 
will,  as  usual,  probably  exceed  the  estimate.  This  excess  of  cost  over  the  estimate 
is  not  peculiar  to  the  Morris  Canal,  but  is  common,  perhaps  unavoidable,  in  all  the 
public  works  of  the  country.  The  engineer  can  judge  only  from  an  imperfect  know- 
ledge of  the  surface  of  the  ground  through  which  he  is  to  make  his  wa3-:  an  unex- 
pected bed  of  stone,  a  limestone  sink,  a  quicksand,  a  sudden  freshet  or  frost,  may 
mock  his  calculations.  Adventurers,  therefore,  in  canals  and  rail-roads,  should  be 
content  when  their  agents  display  reasonable  intelligence  and  full  fidelity.  The 
canal  was  completed  to  Newark  in  August,  1831.  It  is  deeply  in  debt,  and  pays 
no  dividend  to  the  stockholders  ;  but  its  use  has  been  most  beneficial  upon  the  busi- 
ness of  the  country  through  which  it  passes,  and  its  portage  will  increase  with  popu- 
lation and  business;  and  should  the  anthracite  coal  be  successfullj'  applied  to  the  ex- 
traction of  iron  from  ore,  the  consumption  of  that  article  alone  will  add  greatly  to 
the  tolls.  The  transportation  of  the  Lehigh  coal  to  the  New  York  market,  originally 
counted  on  by  the  projectors  of  this  canal,  will  be  effected  by  the  Delaware  and  Ra- 
ritan  Canal.  The  Morris  Canal  was  adapted  to  boats  of  25  tons  only,  which  in  many 
cases  have  proved  too  heavy  for  the  chains  of  the  inclined  planes.  The  passage  from 
Easton  to  Newark  has  been  performed  in  less  than  five  days. 

The  width  of  the  canal  is  32  feet  at  top,  and  20  feet  at  bottom,  four  feet  deep. 
The  locks  are  75  feet  long  between  the  mitre  sills,  and  nine  feet  wide.  The  line  is 
naturally  divided  into  two  divisions,  the  Eastern  and  Western.  The  first  has  12 
planes,  whose  united  elevations  make  748  feet,  and  18  locks  rising,  together,  166 
feet,  making  the  whole  rise,  914  feet.  The  highest  lift  by  planes  is  80  feet.  There 
are  two  of  tliat  height,  one  at  Boontoon  Falls,  and  another  at  Drakeville  ;  and  the 
highest  lift  of  the  locks  is  10  feet.  This  division  now  ends  at  the  Passaic  River, 
near  Newark — the  section  designed  to  connect  it  with  the  Hudson,  11 ,'  miles,  has 
not  yet  been  commenced.  The  length  of  the  division  is  51  miles  32-lOOths.  The 
western  division  has  11  planes  rising  691  feet,  and  7  locks,  whose  aggregate  lifts 
are  69  feet — total,  760  feet.     Its  length  from  the  summit  level  to  the  Delaware,  it 


NORTHERN  DIVISION. 


25 


38  miles,  91-lOOths,  making  the  length  of  the  whole  line  90  miles  23-lOOths.  The 
annexed  table  shows  at  one  view  the  number  of  the  planes  and  locks,  their  location, 
elevation,  grade  of  the  planes,  and  lift  of  the  locks;  and  is,  perhaps,  the  best  expo- 
sition that  can  be  given  of  the  work  short  of  an  engraved  profile. 


EASTERN  DIVISION. 


No.  of 

No.  of 

Elevation 

Inclina- 

Lift of  the 

Plane. 

Lock. 

the  plane 

LOCATION. 

the  sec- 

of plane 

tion  of  the 

Lock  in 

or  lock. 

tion. 

in  feet. 

plane. 

feet. 

1 

1 

Summit. 

o 

50 

1-12 

1 

2 

Drakeville. 

4 

80 

1-10 

1 

3 

Near   do. 

5 

38 

1-12 

2 

land  2 

do.     do. 

6 

20 

1 

4 

Baker's  Mills. 

12 

52 

1-8 

1 

3 

Near     do. 

13 

8 

1 

5 

Above  Dover. 

15 

66 

1-9 

1 

4 

do. 

16 

9 

1 

5 

do. 

17 

9 

2 

6  and  7 

At     do. 

19 

18 

1 

6 

Rockaway. 

25 

52 

1-12 

1 

8 

Near  do. 

29 

7 

2 

9  and  10 

Povverville. 

34 

15 

1 

11 

Booneton. 

36 

10 

7 

Booneton  Falls. 

37 

80 

1-10 

I 

12 

Near     do. 

38 

12 

1 

8 

Montville. 

40 

76 

1-1 1 

1 

9 

do. 

41 

74 

1-11 

1 

10 

Near  Pompton. 

48 

56 

1-12 

1 

13 

do. 

42 

8 

11 

Bloomfield. 

84 

54 

1-12 

1 

14 

Near  do. 

86 

10 

1 

15 

Above  Newark. 

95 

10 

1 

12 

Newark. 

96 

70 

1-12 

3 

16,17,18 

do. 

97 

748 
166 

30 

12 

17 

166 

Planes  and  Locks. 

914 

WESTERN  DIVISION. 


No.  of 

No.  of 

Elevation 

Inclina- 

Lift of  the 

Plane. 

Lock. 

the  plane 

LOCATION. 

the  sec- 

of plane 

tion  of  the 

Lock  in 

or  lock. 

tion. 

in  feet. 

plane. 

feet. 

1 

1 

Great  Meadow. 

3 

58 

MO 

1 

2 

Stanhope. 

5 

70 

1-11 

1 

1 

Near  Sayers. 

6 

12 

3 

do.         do. 

6 

55 

1-12 

1 

4 

Old  Andover. 

10 

80 

1-8 

1 

2 

Guinea  Hollow. 

16 

10 

1 

5 

Near  Anderson. 

38 

64 

1-12 

1 

6 

Monte  Rose. 

41 

50 

1-10 

1 

3 

Near       do. 

43 

10 

D 


26 


GENERAL  DESCRIPTION. 


Western  Division,  continued. 


No.  of 

No.  of 

Elevation 

Inclina- 

Lift of  the 

Plane. 

Lock. 

Ihe  plane 

LOCATION. 

the  sec- 

of plane 

tion  of  the 

Lock  in 

or  lock. 

tion. 

in  feet. 

plane. 

feet. 

1 

7 

Poliatconff. 

47 

75 

1-10 

1 

4 

Near  N.  Village. 

CI 

10 

1 

8 

Hulzesers. 

G3 

62 

1-11 

1 

9 

Near  Bridleman's 

Brook. 

67 

100 

1-10 

1 

10 

Nr.  Green's  mills. 

70 

44 

1-12 

1 

5 

do.             do. 

71 

9 

land  2 

6  and  7 

do.             do. 

72 

18 

1 

11 

Delaware  River. 

74 

33 

1-12 

11 

Planes  and  Locks. 

G91 
69 

760 

69 

RECAPITULATION. 


Planes. 


Locks. 


Eastern  Division, 

12 

748 

Western  Division, 

11 

691 



1439  feet. 

22 

Eastern  Division, 

17 

.      166 

Western  Division, 

7 

69 

— 

235 

24  locks. 

1674  feet. 

Of  the  interesting  works  on  the  line  of  the  canal,  our  limits  permit  us  only  to  no- 
tice, the  aqueduct  of  stone  of  a  single  arch,  80  feet  span,  50  feet  above  the  river, 
over  the  Passaic  at  the  Little  Falls,  built  of  beautiful  dressed  freestone,  in  the  most 
substantial  and  durable  manner — and  the  vi'ooden  aqueduct  236  feet  long,  supported 
by  nine  stone  piers,  over  the  Pompton  River. 

The  State  is  indebted,  as  we  have  already  observed,  for  the  inception  of  this  great 
work,  to  the  genius  and  zeal  of  George  M'Culloch,  Esq.,  and  she  is  not  less  indebted 
to  the  skill  and  perseverance  of  Cadwallader  D.  Golden,  Esq.,  the  actual  president 
of  the  company,  for  its  completion. 

The  Delaware  and  Raritan  Canal,  one  of  the  great  links  of  the  chain  of  internal 
navigation,  which  is  to  give  to  the  domestic  trade  of  the  country  the  greatest  fa- 
cility and  security,  has  for  years  been  a  subject  of  deep  interest  to  all  who  have  re- 
flected on  the  means  of  increasing  our  prosperity.  The  construction  of  this  canal 
has  been  a  favourite  project, — with  speculators  desirous  to  deal  in  a  marketable  com- 
modity; with  cai)italists  seeking  for  safe  and  profitable  investments;  and  with  many 
statesmen  of  New  Jersey,  who  believed  they  saw,  in  it,  tlie  means  of  creating  a  per- 
manent and  large  revenue  for  the  State,  which  would  forever  relieve  her  citizens 
from  taxation,  for  the  ordinary  support  of  government. 

So  early  as  the  year  ISOl,  the  project  of  a  canal  to  connect  the  waters  of  the  De- 
laware and  Raritan  Rivers,  was  earnestly  considered.  A  route  was  then  examined 
by  a  company  of  e.xperienced  and  intelligent  gentlemen,  and  a  law  passed  autho- 
rizing its  construction  by  a  private  company;  but  the  state  of  our  trade,  and 
our  inexperience  in  works  of  this  character,  prevented  its  execution.  In  1816 
and  in  1823,  commissioners,  appointed  by  the  legislature,  explored  the  route,  and 
by  accurate  examination  demonstrated  its  practicability.  At  a  subsequent  pe- 
riod, a  second  joint-stock  company  was  authorized  to  make  this  canal,  and  paid  to 
the  State  treasury,  for  the  ])rivilege  so  to  do,  the  sum  of  $100,000;  but  failing  to 
obtain  the  sanction  of  the  Slate  of  Pennsylvania  to  the  use  of  the  waters  of  the 
Delaware,  tiiey  were  compelled  to  abandon  the  enterprise,  receiving  back  from  New 
Jersey  the  premium  they  had  paid.  Many  citizens  of  the  State  rejoiced  in  this 
failure,  by  which  the  power  of  making  the  canal  reverted  to  her ;  anticipating  that 


NORTHERN  DIVISION.  27 

she  would  immediately  use  it.  To  this  end,  many  petitions  were  presented  to  the 
legislature,  at  their  session  of  182S-9;  and  a  committee  appointed  thereon,  made  an 
able  and  elaborate  report,  accompanied  by  a  bill,  authorizing  the  canal  to  be  con- 
structed by  the  State.  But  the  settled  policy  of  the  State,  safe  at  least,  if  not  emi- 
nently prosperous  or  sagacious,  which  carefully  eschews  all  prospective  advantages  to 
be  purchased  by  loans,  or  by  the  taxation  of  her  citizens,  marred  this  measure.  Fi- 
nally, by  the  act  of  4th  February,  1830,  the  enterprise  was  again  committed  to  a 
joint-stock  company,  with  certain  beneficial  reservations  to  the  State.  The  act 
provides,  that  a  capital  stock  be  created  of  $1,000,000,  which  may  be  enlarged  to 
$1,500,000,  divided  into  shares  of  $100  each,  and  that  the  company  have  all  the 
powers  necessary  to  perfect  an  expeditious  and  complete  line  of  communication  from 
Philadelphia  to  New  York  :  That,  if  the  capital  were  not  subscribed  within  one 
year,  or  the  canal  and  feeder  not  commenced  within  two,  and  completed  within  eight, 
years,  the  charter  should  become  void  :  That,  the  company  might  make  the  canal 
between,  and  improve  the  rivers  below,  where  the  canal  shall  empty  into  them;  the 
canal  to  be  at  least  50  feet  wide  at  the  water  line,  and  at  least  five  feet  deep,  and 
the  feeder  not  less  than  30  feet  wide  and  four  feet  deep  :  That  they  may  charge 
tolls  for  the  transport  of  persons  and  merchandise,  not  exceeding  five  cents  per 
mile  for  the  first,  nor  four  cents  per  ton  per  mile  for  the  second,  nor  more  than 
half  those  rates  respectively  on  the  feeder  :  That  they  may  alter  the  route  of  the 
canal ;  that  it  shall  be  a  public  highway  ;  and  that,  no  other  canal  shall  be  con- 
structed within  five  miles  of  any  point  of  the  canal  or  feeder,  without  the  assent  of 
the  company  :  That  at  the  expiration  of  thirty  years  from  the  completion  of  the 
canal  and  feeder,  a  valuation  of  them  shall  be  made  by  six  appraisers,  appointed  by 
the  company  and  State  ;  who,  in  case  of  difference,  may  choose  an  umpire  ;  that 
such  appraisement  shall  not  exceed  the  first  cost,  with  the  lands  and  appendages, 
and  that  the  State  shall  have  the  privilege  for  ten  years  of  taking  the  canal  and 
feeder  at  the  appraisement,  upon  payment  of  the  amount  thereof :  That  the  trea- 
surer of  the  company  shall,  on  oath,  make  quarterly  returns  of  the  number  of  pas- 
sengers and  tons  of  merchandise  transported  on  the  canal  across  the  State,  and  pay 
to  the  treasurer  of  the  State,  eight  cents  for  each  passenger,  and  eight  cents  for  each 
ton  of  merchandise  so  transported  thereon,  except  for  coal,  lumber,  lime,  wood,  ashes 
and  similar  low  priced  articles,  for  which  two  cents  only  per  ton  shall  be  paid;  and 
that  no  other  impost  shall  be  levied  upon  the  company. 

By  the  act  of  3d  February,  1831,  in  consideration,  that  the  company  would  make 
the  canal  75  feet  wide  on  the  water  line,  seven  feet  deep  throughout,  and  the  locks 
at  least  100  feet  in  length,  by  24  feet  in  width  in  the  clear,  the  State  extended  the 
time  after  whicii  the  appraisement  should  be  made,  to  50  instead  of  30  years,  and 
engaged  that  neither  the  company,  nor  any  other  person,  should  construct  any  rail- 
road across  the  State,  between  the  Delaware  and  Raritan  Rivers,  within  five  miles 
of  any  point  of  the  canal,  until  after  the  expiration  of  the  period  allowed  for  the  con- 
struction of  the  canal,  reserving  existing  rights. 

As  we  have  already  mentioned,  when  speaking  of  the  Camden  and  Amboy  Rail- 
road, the  Canal  and  Rail-road  Company  were  consolidated  pursuant  to  the  act  of 
15th  February,  1831.  By  act  2d  March,  1832,  the  united  company,  in  considera- 
tion, that  no  other  rail-road  should  be  constructed  which  might  compete  with  that 
road,  covenanted  to  convey  to  the  State  one  thousand  shares  of  the  joint  stock,  and 
guaranteed  to  the  State  an  annual  income  of  $30,000  at  least,  should  not  the  divi- 
dends on  stock  and  the  transit  duties  amount  to  that  sum;  and  engaged  that  they 
would  annually  divide  the  whole  of  the  net  profits,  except  such  surplus  fund  as 
might  be  necessary,  not  exceeding  $100,000. 

Under  these  provisions  the  canal  was  commenced,  and  has  progressed  nearly  to 
its  completion.  (Oct.  1833.)  It  begins  at  the  confluence  of  the  Crosswicks  Creek 
and  the  Delaware,  at  Bordentown,  and  runs  thence,  through  tlie  city  of  Trenton  and 
the  valley  of  the  Assunpink,  crossing  the  creek  by  a  noble  stone  culvert,  to  Law- 
rence's Meadows,  whence  it  passes  into  the  valley  of  Stony  Brook;  thence  down 
the  right  side  thereof,  one  mile  S.  of  Princeton,  to  the  junction  of  Stony  Brook  with 
the  Millstone  River;  thence  across  the  river  by  an  aqueduct  of  eigiit  arches,  and  by 
the  right  bank  of  the  river  to  the  Raritan  River;  thence  along  the  right  bank  of  the 
Raritan  to  New  Brunswick,  where  it  unites  with  the  tide.  It  passes  througli  or 
near  Bordentown,  Lamberton,  Trenton,  Princeton,  Kingston,  Griggstown,  Millstone, 
Somerville,  and  Boundbrook.  Its  whole  length  is  42  miles,  within  which  there  are 
116  feet  lockage,  viz:  58  between  Trenton  and  the  Delaware  River,  overcome  by 


28  GENERAL  DESCRIPTION. 

seven  locks;  one  at  Trenton  of  seven  feet;  one  at  the  State  Penitentiary  of  seven 
feet;  three  at  Lamberton  of  nine  feet  each;  one  below  Lamberton  of  seven  feet,  and 
one  at  Bordentown  of  10  feet,  lift.  The  last,  by  reason  of  the  badness  of  the  foun- 
dation, has  cost  an  e.ictraordinary  portion  of  lime,  labour  and  money,  in  its  construc- 
tion. The  lockage  between  Trenton  and  New  Brunswick  is  also  58  feet,  and  is  over- 
come by  seven  locks;  one  at  Kingston,  one  at  Griggstown,  and  one  at  the  mouth  of 
the  Millstone,  each  of  eight  feet ;  two  opposite  to  Boundbrook,  seven  feet  each  ;  one 
two  miles  below  Boundbrook,  of  eight  feet,  where  a  dam  has  been  constructed  across 
the  river  to  use  it  as  a  feeder,  and  one  at  New  Brunswick,  of  twelve  feet,  lift.  At 
this  city,  there  is  also  a  tide  lock  sufficiently  capacious  to  admit  a  steamboat,  and  a 
basin  extending  the  whole  front  of  the  town,  formed  by  an  embankment  in  the  river. 
By  turning  the  river  into  the  canal,  a  water  power  will  hav^been  gained  at  Bruns- 
wick, equal,  it  is  supposed,  to.  400  horse  power.  Upon  the  line  of  the  main  canal, 
there  are  17  culverts,  some  of  them  very  large  ;  one  aqueduct,  and  29  pivot  bridges. 
The  canal  is  75  feet  wide  on  the  water  line,  and  seven  feet  deep,  and  the  depth  may 
be  increased  to  eight  feet  should  it  be  found  necessary.  To  avoid  bridgmg,  the 
company  have  purchased  a  large  quantity  of  land,  in  many  cases  whole  farms,  at 
great  expense. 

The  feeder  commences  at  Bull's  Island,  in  the  Delaware  River,  and  runs  thence 
along  the  left  bank  of  the  river  to  Trenton,  where  it  intersects  the  canal,  a  distance 
of  23  miles,  with  an  inclination  of  two  inches  in  the  mile.  The  works,  beside  the 
excavation,  consist  of  a  lift  lock  of  10  feet  at  Lambertsville;  two  guard  locks,  one 
at  Bull's  Island,  and  the  other  at  Frallsville  ;  15  culverts,  and  37  pivot  bridges.  The 
width  of  the  excavation  is  throughout  50  feet;  at  the  water  line,  its  depth  six  feet; 
but,  where  it  could  be  effected  without  great  expenditure,  the  width  has  been  in- 
creased to  60  feet,  and  thus  three-fourths  of  the  distance  will  afi'ord  good  sloop  navi- 
gation. A  large  basin  has  been  constructed  by  the  company,  upon  the  feeder  near 
the  centre  of  Trenton,  for  the  accommodation  of  the  city. 

The  canal  is  adapted  to  vessels  exceeding  150  tons  burden,  and  has  been  exe- 
cuted in  the  most  substantial  manner.  Its  cost  is  now  estimated  at  two  millions  of 
dollars.  The  estimate,  when  the  proposition  was  made  to  the  State  to  undertake  the 
enterprise,  was  stated  at  $1,142,741 ;  but  the  present  canal  is  every  way  larger  than 
that  originally  proposed. 

The  Manasquan  River  and  Barnegat  Bay  Canal  Company,  was  authorized  under 
the  act'  of  21st  February,  1833,  with  a  capital  of  .^5,000,  to  make  a  canal  40  feet 
wide  and  five  feet  deep,  from  the  mouth  of  the  Manasquan  River  to  the  head  waters 
of  Barnegat  Bay,  at  Layton's  pond  or  ditch,  in  the  county  of  Monmouth;  to  erect 
tide  gates,  and  to  take  toll  for  passing  through  the  canal  for  every  scow,  eight  cents 
per  ton;  sail  boat  or  small  craft  10  cents  per  ton;  and  for  every  fish  boat  or  skiff, 
25  cents  per  ton;  provided  that  the  canal  be  commenced  within  two,  and  finished 
within  five  years. 

A  short  canal  of  about  four  miles  in  length,  in  Upper  and  Lower  Penn's  Neck 
Township,  Salem  County,  connects  the  Salem  Creek  witli  the  Delaware  River, 
about  four  miles  above  Kinseyville,  and  saves  to  sloops  that  ply  in  the  creek,  from 
15  to  20  miles  of  tlie  distance  to  Philadelphia. 

IX.  The  population  of  New  Jersey,  derived  from  European  ancestry,  is  composed 
chiefly  of  tlie  descendants  of  the  Dutch,  Swede,  English,  and  New  England  settlers. 
For  nearly  half  a  century,  the  country  was  in  the  undisturbed  possession  of  the 
Dutch,  who,  in  that  period,  spread  themselves  extensively  over  East  Jersey;  not, 
however,  without  an  intermixture  of  tiieir  New  England  neiglibours,  who  very  early 
displayed  a  disposition  to  abandon  their  sterile  soil  for  more  fertile  lands  and  milder 
skies;  and  who  had  also  found  their  way  to  the  shores  of  the  Delaware,  and  made 
one  attempt,  at  least,  to  colonize  them.  After  the  year  1664,  the  English  authority 
was  established  over  the  province,  and  the  settlement  of  West  Jersey  was  then  zea- 
lously commenced  by  English  emigrants,  chiefly  of  the  sect  called  Quakers.  The 
liberality  of  the  provincial  government  must  necessarily  have  drawn  population 
from  other  European  sources  ;  but  such  acquisitions  were  not  great,  inasmucli  as  lier 
aspiring  and  successful  neighbours.  New  York  and  Pennsylvania,  possessed  greater 
attractions. 

These  attractions,  too,  have  operated  to  prevent  that  increase  of  population  in  the 
State,  which  must  otherwise  have  taken  place  from  natural  causes.  Abounding  in 
all  that  is  necessary  to  tlie  comfortable  enjoyment  of  life,  and  stimulated  to  industry 
by  the  growth  of  the  neighbouring  cities,  whose  wants  she  in  no  inconsiderable  de- 


NORTHERN  DIVISION. 


29 


.-3  «*H   aj   »H   to   aj     •   iH 

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30 


GENERAL  DESCRIPTION. 


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rH 
0 
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10 

•91  japun  puE  OIJO 

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LO_c-^cq^w^co__co_^co^co^p  oo  ci  t^  oj 

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8 

CO 

o 

m 

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cooicioxo'-ocorHot^x-H 

LO  O  O  X  rH  — 4  irO  "O  O  Ci  CO'  -^  t>. 
rH_  LO  0_  r»^  — ^ O!^ Cj, CO^  0_ OJ, rf_ o»_ UO^ 

o~  cT  x"  i>r  o"  o"  1.0"  co"  of  of  o"  x"  oj 

1 

•saA-Big 

1,301 

439 

227 

1,171 

1,-596 

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1,318 

191 

2,301 

1,810 

172 

120 

141 

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c:c5~Oi.'0'V'^'^~'^i^cOrH 

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saijuuB  j 
JO  spuafj  Suipnpui 
'saiTiuiaj  aiiqAV  aaJJ 

•~z  ^2  ~  12.  '-  —  '  Z.'  H  S  ~  '^  i€ 

CO^  — ^  -T  —  -r  i"\  — ^  o'»  ~.^  ^_^  X^  X^  — ^ 

oTc'  X'  X'  <>.'>-"  l>.'  •^'"TJ-'~Lo'"'>*~CO"r-" 

ja 

•SJB3i(  9X 

pan  saiBi\[  aiiqM.  aai j; 

CI  C:  -rr  O}  X>  X  0  —  Cr.  0  "C  '-C  C". 
l>.  CO  :c  l^  t>.  c5  l^  -H  c:  c  r;  ;s  0 

CO  C-.  -H  c;,-^^3t.co„co^oj,co^co^c:„o 
rf  ■<i<'"  ■q-'"  co"  CO  co"  co"  eo"  of  of  of  rn'" 

'J' 

■SpjBAV 

-dn    puT2    sjT»a.{   c)|^ 
JO  saiTJi^  8l!MA\  aa-ij 

0  CO  lO  Ci  CO  OJi-O  i>.  uo  c.  c:  i>.  rH 

t^  'O  01  CO  rr  ~.  C-.  X  «  r-  l>.  TJ-  CO 

000  co^x^o_c:__oj_«  00  CO  ~  0 
t"  t"  ■*'"  •q-"  co"  -q-"  co"  co"  of  of  of  of 

lO" 

•>* 

O 

o 

Hunterdon, 

Sussex, 

Burlington, 

Essex," 

Monmouth, 

Morris, 

Middlesex, 

Gloucester, 

Bergen, 

Somerset, 

Salem, 

Cumberland, 

Cape  May, 

NORTHERN  DIVISION. 


31 


■jaquinu  pioj^ 


"saABig 


■psxv\  10U  streipuj  idao 
-xa  suosjgd  aajj  jgq^o  [jy 


t^COlOCgoO'l'OiM^t-CO 

'if  >«"  «<r -h"  o"  of  «r  ■*"  cvf  n"  "^ 


I— I    lO   «l   M  "-I   Oi 

i-H    1-1  rl  (M    1^ 


•SpjBAVdn  pUTJ  qf  JQ 


'St-  -lapun  pu^  92  JO 


■QZ  aapun  puTj  91  jq 


•91  Japun  puB  01  JO 


•sjt!a^  01  •'^P^il 


i-i-H-rco«)Qoi>j>(M(Mi-(i-ii:o 

'N(MC^<Ni-ii-!i-ii-lf-(i-(i-lr-l 

O  Oi  O  00  00  O  to  (N  IN  00  in  -^  IM 
■n'eCirtTfOlMODINCOlMI^Ttco 
S^MCOitOOQOIMt'lMINrHWW 
Cq(M(N(NFHf-lpH-H>-(l-ll-(i-l 

(X)    -<    CO    t^   OJ   OCJi-HO^lftOD-^ 

Oioincoom-fi-H-fi— ifos^co 

WQOCOaj^t-»-t<OOQO— <IM 


I?Ji-<0005CO-*0-^0(M»ni-lCi5 
t^OOi— iQOb-COlOSOCOCOi— (;0 
>nC0QD>O(Nf000'-ii-ll^000DO 
CO-^COtOCOCOS^lMWi-li-ii-i 


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•gj.  japun  puB  ggjQ 


'92  japun  puB  gijQ 


•91  JapunpuB  oiJO 


si^ai  01  Japufl 


C3t>.C0O«>O(NO<Ni-l^Cv)Cj 

COfNi-H-PlOi— iOOClOt»»d 

-f  00  i-i  lO  CO  05  rl  Tji  00  00  to  O  -* 
t^ODIMl^t^COOrHCOIM-fffOOO 
Of-lfi^COCOGit^t^COrHi-HMeO 
INS^IM(Mr-<l-<rHr-<l-li-Hrt,-C 

■^OOlfSiOCOO^iOCOi— <  CO  OD 
rHrHCOCOm— H»^MGO(N-t00i— I 

i--inomtooo®oDpH(MpHrHco 

C1(NlM(Ni-li-lp-iFHi-iFHrHi-i 

t^    t^   Ci    1^   CO   CO    t^   1— I    l^   05   O    t^   VO 

IMC^OOtOOlOOOCOCOOJiniOQO 

asair-cococicomoooi— (M 


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CO-^i-Ht^COtOQOC-lf-lOOClCO 
C<STtiTjiCl5eOeO(M5<5CqiM(Np-l 


12; 

o 
o 


C     1    J 


■3    '    «    <u 


^'  c"  J^  C    «"  ^    g    =    £ 


s  -^ 


E  iJ  5  &. 


32 


w  w  ^ 


GENERAL  DESCRIPTION. 


•joqmnu  [bioj, 


■paxwj  inu  suBipui 

idanxa  siinsnd  'iM  .i-iTpn  in" 


■VOJOJCCaOCDOC-.  OOOOJOOi-O 

o  o  aj  C-.  rc  CO  i^  X'  i^  c  c^  CO  o 
o  i^  TD  t>.  c  c^  's-  o  "  ir:  O  CO  3^ 
cD(^}^^Ol'^  —  —  toccco-^(Nt5< 
o^e-jcjfoc^ojcjcj.-.  —  rt« 


J  I  c  CO  c>j  o  01  -^  t^  CO  CJ  '-o  n  t^  -^  I  CO 

■SpjBMOn  pUB  (Jf  JO    I   C-.  0<  X  aO  t^  C>J  CO  00  ^  CO  i^  CO  1-1        co 


•gg  japun  puc  ^ijq 


■SJt)3i(  f-[    J9pU]-J 


IC  C;  C".  Li  CO  O  X  C  !»t  CT.  C-.  O  L'l     I   oo 
i.'5C0J0"Q0rrO0JI>O3^XiT-(        05 


^  CC  »»  CO  OJ  o  o  •^ 

'  t^  X  -V  O  CO  (N  CO 

I  oj  M  CO  ui  — 1  ^ 


•SpiBittdtt   pUGg»>JQ    I    O  CO  o 


O  CO  l^  CO  i 


•Q{,  japun  puc  9SJO 


•95  japun  puB  fijo 


•sjBa^C  t?x  -lapi'fl 


lO  CO  -^  C:  C^i  CO  LO  O  X  —  0>  CO  o 
COi-^OJCOC^— ■(?J(?JCOm(N  — 


•spiBAvdn  puB  Qf'JO 


•Q^  japun  puBQSJO 


•gg  japun  puBj^xJO 


OJOO}l^'3<l.OOCOi>0 

C5CO         ^COXCO         —Cj 

^  "-l  --I  (Mr-" 

X  l^"'*  CO  Cf  CO^QOO  r-  C^~l.O"l-l  LO  " 

Tf  1^  oj  o>  i^  o  i^      Tf  as 

r^  r- 1  rl  r^  r-4  (?<  1— < 


C>i 


•sjBa/(  t^x  J9puf[ 


•spjBMdn  puB  S^JO 


•ox.  Japun  puBggjo 


•95  japun  puB  ]^ljO 


I  01 

IS 
1  X 

I    CO 


vo>noi'--co(MX'3<coc5eoi-iTr 

coi>i-ixcocr*co      i^co 

T-l  M  C\(  i-(  rH  CO  <^i 


■sjBa/(  x^x  japufx 


•spjBMdn  puB  SX'JO 


•gX' japun  puegg  JO 


■^  X  C:  -^  CO  •<3'  —  -O  t^  CO  •*  O  CO 

c^  CO  lio  1.0  CO  X  lo  10  'J'  X  i.o  X  — 
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(Nr-WC^i— Ir-Hi— ir-lr^i— ( 


CO  CO  C-.  rr  CO  «>.  -^  O  lO  LO  C;  CO  o 
^3<  l^  10  CO  i>.  —  -^  l^  CO  Cj  X  lO  CO 
CO  <>.  i^  CI  O  CC  C,   'C  -^  CO  OJ  ■—  CO 


•gg  japun  pusgxjo 


.TJi-^OCOCOOJ'T'COCOX— 10} 
'  l^  1.0  CO  LO  C-.'  X  C;  O  O  CO  CO  o 

)  —  xicr-.  —  ox  —  'TTCOO!-^ 

!  CO  CJ  C^  OJ  (?{  .-C  C^  r-.  r-l  r-,  ^ 


•gX  japun  puBQIJO 


■  rt  —  -^l^-CO— '-^XlOCOOX 
Jt^cOT-a-LOC:  O-^XCOXO 
SC05^<Nt^lOTj>-^C5C3XCO 


•sjBa/(  ox  JapufX 


LO  X  0(  OJ  lO  O  l>  rr  CO  Tf  1,0  C:  "* 

t^  10  X)  CO  -^  —  l^  X  O  ■V  <N  CI  o 

r-HTj-O—  CO  —  XCOCOO~C5CO 

'S"  10  -cr  -^  CO  CO  CT  CO  oj  O!  J^j  r^ 


•spjBMdn  pUB  SI7JO 


•g|,  jopun  puBggjo 


•gg  japun  puBgijQ 


•gX  puB  gi  uaaMiag 


•91  japun  Pu^OIJO 


•sjBa^  OX  Japufl 


4^  —  oj  r:  ~  oj  <^  —  100  "c  t^  ot 

CO  CO  CJ  Ci  l^  OJ  —  CO  CO  ~.  CO  -^  CO 
O  ~  CO  —  «>■  lO  1,0  L.O  T!"  c:  i>  1>.  OJ 


1.0  -^  ~  w  o  1^  X  —  c~.  ~.  r;  —  Tj- 

— (  CO  lO  O  CO  1.0  CO  LO  00  —  X  O  CO 
lO  O  ^  X  <0   X  C-.  O  -^  CO  O*  (>J  •T 


CC00>»OC-.  IC— '  —  0(7)OCO  — 

CO  10'  ■^  o  X  10  c:  CO  CO  rp  T3<  c»}  {^ 

10  O  10  —  — >  X  !>•  —  CO  CO  CO  O  CO 
(NC0OJCOC^r-l^(?J-H  —  ,-,-H 


COCO^OCOCO— <  —  (MXOCOCi 
XfTJCDO^rrCOCOiOOOi-OCOb. 

LOt-ot^.LOLO'^-^coeocooj 


oiracoKOXCiOCiTfr^t^oco 

•^eOI>XiOCOCO<?J»-OC:TJ<CO<M 

c---^  —  —'i^coTTXr-ocoeo 


<D     O     «     3     O 


ci 


33 


•spjBMdn  pu-B  OOIJO  I      " 


•QOX  Japun  PC  JO 
06  -lapun  08  JO 


OS-iapanoZJO 


OZ  JapunoDJO 


•09-i8P"nOQJO 


■02  Jspunoi'JO 


•O^iapunQgjo 


08  •lopu'^OoJO 


05  Japungxjo 


SI  •tapwnoiJO 


01  Jopungjo 


"oTco'qo  1-h  CVVOl^^i^oTiO  O  •^  l^  Oi 


■^CDt>.t-O^QOi-^COO'*OJCCl>. 


OJ  O  O  OJ  O  O  r-1  CO  O  I^  lO  OC  w  o 
OOt^COrf-HOi>OlTOr-(n'OCO 
rJ<':OCOCNC^CO-q<TriO-q<CO        r^^ 


•T  CO  Cl  LO  J^  GO  C.  rH  O  O  W  LO  l-^  CD 
C-.  (TtOt^GOCOOOJCCTPOCOl^O 

•^a;tscoco'3<LOCDJ>oo      o«co 


lO  O  (>J  C^  O  -H  T^  rt  O  lO  !>•  I^  CTi  CO 
l-'.lOOOCClOOXiOfr-iOCOTM'*-^ 


C0l>.t^0(>)-^C30UOCOCO'*I>CD 
COOCO-^TTUOCOCOO'^^HOO^ 
C--  CO  i-(  t-H  O  30  (M  t^  -O  CO  lO  C^}  i-^  l^ 


Tf  '^  O'  CO  CD  QO  UO  l>.  00  CO  X'  t-^  CO  CO 
lO^HCOr-HtMCOCCCi-^O^^fMCOt^ 
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r-^  CN  rH  1-1  M  rt  rt  T-H  1-1  r- 


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1— iC<Ji-li— li— li— ir-lr-lO!rHi— I 


■sjB8if  g  -lapnil 


CjJ>l--01>C>Jl>'i— IC0CO'-^>OlO^- 
l— iCOCOMiOlfflOCiOOClCOOCOCO 
lO'XOOaOlOr-ilOi— iC<!COCOt3<Oi— I 
rt  OJ  ^  ,_,  1-1  rH  rt  OJ  C^  OJ  <?{  rH  rH 


•spj^Mdn  puT!  OPT  JO 
•QPX  Japan  06  JO 


•06  -lapwn  08  JO 


•pgJapunp^jO 


•O^iapunpgjo 


•pgaapunpQjo 


•pg  japuno^JO 


•01.  japun  08  JO 


■08-iapuno5JO 


05  aapun  gx  aaoqy 


•gx  japun  qx  aAoqy 


oorr'<*i(?jcoi-ioocos<co 


COrHOCOlOC2CO(MOr^rHC<(COCl 

i>.  ^  i^  o  c:  (7J  QO  CO  o  o?  liO  oi  o  o 

1— l(Mi-I^H  i-ti— lOJrHCVJi— 1 


O  I-'  no  -^  CO  CO  r-H 

1—  1^  ^r  i.-f  '.'.'  '^  1^  O  -^  CO  lO  '~0  -*  OO 
Tl<'*CO(7iOJO{C0lO'^'<*CO        i-(i-i 


lO    l~^     t^    CO     ^     wl'    ^^     ^.^"     ^^     liJ     "'^    ^'.'    ^V    T— I 

r-"  J^  -^  C^  CO  O  t^  O  -^  CO  LO  ''O  "*  OO 


ffij  00  lO  LO  T-(  -^  J>  lO  CO  T-H  a  CO  CO  o 
O-HOTyTtcOGOCOCOCOC^CiiOCO 
iOQOOr)'COTr'<*01>l^CD        OICO 


o  cr.  'to  LO  o  lO  CO  fh  rH  o  i>  00  o  o 
t^Tjiooi>.ooi-iCQ'*inoi>.ot-. 
t>.'^C5CoomoOi— 10050^^10-^ 

r-*  i-(  r-l 

"O  (7J  l>.  lOC^OiOOOOOCM-^r-ir-^ 

^>(^^cD'9<<•oocnlCco(^JOQOo-H 

G^  lO  00  O  O  X)  ^  LO  O  1.0  •<»<  C^J  l>  tx 

I— i(?li— i  T— Ir- 1  1— irHi— if^i-H 


CO  O!  LO  (>?  CO  LO  10  "O  CD  O  O  00  o  c^ 
1^  CO  C^  lO  »^  10  iCO  (t^  CO  CI  ^  T-(  05  ^ 
l^OOJ^t^(r!XCOOO>lOT)<0^ 
1-i  ■^  OJ  r-l  --<  1-*  1-i  (7J  (7l(7J  (^{         rH  1-1 

oi  1^  o  o  o  i-<  r^  c^  o  Cj  -1  *>.  lO  00  Fco 
cot-OTfCjcrjcQCiXrHioii^ooco  (m 
o  ira  (>}  1-1  c  c;  c^  lo  o  ■v  lO  c^  j>  t>.      --i 

I— l<Mr— ll— 1^^  1— It— ll— ll— li— (  t>. 


'OX  japun  g  aAoqy 


CD  a 

O  CD 
i-(C^ 

"!J<   lO 


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LO'*ooi>.ciOJi>.iOTt<cic^ 
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o  ~ 
Olio 


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l-K^Jl-li-lrH'^l^CJ 


CO  ro ! 

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CC  I* 
lO  (>! 
L.0  O 


O  O  i-^  -q"  "O 
Ci  CO  CO  rt  lO- 


CO  rt  I^  o 
^  ^  1^  --O  CO 
">  'I"  o  ^ 


rA  n  T-t  r-l  1^  —  -r- Ol  '7-}  Oi  Oi         t-,i-i 


be  O 


*;  rf     — 


c4: 


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3    5    O 


-Pi 

--;   te    ci   3 


34 


a 

C 

o 
o 

O 
CO 
00 


O 

OS 
W 
Oh 

o 

p5 
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o 

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Total. 

CT  "  -.s  -.o  t>.  Ci  i^  c:  i>  r:  —  -^  ira  « 

-^  -<  CO  rr  CQ  GO  I.-  -.^  ■:=  c^  r:  r-:  l;^  C-. 
•v^ 0_ --i, ITT, cr^ •C^ — ^  =;__  —  7 »^ -r^  r.  r-^ o_ 

of  — "  c^"  cT  go"  t>r  co~  — r  — '  — r  x"  ■^'  -n-"  '3>~ 

CO 
o 

•spjTi.wdn  puB  OCT  JO 

«„(>,    ^    -,           j 

CO 

•OOl-tapunncjo 

:c  f^  —  -^  -v  i^  tN  u-r  00  ;~.  ■—  '—  X  00 

"* 

% 

•CQ  japun  9g  jq 

GOC-.  -*c•^c::^:?ccoococ;«l^ 

O  LO  •«?  OJ  C>J  t^  —  —  S  M  -^  1-1  OD  lO 

!— 1                                          — .   1— 1   ^<   1—1   t-l 

CO 

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cr.  i^-<*'Ojcoi-iMOOMw«'3>i^ 

X 
CQ 

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1—1 

t^giapun  01  JO 

CT  c;  •*  c:  •?!  •-o  rt  C-.  i.c  «5  o  co  '^  oo 
c  •x  r:  o  t^  iS  M  ~j  C-.  c  i^  CO  m  00 

§ 
s 

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COtTJ—i             <r.  CJCQrHCOCN        SQr-< 

i 

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^ 
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in 

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CO                 1-H 

1^ 

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CO  -^  -^  CO  O  l^  X  t^  r-  C.  i-l 
X  COtI      -         UO  CO  r-1         CQ 

X 
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CQ 

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=-.  n  O  lO  CQ  C:  CQ  X  1-1  = 
J>.  CQ  1-1              CO  CO  >^        CQ 

3 

CQ 

•gg  japun  9C  JO 

OCXuOlOi-iiCiOCQCQ 
CJ  ^  (N             00  -C"  OJ        CO 

CO 
X 
00 

•()i:  japun  x-gjo 

CQ  CO  S  —  t^  -1  rt  CO  -q-  LO        CQ  1-1 
O  CO  CO  —4        l^  1.0  CO        •»9" 

iIO 
CO 

•fr.  Japan  oiJO 

CO  CQ  C>1        CO  «                               — 

25 

•sji!0.{  o[  japufi 

"  - 

.c 

Names  of 
Counties. 

Bergen 

Essex 

Morris 

Sussex 

Warren 

Somerset 

Middlesex 

Hunterdon 

Burlington 

Monmouth 

Gloucester 

Cape  May 

Salem 

Cumberland 

35 


CENSUS,  1830  (continued). 


WHITE  PERSONS 

SLAVES  &COLOURED 

INCLUDED    IN 

THE    FOREGOING. 

Included  in  the  foregoing. 

u 

O  lO 

a 

Um 

QJ  LO 

o 

01 

>  OJ 

> 

o 

>ot 

> 

-a 

o 

o 

-3 

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JO 

3 

C3     o 

C3 

d 

o 

a 

^ 

-='2 

J3 

J3 

-3  -3 

^ 

S 

""    3 

s 

S 

3    C 

5  = 

3 

3    "^ 

= 

3 

3 

Names  of  Counties. 

Q  « 

— 1  -3 

Q  ^ 

a    m 

Q^ 

Q  a; 

"a   cs 

■^  s  ^ 

-3    n 

'3    5 

^     5    r^ 

■O    ra 

c  S 

c  «  £ 

E    Oi 

C     01 

C    C3     to 

C      Q) 

rt  >, 

rt        n 

CO    >-, 

m 

3     >, 

"                CO 

CO    p^ 

"—  .rt. 

1*.  Tf     0) 

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CO  T-i     >v 
0) 

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Q 

Q 

Q 

5 

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Q 

Q 

Q 

s 

Bergen 

6 

2 

2 

12 

213 

3 

5 

Essex 

7 

1] 

9 

22 

1176 

1 

Morris 

2 

6 

12 

11 

497 

2 

1 

1 

1 

Sussex 

1 

2 

3 

14 

89 

Warren 

o 

2 

1 

12 

236 

5 

2 

Somerset 

4 

4 

6 

17 

118 

3 

Middlesex 

5 

4 

3 

7 

174 

3 

Hunterdon 

11 

11 

12 

19 

210 

2 

Burlington 

5 

7 

8 

41 

129 

1 

1 

2 

Monmouth 

8 

5 

G 

14 

81 

1 

1 

Gloucester 

11 

13 

'5 

22 

357 

2 

Cape  May 

1 

Salem 

2 

2 

2 

7 

8 

Cumberland 

1 

3 

7 

27 

64 

71 

72 

205 

3365 

5 

2 

8 

22 

\ 


36  GENERAL  DESCRIPTION. 

The  vice  of  slavery  was  early  introduced  into  the  State,  and  took  deep  root,  par- 
ticularly, in  the  eastern  portion.  In  the  county  of  Bergen,  in  1790,  the  slaves 
amounted  to  near  one-fifth  of  the  population;  and  in  Essex,  Middlesex,  and  Mon- 
mouth, they  were  very  numerous,  the  counties  having  most  Dutch  population  being 
most  infected.  In  the  counties  settled  by  "  Friends,"  Burlington,  Gloucester,  Sa- 
lem, Cumberland,  and  Cape  May,  there  were,  comparatively,  few  slaves:  the  first,  at 
that  period,  had  only  227 :  the  second,  191 ;  the  third,  120  ;  and  the  last,  141.  The 
whole  number  in  the  State  was  then,  11,423.  At  the  subsequent  census,  the  num- 
ber had  increased  to  12,422.  The  small  increase  of  999,  in  ten  years,  proves  that 
the  inhabitants,  generally,  had  discovered  the  moral  and  physical  evils  of  slavery, 
and  had  applied  themselves  to  diminish  them.  This  became  more  apparent  by  the 
act  of  1.5  Feb.  1804,  entitled  "  An  Act  for  the  gradual  Abolition  of  Slavery,"  under 
which  the  number  of  slaves  was  reduced,  in  1810,  to  10,851;  and  in  1820,  to 
7,557.  This  act  is  supplied  by  the  act  of  24th  February,  1820,  which  embraces 
and  extends  its  principles,  and  provides,  that  every  child,  born  of  a  slave,  within 
the  State,  since  the  4th  of  July,  1804,  or  which  shall  be  thereafter  born,  shall  be 
free;  but  shall  remain  the  servant  of  the  owner  of  the  mother,  as  if  it  had  been 
bound  to  service  by  the  overseers  of  the  poor;  if  a  male,  until  the  age  of  25  ;  if  a 
female,  to  the  age  of  21  years:  that  the  owner  shall,  within  9  months  after  the  birth 
of  such  child,  deliver  to  the  clerk  of  the  county,  a  certificate,  subscribed  by  him, 
containincr  the  name  and  addition  of  the  owner;  the  name,  age  and  sex  of  the  child, 
and  the  name  of  the  mother;  which  certificate,  whether  delivered  before  or  after 
the  nine  months,  must  be  recorded  by  the  clerk.  The  owner  neglecting  to  file  such 
certificate,  witiiin  the  nine  months,  is  liable  to  a  fine  of  five  dollars,  and  the  sum 
of  one  dollar  per  month  afterward  ;  but  not  exceeding  in  the  whole  $100,  to  any 
one  suing  therefor,  one  half  to  the  prosecutor,  and  the  other  half  to  the  poor  of  the 
township;  and  for  delivering  a  certificate  containing  a  false  relation  of  the  time  of 
the  birth  of  such  child,  $100,  recoverable  in  the  same  manner:  one-half  in  favour 
of  the  child,  and  the  other,  of  the  township.  The  time  of  birth  may  be  inquired 
into,  notwithstanding  the  certificate. 

The  traffic  in  slaves,  between  this  and  other  states,  was  prohibited  by  the  act  of 
14th  March,  1798,  and  by  act  of  1820,  last  recited,  under  the  forfeiture  of  ves- 
sels, and  severe  penalties  on  persons  concerned  therein.  But  slaves  may  still  be 
brought  into  the  State,  by  persons  removing  thereto,  with  a  view  to  settled,  or 
temporary  residence  ;  during  the  stay  of  the  master  only,  in  the  latter  case.  By 
these  acts,  also,  the  manumission  of  slaves  was  permitted  under  certain  formalities 
therein  preseribed.  And  such  has  been  the  beneficial  operation  of  these  provisions, 
that  in  1830,  the  State  contained  2,254  slaves  only;  the  counties  of  Gloucester 
and  Cumberland,  none;  the  county  of  Cape  May,  2;  and  Salem,  1.  So  that  it 
is  probable,  that  in  another  20  years,  this  pest  will  be  entirely  eradicated  from  the 
State. 

We  may  remark,  as  a  curious  fact,  and  one  that  may  prove  most  encouraging  to 
the  southern  states,  in  an  attempt  at  the  abolition  of  slavery,  that  the  coloured  po- 
pulation, under  the  system  of  manumission  adopted  by  this  State,  has  increased  in 
40  years  only,  about  44  per  cent,  including  the  free  and  the  slaves ;  whilst  the  whites 
have  increased  in  the  ratio  of  nearly  75  per.  cent.  In  considering  this  subject,  it 
must  be  observed,  on  one  hand,  that  the  coloured  population  has  uniformly  been 
treated  with  humanity  and  indulgence ;  and  upon  the  other,  that  the  great  cities 
have  absorbed  a  portion  of  their  increase.  But  yet,  the  white  population  of  the 
State  has  been  kept  down  in  a  much  greater  degree  by  emigration.  Indeed,  New 
Jersey  has  received  a  large  and  unwelcome  increase  of  coloured  population  from  the 
fugitive  slaves  of  Delaware,  Maryland,  and  the  southern  states. 

To  complete  our  view  of  the  physical  condition  of  the  State,  we  annex  a  table, 
framed  from  abstracts  returned  by  the  assessors  of  the  several  counties,  showing  the 
species  and  the  amount  of  taxable  property,  and  the  amount  of  tax  raised  for  state, 
county  and  township  purposes.  The  returns  from  several  counties  have  not  been 
as  full  as  they  should  have  been,  for  our  purpose;  particularly,  in  respect  to  town- 
ship charges;  and  we  have  been  compelled,  in  some  cases,  to  estimate  the  amount 
of  road  and  poor  tax,  in  some  townships,  by  the  ratio  of  population  compared  with 
that  of  others. 


w 

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g 

•0E8I  'uoiiBindoj 

22,412 
31,107 
4,936 
14,093 
41,911 
28,431 
31,060 
23,1.57 
29,233 
23,666 
14,155 
17,689 
20,346 
18,627 

Si 

•xBxamig 

3 

a 

2,631.43 
4,607.12 
64601 
1,586.18 
3,822.04 
3,379.26 
4,535  84 
3,253.26 
3,723.68 
3,171.23 
2,156.60 
2,642.86 
2,025.70 
2,185.50 

40,-366.71 

•iBX  Xjnnoo 

"o 

O 

5,000 

15,000 
2,000 
4,115 

10,000 
9,99:i 

10,000 
4,000 

11,769 
7,100 
7,00(1 
6,000 
5,475 
6,714 

tc 
o 

H 
a, 

la 
c 
o 

c 
o 

Dolls. 
100 

766 
500 

1366 

Road. 

Dolls. 

600 

• 

1,650 
4,000 
13,800 
1,5,100 
8,300 
3,600 
9,646 
10,900 
4,620 
5,837 
8,600 
6,146 

QD, 

(£'q 

500 
450 
125 
150 
261 
993 
850 
850 
650 
650 
076 
476 
400 
700 

c^ 

c) «  ^MCi'J'Oio'.sm're^mio 

CO 

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■sngpug  1|0J,  pun  s.iuiaj     cc  cn      c.      .^  u=  <..          "          -      - 

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puT,   'suoiaBirj    'satp«nr, 

-r«aaPUG'sa,,„ns'sa.m,o     "'^         '- =^  °^  ■"      ■■<^'<«             5: 

■sos.oHpn;S    =2     ---g22S?SS^?,     1 

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•saiiiqaBi'j  SiiipjEQ     3;i;^'~'"'^rt'~S^^  — ti^  j« 

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lO              —  MO*        «                                '^     1    S 

■saijoiaE  ,1  uoi 

o^       g!'»-    ^"^             I'i? 

■sa.ujag,o,jiS"     -     S             5         ^-      1 

•saoRnjn  J  1 '^ '^     -^  "^  *         ""-^         "         ?j 

■smiv  sunnis  P"ii  ■■'i"ll"H  1              "•"'                 -"                     ".2 

•s|M,v-I.M     --         =i                 -                     ?. 

•siiuv.-u.lin.q      ^  -      -  -  -  £      ^  2  -  -  <- c>.      ."^ 

■s„,WM^S     §*S5^55.-?=.?^PS?S?5      1 

■S9uoigjoan.i_si|!ivis!i0     5  ?;  "^  5  ^  i3  ,?  ?  t;  ig  j?S '£  3     g 

■siapBJx  puB  siuBnaiai\[     SSSiSooSSoodirffiioK     ft 

•saiqBXEX 

5,796 
6,549 
1,000 
2,742 
8,100 
5,600 
6,000 
6,000 
6,000 
4,836 
3,092 
3,500 
3,611 
3,489 

66,315 

•uan  aiSuig 

c^  '.I  X  c^  r;i  X  r:  I  -  r-.  CO  ^  .-^  c^  ^ 
C^  ~  GO  C^  —  i-  (-  t-  o  "*  en  CJ  -**  ^ 

00 

•sjap[oqasnojj 

1,262 
3,2.56 
669 
774 
3,370 
3,075 

841 
1,385 
1,083 
1,103 

668 
1,075 
1,062 

to 

•S9J0B  01  Japun  puB  jo  sjo^^ 

660 

1,86: 

188 

475 

3,316 

1,113 

1,167 

1,143 

786 

437 

254 

196 
132 

•pUE^ 

paAoiduiiun  jo  sajay 

108,766 

123,524 

59,.52S 

209,380 

205,913 

6,272 
127,505 

58,989 

135,555 
89,356 

•Bajay  JO  jaqiun^  WX 

267,500 
553,0I)J 
161,500 
335,460 
154,680 
713,.320 
324,572 
217,000 
665,000 
292,900 
204,936 
189,800 
352,300 
224,360 

tc" 

s 

Names  of 
Counties. 

Bergen    .    . 
Burlington   . 
Cape  May   . 
Cumberland 
Essex      .    . 
Gloucester  . 
Hunterdon   . 
Middlesex    . 
Monmouth  . 
Morris     .     . 
Salem      .     . 
Somerset 
Sussex    .     . 
Warren  -     - 

37 


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88  GENERAL  DESCRIPTION. 

XI.  It  will  be  seen  by  reference  to  the  preceding  table,  that  the  State  is,  in  the 
aggregate,  agricultural ;  and  such  is  the  character  of  all  the  counties,  except  Es- 
sex, part  of  Bergen,  and  part  of  Morris.  The  glass  and  iron  manufactures  of  the 
counties  of  Burlington,  Gloucester,  and  Cumberland,  are  not  sufficient  to  exempt 
them  from  this  classification.  Of  the  agricultural  products  of  the  several  por- 
tions, we  have  already  spoken,  and  will  observe,  only,  generally,  here,  that  the 
valleys  of  the  two  northern  sections  are  well  adapted  to  wheat,  and  that  under  the 
improved  mode  of  culture  they  may  become  equally  productive  with  any  lands  east 
of  the  mountains.  The  southern  district,  composed  of  the  alluvial  country,  is  pro- 
ductive, chiefly  of  corn,  rye,  fruits,  grass,  and  vegetables;  and  sends  to  market 
large  quantities  of  pork,  cured  in  a  manner  that  can  scarcely  be  surpassed.  New 
Jersey  hams,  bacon,  and  barrelled  pork,  bear  the  highest  prices  in  all  markets.  Nor 
is  the  reputation  of  the  farmers  of  this  district,  much  less  for  their  beef,  and  espe- 
cially for  their  veal.  Its  gardens  and  orchards  supply  the  Philadelphia  markets  with 
the  best  fruits.  Indeed  the  wliole  state  is  remarkable  for  the  abundance  and  quality 
of  its  peaches  and  apples,  and  tlie  quantity  of  cider,  and  brandy  made  from  the  lat- 
ter. Notwitlistanding  the  influence  of  Temperance  Societies  upon  distilling, 
and  it  has  been  confessedly  great,  there  are  yet  in  the  Slate  38S  cider  distilleries. 
The  counties  of  Burlington,  Gloucester,  Monmouth,  Hunterdon,  Warren,  and  Sus- 
sex, are  renowned  for  the  number  and  quality  of  the  horses  which  thej^  breed. 

Yet,  notwithstanding  this  agricultural  character  of  the  State,  she  claims  no  mean 
rank  in  manufactures.  By  the  preceding  table,  28  furnaces  are  given;  but  12  of 
these,  only,  we  believe,  are  blast  furnaces,  employed  in  making  iron  from  the  ore; 
the  remainder  are  cupola  furnaces,  used  in  the  reduction  of  pig  and  other  metal  to 
castings.  Tlie  furnaces  of  New  Jersey,  by  the  report  of  the  committee  of  the  ta- 
riff" convention,  holden  in  New  York,  October,  1831,  produced  in  1830.  1,671  tons 
of  pig  iron,  and  5,615  tons  of  castings;  and  her  108  forges,  3000  tons  of  bar  iron. 

The  first  valued  at  $30  the  ton,  yields $50,130 

The  second,  at  $60, 336,900 

The  third,  at  $90  the  ton,     -         - 270,000 

Making         .  .         .  .       $657,030 


for  her  manufacture  of  iron  in  pigs,  castings  and  bars.  This  iron,  however,  is  fur- 
ther improved  in  value  by  the  aid  of  10  rolling  and  slitting  mills,  16  cupola  furnaces, 
and  the  extensive  machine  shops  of  Patterson.  And  we  shall  not,  we  presume, 
underrate  the  annual  value  of  the  iron  manufacture  of  the  State,  when  we  state  it 
at  one  million  of  dollars;  all  of  which  is  obtained  from  her  mines,  her  forests,  and 
her  labour,  not  one  cent  of  foreign  matter  entering  into  the  composition. 
There  are  in  tlie  State, 

1  flint  glass  manufactory,  'producing  annually,  ....  $80,000 

12  glass  houses,  employed  On  hollow  ware  and  window  glass,  estimated 

each  to  produce  annually  $30,000, 360,000 

440,000 
And  1  delf  ware  establishment,   whose  product  may  exceed  $  -  50,000 

$490,000 

Beside  several  extensive  clay  potteries. 

We  may  set  down,  tlierefore,  the  annual  product  of  glass  and  potter}'  ware  at  full 
half  a  million. 

Of  the  25  woollen  manufactories  most  are  small;  and  having  no  data  for  determin- 
ing their  respective  products,  we  conjecturally  average  them  at  ,*!10,000  per  annum. 

From  the  Abstracts  of  the  Assessors,  we  obtain  but  45  cotton  manufactories  in  the 
State;  but  the  Committee  of  the  New  York  Convention,  of  1831,  return  51 — of 
which  they  give  the  following  interesting  results  : 

Capital  employed  $2,027,644  Pounds  of  cloth  1,877,418 

Number  of  spindles  62,979  Males  employed  2,151 

Number  of  power-looms  815  Wages  per  week,  each  ,$6  00 

Pounds  of  3'arn  sold  3,212,184  Females  employed  3,070 

Yards  of  cloth  5,133,776  Wages  per  week,  each  $1   90 


NORTHERN  DIVISION.  39 

Children  under  ]  2  years  of  age           217      Bushels  of  charcoal  820 

Wages  per  week,  each                       $1   40      Gallons  of  oil  13,348 

Pounds  of  cotton  used                 5,832,204      Value  of  other  articles  18,208 

Bbls.  of  flour,  for  sizing                         975      Spindles  building  11,000 

Cords  of  wood                                           671      Hand  weavers  1,060 

Tons  of  coal                                           1,007      Total  dependants  12,750 

The  price  of  the  raw  material,  viz.  5,832,204  lbs.  at  11  cts.  was  $641,542 

Price  of  yarn  sold,  3,212,184  lbs.  at  30  cts.  the  lb.  average,  was     $963,655 
Price  of  cloth,  5,133,776  yards,  at  15  cts.  770,066 

Gross  return  of  cotton  manufacture  $1,733,721 


The  six  calico  bleaching  and  printing  establishments,  belong  to  the  cotton  manu- 
facture. Some  of  these,  as  at  Patterson,  Belleville,  and  Rahway,  are  very  exten- 
sive, but  we  have  not  the  means  to  give  their  results. 

The  four  machine  factories  at  Patterson  alone,  employ  above  400  hands  ;  and  the 
Phoenix  Manufacturing  Company,  in  addition  to  their  cotton  establishment,  have 
1,616  spindles  employed  in  spinning  flax,  consuming  493,000  lbs.,  and  employing 
196  hands.  The  flax  is  manufactured  into  duck  and  bagging.  In  the  cotton  esta- 
blishment of  Mr.  John  Colt,  there  were  manufactured  in  1831-2,  460,000  yards  of 
cotton  duck. 

The  29  paper  mills  produce  large  returns.  Some  of  these  mills,  as  at  Patterson, 
Springfield,  Mount  Holly,  &c.  are  built  on  the  best  models,  and  employ  the  most 
improved  macPiinery. 

The  manufacture  of  leather  from  the  hide  into  the  various  articles  of  its  use,  is 
very  extensively  conducted.  There  are  2,876  tan  vats  ;  and  the  fabric  of  ahoes, 
boots  and  harness,  gives  employment  and  wealth  to  many  individuals  in  Newark, 
Bloomfield,  Rahway,  Burlington,  &c.  &c. ;  and  its  product  forms  a  large  item  in  the 
exports  of  the  commonwealth.  Hats  and  clothing  for  the  southern  market,  are  also 
made  in  the  first  three  towns  last  mentioned;  and,  also,  in  large  quantities  in  the 
thriving  village  of  Plainfield. 

Coaches,  cabinetware  and  chairs,  form  also  large  articles  of  export  both  from  East 
and  West  Jersey,  from  Camden,  and  from  Newark  and  Rahway. 

Unfortunately,  we  do  not  possess  the  means  of  giving  in  detail,  or  in  gross,  the 
results  of  many  of  these  valuable  branches  of  business;  for  we  want,  in  relation  to 
this  state,  the  usual  data  for  determining  the  quantum  of  surplus  production,  which 
an  account  of  her  exports  would  afford.  Her  whole  foreign  trade,  and  the  far 
greater  proportion  of  her  domestic  business,  centers  in  New  York  and  Philadelphia, 
to  swell  the  business  tables  of  these  two  great  marts.  But  we  are  assured  that,  from 
Rahway  alone,  the  amount  furnished  to  the  general  coasting  trade  is  not  less  than  a 
million  of  dollars  annually  ;  whilst  the  products  of  the  manufactures  of  Belleville 
and  its  vicinity,  are  valued  at  2,000,000,  and  those  of  Patterson  at  more  than  double 
that  amount.  By  the  treasury  report  of  1832,  the  whole  tonnage  was  573  90.100, 
registered,  and  32,499  24.100,  enrolled  and  licensed.  And  the  whole  amount  of 
exports,  foreign  and  domestic,  $11,430;  but  of  the  tonnage  of  the  State,  5,000  are 
said  to  be  enregistered  in  the  New  York  districts. 

We  confess,  that  the  view  we  have  thus  given  of  the  condition  of  the  State  is  very 
imperfect;  but  it  suffices  to  show,  that,  in  agriculture,  in  manufactures,  in  the  great 
improvements  by  canals  and  rail-roads,  she  nobly  maintains  a  course  of  emulation 
with  her  great  adjacent  sister  states.  By  the  Morris  and  Raritan  Canals,  and  by  the 
rail-way  of  the  Trenton  Falls  Company,  new  and  great  acquisitions  of  water  power 
for  machiney  have  been  attained,  with  increased  facilities  of  communication  with  the 
best  markets ;  and  there  remain  unemployed  upon  the  mountain  streams,  now  cheaply 
accessible,  a  vast  number  of  mill  sites,  among  which  we  may  mention  those  at  Bel- 
videre  and  Clinton  as  entitled  to  great  attention.  The  Musconetcong  river  through- 
out its  course  may  also  be  profitably  employed,  since  ready  communication  may  be 
had  with  the  Morris  Canal  from  ail  points.  The  upper  falls  of  the  Passaic,  the 
waste  waters  of  the  Rockaway,  the  Pequannock  and  Ramapo  Rivers,  will  all,  pro- 
bably, be  brought  into  use  by  the  improvements  already  made  and  projected.  Her 
mines,  her  limestones,  her  marbles,  her  marls,  nay  her  very  sands  and  clay,  will  be 
shortly  all  better  known  and  more  highly  valued,  and  will  greatly  increase  her 
wealth ;  her  copper  profusely  scattered  over  a  large  area,  accessible  as  any  in  tha 


40  GENERAL  DESCRIPTION. 

world ;  her  inexhaustible  and  unsurpassed  beds  of  iron  ;  her  stupendous  veins  of 
zinc  will,  at  no  distant  day,  give  employment  te  additional  thousands  of  intelligent 
and  contented  labourers,  and  instead  of  pouring  forth  her  population  to  fertilize, 
eniich,  and  bless  other  lands,  she  will  give  to  her  sons  full  employment,  and  the 
means  of  wealth,  within  her  own  limits.  Already  has  tlie  reflux  of  population  com- 
menced. Newark,  Patterson,  Bloomfield,  Trenton,  Boonton  and  Rahway,  will,  in 
ten  years,  have  doubled  their  population;  and  New  Jersey  will,  we  believe,  at  the 
census  of  1840,  have  increased  her  inhabitants  in  a  ratio  equal  to  that  of  any  of  the 
original  states ;  and  among  the  stars  which  form  the  bright  constellation  of  the 
Union,  though  small,  she  will  not  be  the  least  brilliant. 

Climate. — It  is  supposed  that  the  climate  of  our  country  has  undergone,  and  is 
still  undergoing,  a  material  change;   that  thunder  and  lightning  are  less  frequent; 
the  cold  of  our  winters,  and  heat  of  our  summers,  less,  and  more  variable  ;  the  springs 
colder,  and  the  autumns  more  temperate.      It  is  possible,  but  we  think  doubtful,  that 
the  variability  of  the  climate  has  increased;  but  the  average  severity  of  heat  and 
cold  has  not  been  diminished.   The  following  description  of  the  weather,  by  a  settler 
of  East  Jersey,  in  1683,  will   be  recognised  as  true  at  the    present  day.     "  As  for 
the  temperature  of  the  air,  it  is  wonderfully  suited  to  the  humours  of  mankind;  the 
wind  and  weather  rarely  holding  in  one  point,  or  one  kind,  for  ten  days  together.    It 
is  a  rare  thing  for  a  vessel  to  be  windbound  for  a  week  together,  the  wind  seldom 
holding  in  a  point  more  than   48  hours;  and  in  a  short  time  we  have  wet  and  dry, 
warm  and  cold  weather,  which  changes  we  often  desire  in  England,  and  look  for  be- 
fore they  come."*     Alternations  of  cold  and  mild  winters,  of  hot  and  cool  summers, 
of  early  and  late  commencements  of  frosts,  of  drought  and  superabundant  rain,  have 
been  continued,  from  the  earliest  period  to  which  our  knowledge  of  the  country  ex- 
tends.    A  review  of  the  seasons  from   1681,  shows  no  less  than  39  years  in  which 
the  navigation  was  obstructed  by  ice,  in  the   month  of  December.     On  the  10th  of 
that  month,  1678.  the  good  ship  The  Shield,  moored  to  a  tree  before  the  town  of  Bur- 
lington ;  and,  on  the  following  morning,  her  passengers  walked  to  the  shore  upon  the 
ice,  so  hard  had  the  river  suddenly  frozen.     In  1681,  December   10th,  the  Bristol 
Factor  arrived  at  Chester;  and,  on  the  next  day,  her  passengers,  also,  went  on  shore 
on  the  ice.     On  the  19th  December,  1740,  the  navigation  was  stopped,  and  the  river 
remained  closed  until  the  13th  March.     In  1790,  it  closed  on  the  8th,  and  in  1797, 
on  the  1st  of  that  month.     In  1831,  rigorous  cold  weather  began  in  November  ;  and 
the  Delaware  was  frozen  fast  on  the   7th   December.     In  1780,  in  the  month  of 
January,  the  mercury  stood,  for  several  hours,  at  5°  below  0,  F. ;  and,  during  the 
month,  except  on  one  night,  never  rose  in  the  city  of  Philadelphia  to  the  freezing 
point.      In  1817,  February  7,  the  water  froze  in  most  of  the  hydrant  plugs,  and  some 
of  the  street  mains,  in  that  city.     The  earliest  notice  we  Jiave  seen  of  tlie  weather, 
on  the  shores  of  the  Delaware,  is  in  the  Journal  of  De  Vries.      He  left  the  Texel  on 
the  12th  December,  1630,  and  arrived   in  the  Delaware  at  the  close  of  January,  or 
commencement  of  February,  the  period  of  our  coldest  weather ;  when,  unimpeded 
by  the  season,  which  he  reports  as  so  mild  that  his  men  could  work  in  the  open  air, 
in   their   shirt   sleeves,  he    erected,    on   Lewis's    Creek,    the   fortress    of  Oplandt. 
The  winter  of  1788-9,  was  also  uncommonly  mild;  but  there  was  ice  sufficient  to 
obstruct  the  navigation.     On  the  22d  March,  the  orchards  were   in  full  bloom,  and 
the  meadows  as  green  as  ordinarily  in  the  month  of  June  ;  but,  on  the  23d,  snow  fell 
two  feet  deep,  destroying  nearly  all  the  fruits  of  the  year.      In  1827-8,  the  naviga- 
tion of  the  Delaware  was  altogether  unobstructed.      The  atmosphere  was  filled  with 
dense  fog,  in   the  months  of  December,  January  and   February  ;   during  which,  in- 
cluding days  when  the  sun  was  apparent  for  some  hours,  there  were  not  more   than 
17  days  of  clear  weather.      By  a  table  for  January,  during  20  years,  from   1807  to 
1827,  the  mean  temperature  of  the  month  varied  from  42^  to  27"^;  and  the  mean  of 
the  whole  period  was  39°  of  Fahrenheit. 

There  are  seldom  more  than  from  20  to  30  days,  in  summer,  in  which  the  mercury 
rises  above  80^,  or,  in  winter,  falls  below  30°.  The  warmest  part  of  the  day  is  from 
2  to  3  o'clock  ;  from  which  time  the  heat  gradually  diminishes  until  the  ensuing 
morning.  The  coldest  part  of  the  four-and-twenty  hours  is  at  the  break  of  day. 
There  are  seldom  more  than  three  or  four  nights  of  the  summer,  in  which  the  heat 
of  the  air  is  nearly  the  same,  as  in  the  preceding  day.  After  the  hottest  days,  the 
evenings  are  generally  agreeable,  and  often  delightful.     The  higher  the  mercury 

*  Smith's  N.  J.  169. 


NORTHERN  DIVISION.  41 

rises  in  the  day,  the  lower  it  falls  the  succeeding  night.  From  80°,  it  commonly 
falls  to  66°;  but  from  60°  only  to  50~^.  This  disproportion  between  the  temperature 
of  the  day  and  night,  in  summer,  is  always  greatest  in  the  month  of  August,  when 
the  dews  are  heavy  in  proportion  to  tlie  coolness  of  the  evening.  They  are  some- 
times so  considerable  as  to  wet  the  clothes;  and  marsh  meadows  and  creeks,  drained 
by  tlie  heat,  Jiave  been  supplied  with  their  usual  water  from  this  source,  in  this  month 
and  the  first  weeks  of  September.  Tlie  violent  heats  of  summer  seldom  continue 
more  than  two  or  three  days,  without  intermission.  They  are  generally  broken  by 
showers  of  rain,  sometimes  accompanied  by  thunder  and  lightning,  and  succeeded 
by  a  north-west  wind,  which  produces  an  agreeable  and  invigorating  coolness  in 
the  air. 

The  warmest  weather  is  generally  in  July  ;  but  intensely  hot  days  are  often  felt 
in  May,  June,  August  and  September,  and  the  mean  heat  of  August  has  been 
greater  than  that  of  July.  The  transitions  from  heat  to  cold  are  often  sudden,  and 
sometimes  to  very  distant  degrees.  After  a  day  in  which  the  mercury  has  been  at 
86"^  and  even  at  DO"^,  it  has  fallen  in  the  course  of  a  single  night  to  60",  and  fires 
have  been  found  necessary  the  ensuing  morning,  especially  if  the  change  in  the 
temperature  of  the  air  has  been  accompanied  by  rain  and  a  S.  E.  wind.  In  a  sum- 
mer month,  the  mercury  has  been  known  to  fall  20°  in  an  hour  and  a  half.  There 
are  few  summer  months  in  which  fires  are  not  agreeable  in  some  part  of  them. 
Mr.  Rittenhouse  informed  Dr.  Rush,  that  there  was  not  a  summer  during  his  resi- 
dence in  the  country,  in  which  he  did  not  discover  frost  in  every  month. 

The  weather  is  equally  variable  during  the  winter.  The  mercury  has  fallen  from 
37  to  4^"  below  0  in  24  hours.  In  this  season,  nature  seems  frequently  to  play  at 
cross-purposes.  Heavy  falls  of  snow  are  often  succeeded  by  a  thaw,  which,  in  a 
short  time,  wholly  dissolves  them.  The  rivers  are  frozen  sufficiently  hard  to  bear 
horses  and  carriages,  and  thawed  so  as  to  be  navigable,  several  times  in  the  course 
of  the  winter.  Ice  is  commonly  formed  gradually,  and  seldom  until  the  rivers  have 
been  chilled  with  snow.  Yet,  sometimes  its  production  is  sudden,  and  the  Dela- 
ware has  frequently  been  frozen  over  in  a  night,  ro  a.q  to  bear  the  weight  of  a  man. 
In  the  alluvial  district  of  New  Jersey,  frost  and  ice  appear  in  the  latter  end  of 
October,  or  beginning  of  November.  But  intense  cold  is  rarely  felt,  until  about 
Christmas.  Hence  the  vulgar  saying,  "as  the  day  lengthens,  the  cold  strengthens." 
The  coldest  weather  is  from  the  middle  of  January,  to  the  middle  of  February.  As 
in  summer  there  are  often  days  in  which  fires  are  agreeable,  so  in  winter  they  some- 
times are  incommodious.  Vegetation  has  been  observed  in  all  the  winter  months. 
Garlic  was  tasted  in  butter  in  January,  1781 ;  the  leaves  of  the  willow,  the  blossom 
of  the  peach,  and  the  flowers  of  the  dandelion,  were  all  seen  in  February,  1779,  and 
Dr.  Rush  says,  that  60  years  since,  he  saw  an  apple  orchard  in  full  bloom,  and  small 
apples  on  many  of  the  trees  in  the  month  of  December.  In  February,  1828,  we 
gathered  flowers  from  the  unprotected  garden,  and  saw  cattle  cropping  good  pas- 
turage in  the  fields.  A  cold  day  is  often  the  precursor  of  a  moderate  evening.  The 
greatest  degree  of  cold  recorded  in  Philadelphia,  is  5°  below  zero,  and  of  heat  95^ 
F.  The  standard  temperature  of  Southern  Jersey  may  be  52°,  which  is  that  of  our 
deepest  wells  and  the  mean  heat  of  common  spring  water. 

The  spring  is  generally  unpleasant.  In  March,  the  weather  is  stormy,  variable 
and  cold ;  in  April,  and  sometimes  far  in  May,  moist  and  raw.  From  the  variable- 
ness of  the  spring,  vegetation  advances  with  unequal  pace  in  different  seasons. 
The  colder  the  spring,  the  more  favourable  the  prospect  of  fruit.  The  hopes  of  the 
farmer  from  his  fruit-trees,  are,  in  a  warm  spring,  often  blasted  by  frost  in  April  or 
May,  and  sometimes  even  by  snow,  at  a  later  period.  The  colder  the  winter,  the 
greater  is  the  delay  of  the  return  of  spring.  Sometimes  the  weather,  during  the 
spring  months  is  cloudy  and  damp,  attended  occasionally  with  gentle  rain  resem- 
bling the  spray  from  a  cataract. 

June  is  the  only  month  of  the  year  which  resembles  the  spring  in  the  southern 
countries  of  Europe.  Then,  generally,  the  weather  is  temperate,  the  sky  serene, 
and  the  verdure  of  the  country  universal  and  delightful. 

The  autumn  is  the  most  agreeable  season  of  the  year.  The  cool  evenings  and 
mornings,  which  begin  about  the  middle  of  September,  are  attended  with  a  mode- 
rate temperature  of  the  air  during  the  day.  This  kind  of  weather  continues,  with  an 
increase  of  cold  scarcely  perceptible,  till  the  middle  of  October,  when  it  is  closed  by 
rain,  which  sometimes  falls  in  such  quantities  as  to  produce  destructive  freshets;  at 
Others,  in  gentle  showers,  which  continue,  with  occasional  interruption  by  a  few  fair 

F 


42  GENERAL  DESCRIPTION. 

days,  for  two  or  three  weeks.  These  rains  are  the  harbingers  of  winter,  and  the  In- 
dians long  since  taught  us,  that,  the  cold  of  that  season  is  proportionate  to  the  quan- 
tity of  rain  which  falls  during  the  autumn.  From  this  account,  it  is  apparent,  that 
there  are  seldom  more  than  four  months  of  the  year  in  which  the  weather  is  agree- 
able without  fire. 

In  winter  the  winds  generally  come  from  the  N.  W.  in  fair,  and  from  the  N.  E. 
in  foul  weather.  The  N.  W.  winds  are  dry  and  cold.  The  winds,  in  fair  weather 
in  the  spring,  and  in  warm  weatlier  in  the  summer,  blow  from  the  S.  W.  and 
W.  N.W.  The  S.  W.  winds  usually  bring  with  them  refreshing  showers  of  rain  in 
spring  and  summer,  which  moderate  the  heat  when  succeeded  by  a  N.  W.  wind. 
Sometimes  showers  come  from  the  W.  and  N.  W. 

The  moisture  of  the  air  is  said  to  be  greater  than  formerly;  occasioned,  prebably, 
by  the  exhalations  which  fell  in  the  form  of  snow,  now  descending  in  rain.  The 
depth  of  tlie  snow  is  sometimes  between  two  and  three  feet;  in  1S28-9,  it  vvas  near 
four,  but  in  general  it  is  from  six  to  nine  inches.  Hail  frequently  falls  with  snow 
in  the  winter.  At  intervals  of  years,  heavy  showers  of  hail  fall  in  the  spring  and 
summer,  running  commonly  in  veins  from  40  to  50  miles  long,  and  from  half  a  mile 
to  two  miles  in  breadth.  On  such  occasions,  destruction  of  grain,  grass  and  win- 
dows, to  great  value,  is  not  unfrequent.  From  sudden  changes  of  the  air,  rain  and 
snow  often  fall  together,  forming  what  is  commonly  called  sleet.  In  the  northern 
parts  of  the  State,  in  protected  spots,  snow  sometimes  lies  until  the  first  of  April. 
The  backwardness  of  the  spring  has  been  ascribed  to  the  passage  of  the  air  over  the 
ice  and  snow  which  remain,  after  the  winter  months,  on  the  plains  and  waters  of  the 
north-west  country. 

The  dissolution  of  the  ice  and  snow  is  sometimes  so  sudden,  in  the  spring,  as  to 
swell  the  creeks  and  rivers  to  such  a  degree  as  to  lay  waste  the  hopes  of  the  hus- 
bandman, and  in  some  instances  to  sweep  his  barns,  stables,  and  even  his  dwelling 
into  their  currents.  Of  this  power  of  the  flood,  the  years  1784  and  1832,  afford 
memorable  examples.  The  wind,  during  a  general  thaw,  comes  from  the  S.  W.  or 
S.  E. 

The  air,  when  dry,  has  a  peculiar  elasticity,  which  renders  the  heat  and  cold 
less  insupportable  tiian  tlie  same  degrees  of  both  in  moister  countries.  It  is  only 
when  summer  showers  are  not  succeeded  by  N.  W.  winds,  that  the  air  becomes  op- 
pressive by  combination  with  moisture.  With  the  removal  of  the  forest  the  waters 
have  decreased  considerably. 

The  average  quantity  of  water  which  falls  yearly,  is  from  24  to  26  inches,  ac- 
cording to  the  statement  of  Dr.  Rush  :  but  this  would  seem  much  too  small,  since 
a  table  of  20  years,  from  1810  to  1S29,  inclusive,  14  of  which  were  kept  by  P.  Le- 
geaux,  Esq.  at  Springmills,  and  6  at  the  Pennsylvania  Hospital,  give  35.16  inches; 
and  a  table  for  10  years,  ending  1827,  kept  by  Dr.  Darlington,  of  West  Chester, 
gives  49.92.  In  the  first  table,  the  highest  was  43.135  inches,  in  1814;  and  the 
lowest,  23.354,  in  1819.  In  the  last  table  the  highest  was  54.1  inches  in  1824,  and 
the  lowest  39.3  inches  in  1822. 

From  the  foregoing  remarks  we  may  justly  conclude  that,  in  New  Jersey  no  two 
successive  years  are  alike;  that  even  the  successive  seasons  and  months  diflTer  from 
each  other  every  year.  Perhaps  there  is  but  one  steady  trait  in  the  character  of  our 
climate,  and  that  is,  that  it  is  never  steady,  but  uniformly  variable.  The  foregoing 
remarks  apply  generally  to  the  whole  State,  yet  with  some  variation.  Thus,  in  the 
low  flat  country  in  the  alluvial  district,  the  climate  is  warmer  in  winter  and  hotter 
in  summer,  than  in  the  more  northern  and  elevated  lands  of  the  other  sections.  The 
heat  of  the  summer  and  the  cold  of  the  winter  are,  however,  tempered  by  the  wa- 
ters which  bound  it  on  three  sides.  In  summer,  upon  the  ocean  and  bay,  the  sea 
breeze  prevails,  and  with  the  prostration  of  the  forest,  it  finds  its  way  yearly  further 
interior.  As  the  country  north  of  Trenton  rises  in  aerial  height,  as  well  as  in  lati- 
tude, its  temperature  necessarily  decreases  from  both  causes.  The  change,  however, 
is  not  very  considerable  until  we  reach  the  mountains,  where  the  diminution  of  heat 
is  apparent  in  tiie  difl'erence  of  the  seasons.  Vegetation  in  the  spring  is  from  one 
to  two  weeks  later  than  in  the  lower  country,  and  the  approach  of  winter  is  so 
much  earlier.  It  is  to  their  altitude  more  than  latitude,  that  the  mountains  owe  their 
cool  and  invigorating  breezes  which  render  them  attractive  in  the  summer  season. 


43 


PREFATORY  CHAPTER. 

FAUT  II. 

Containing  a  Moral  Vietv  of  the  State. 

Division  of  the  PuUtical  Pmcer  into  Tfiree  Great  Branches. — I.  Legislative  Council  and 
Jissemblij — by  whom  Elected — J^ominations — Form  of  Elections — Legislative  Council 
— hoio  Composed — Powers — Jissemblij — hoic  Constituted — Poicers. — II.  Executive 
Branch — What — Governor — his  Powers  and  Duties — Secretary  of  State — Poicers  and 
Duties — Treasurer — Poicers  and  Duties — Reveiine  and  Expenditures  of  the  State — 
Burden  on  the  Citizens — Attorney  General — Sheriff — Coroner — Officers  of  State  Prison 
— Political  Division  of  Counties  and  Townships — of  Toumship  Officers — Services  in 
Taxation — Relief  of  the  Poor — Making  and  Repairing  Roads — Executive  Duties  of 
County  Clerk — Militia  Syste^n. — III.  Judiciary — Courtsfor  Trials  of  Small  Causes — 
Court  of  Quarter  Sessioiis — Common  Pleas — Orphans'  Court — Supreme  and  Circuit 
Courts — Court  of  Chancery — Court  of  Appeals — Compensation  of  Officers. — IV.  Pro- 
visions  for  Religious,  Moral,  and  Intellectual  Improvement — Religious  Societies — Li- 
terary Institutions  established  by  Individual  Largess — Common  Schools  established 
by  the  State — Publication  of  the  Laics — JYewspapers  in  the  State. 

In  the  organization  of  the  Commonwealth,  the  political  power  here,  as  elsewhere 
in  well  constituted  States,  has  been  divided  into  tJiree  great  branches;  the  Legisla- 
tive, Executive,  and  Judicial.  But,  in  the  existing  constitution,  these  divisions 
have  not  been  well  preserved,  the  first  having  received  tlie  greatei  proportion  of  the 
province  of  the  second,  and  iiaving  the  third  wliolly  dependent  upon  it. 

I.  The  legislative  power  is  vested  in  a  council  and  assembly,  chosen  by  qualified 
electors,  on  the  second  Tuesdny  of  October,  and  the  day  succeeding,  annually.  The 
election  is  then  holden  for  State  officers,  and  on  the  first  Tuesday  of  November,  when 
occasion  requires,  for  members  of  congress  and  electors  of  president  and  vice  president. 
Such  electors  must  be  free  white  citizens,  of  full  age,  who  have  resided  within  the 
county  in  which  they  claim  to  vote,  for  twelve  months  immediately  preceding  the  elec- 
tion, and  who  have  paid  a  tax  or  been  enrolled  on  any  duplicate  list  of  tlie  last  State  or 
county  tax,  and  possess  fifty  pounds,  clear  estate.  But,  from  the  requisite  of  taxation 
or  enrolment,  as  the  case  may  be,  are  exempted  persons  who  may  have  arrived  at  the 
age  of  twenty-one  years  since  the  date  of  tlie  last  duplicate;  persons  removing  from 
the  township  where  they  have  paid  tax,  to  another  in  the  same  county  ;  and  persons 
who  have  been  inadvertently  overlooked  by  the  assessor;  the  names  of  the  last 
being  immediately  entered  upon  the  tax  list.  The  property  qualification,  though 
demanded  by  the  constitution,  has  been  virtually  annulled  by  the  act  of  1st  June, 
1820,  providing  that  every  person  paying  a  State  or  county  tax,  whose  name  shall 
be  enrolled  on  such  duplicate  list,  shall  be  taken  to  be  worth  fifty  pounds  clear  es- 
tate;  and  thus  by  the  omnipotence  of  the  legislature,  things  essentially  different  are 
made  the  same. 

The  electors  vote  only  in  the  township  in  which  they  reside.  An  attempt  to  vote 
a  second  time,  is  punishable  by  a  fine  of  fifty  dollars  to  the  use  of  the  poor,  recover- 
able by  the  overseer  of  the  township.  The  assessor  or  collector  enrollino-  one  under 
age,  or  non-resident  in  the  township,  with  intent  to  admit  him  to  vote,  is  subject  to 
the  penalty  of  ^100  to  the  like  use,  and  recoverable  in  like  manner. 

Such  elections  are  conducted  after  the  following  mode.  The  clerks  of  the  re- 
spective courts  of  Common  Pleas,  attend  at  the  court  house,  on  the  first  Mondays  of 
September,  annually,  to  receive  from  voters,  lists  of  candidates  for  public  suffrage, 
signed  by  the  nominator,  and  transmitted  by  letter  or  delivered  in  person.  From 
these,  the  clerk  makes  a  general  list  of  the  nominees  for  the  several  offices,  a  copy 
whereof  he  sends,  within  a  week  from  the  nomination,  to  the  clerks  of  the  several 
precincts  of  the  county;  and,  in  case  of  nominations  for  congress  or  electors  of  pre- 
sident, a  copy  to  the  governor,  who  transmits  a  copy  of  all  the  nominations  to  the 
clerk  of  every  county,  who  sends  these  also  to  the  township  clerks.  At  the  elec- 
tion, no  vote  can  be  given  unless  for  such  nominee. 

The  precinct  clerks,  by  public  advertisement  fourteen  days  before  that  of  the 
election,  make  known  the  time  and  place  of  holding  it,  and  the  names  of  the  candi- 
dates, when  and  where  the  election  officers,  viz.  the  judge,  assessor,  collector,  and 
town  clerk,  attend.     The  clerk  posts  on  the  door  of  the  house  where  the  election  is 


44  GENERAL  DESCRIPTION. 

holden,  the  list  of  the  nominees,  and  the  other  officers  open  the  polls  at  10  o'clock  of 
the  day.  If  any  one  of  such  officers  be  in  nomination,  he  is  disqualified  from  assist- 
ing at  the  election,  unless  before  its  commencement  he  publicly  decline  ;  and  should 
he  assist,  and  be  elected,  his  election  is  void.  The  town,  clerk,  with  the  approba- 
tion of  his  fellow  officers,  may  appoint  a  substitute;  or,  if  he  be  absent,  dead,  or 
otherwise  disqualified,  and  no  substitute  have  been  appointed,  such  officers  may  no- 
minate a  clerk  for  the  occasion.  Ajad  if  the  judge,  assessor,  or  collector  be  absent 
or  disqualified,  his  place  may  be  filled  by  the  vole^-s  present,  and  the  absentee  is 
subject  to  punishment  by  fine,  unless  he  satisfactorily  excuse  himself  to  the  court  of 
common  pleas.  Malfeasance  by  an  officer  of  the  election,  is  punishable  by  a  fine  of 
$100  for  the  use  of  the  poor.  Each  officer  swears  or  affirms  to  the  faithful  perform- 
ance of  his  duty,  and  may  administer  like  oath  or  affirmation  to  his  fellows.  For  the 
preservation  of  order,  tiie  judge  and  inspectors  may  commit  riotous  or  disorderly 
persons  either  to  the  charge  of  the  constable,  or  to  the  common  gaol  for  any  time 
not  exceeding  twenty-four  hours. 

The  poll  is  open  for  two  days  ;  but  may  be  adjourned  for  short  periods,  as  occasion 
may  require,  in  case  no  voters  appear.  On  the  evening  of  the  first  day,  it  is  closed  at 
9  o'clock;  and  opened  on  the  morning  of  the  2d  at  8  ;  and  is  finally  closed  at  7 
o'clock  of  the  evening  of  the  second  day. 

All  elections,  for  representatives  in  Congress,  electors  of  President  and  Vice- 
President  of  the  United  States,  members  of  council  and  assembly,  sherifl's  and 
coroners,  are  by  ballot,  which  may  be  written  or  printed,  or  partly  both,  and  must 
be  delivered  by  the  voter  to  the  judge  or  either  of  the  inspectors;  and  the  name  of 
such  voter,  being  pronounced,  by  the  officer,  in  an  audible  voice,  and  beino-  unob- 
jected to,  is  entered  upon  the  poll-list,  and  the  ballot  deposited  in  the  ballot-box. 

When  the  poll  is  closed,  the  poll-list  is  signed  by  the  officers,  the  ballots  read, 
registered,  and  filed.  If  there  be  a  greater  number  of  ballots  than  names  on  the 
list,  no  more  ballots  are  enumerated  than  names:  if  two  or  more  ballots  be  folded, 
or  rolled  together,  or  a  ballot  contain  more  names  than  it  ought,  or  otherwise  appear 
to  be  fraudulent,  it  is  rejected,  and  as  many  numbers,  deducted  from  tlie  poll-list 
as  there  are  ballots,  cast  away.  The  number  of  votes  being  ascertained,  the  election 
officers,  or  any  two  of  them,  certify  the  number  for  each  candidate,  after  a  prescribed 
form;  a  duplicate  of  which,  duly  attested,  is  filed  in  the  office  of  the  town  clerk,  with 
the  poll-list;  and  the  original  is  transmitted  to  the  clerk  of  the  pleas,  on  or  before  the 
Saturday,  next  after  the  day  of  election  ;  who  makes  a  list  of  the  votes  for  each  can- 
didate, from  the  several  certificates,  and  ascertains  who  are  duly  elected,  by  a  plu- 
rality of  votes  ;  files  the  certificates  and  list  in  his  office,  and  makes  a  certificate  of 
the  election  of  each  officer,  a  copy  of  whicli,  with  a  copy  of  the  list  filed,  he  trans- 
mits to  the  governor. 

In  case  the  election  be  for  members  of  Congress,  or  electors  of  President,  the 
governor,  within  five  days  of  the  receipt  of  the  list,  before  a  privy  council,  deter- 
mines the  persons  elected,  whom  the  governor  commissions  under  the  seal  of  the 
State. 

In  case  two  or  more  candidates,  nominated  for  council,  assembly,  sheriff,  or  coro- 
ner, have  an  equal  number  of  votes,  there  not  being  a  sufficient  number  having  a 
plurality,  the  county  clerk  proclaims,  by  advertisement,  that  he  will  attend  at  the 
county  court-house,  at  a  day  certain,  to  receive  nominations  of  persons  to  supply  the 
vacancy;  and  the  nomination  and  the  election,  holden  thereon,  are  conducted  in 
the  manner  already  described ;  except  that,  the  nominations  are  made  ten  days,  only, 
previous  to  the  election. 

In  case  of  vacancy  in  the  council,  or  assembly,  the  vice-president  of  council,  or 
speaker  of  the  house,  as  the  case  may  be  ;  or  in  case  there  be  no  vice-president  or 
speaker,  the  governor,  causes  the  vacancy  to  be  filled  ;  unless  it  be  probable  that 
the  services  of  the  member  will  not  be  required  during  the  remainder  of  the  unex- 
pired legislative  year.  But  if  the  board  of  freeholders,  of  the  county  in  wliich  the 
vacancy  happens,  desire  that  the  vacancy  be  filled,  it  is  done  without  delay.  Thus, 
if  a  member  refuse  to  take  his  seat  pursuant  to  his  election,  or  to  send  a  satisfactory 
excuse  witliin  twenty  days  after  the  meeting  of  the  legislature,  die,  remove  from  the 
state,  or  be  expelled,  the  vice-president,  or  speaker,  as  the  case  may  be,  issues  his 
warrant,  to  the  clerk  of  tiie  county,  who  takes  measures  similar  to  those  above  de- 
scribed, for  filling  the  vacancy. 

The  legislative  council  consists  of  the  governor,  who  is  its  perpetual  president, 
having  a  casting  voice  ;  of  a  vice-president  elected  by  the  members,  who  presides  in 


LEGISLATIVE  POWER.  45 

the  absence  of  the  president;  and  a  member  from  each  county,  elected  annually. 
It  has  powers  co-ordinate  with  the  assembly,  except  in  the  preparation  or  alteration 
of  money  bills,  which  is  reserved  to  the  latter.  It  is  convened,  from  time  to  time, 
by  the  governor,  or  vice-president,  and  must  be  convened  at  all  times,  when  the 
assembly  sits  ;  its  members  must  be,  and  have  been,  for  one  whole  year,  next  before 
election,  inhabitants  and  freeholders  in  the  county  for  which  they  are  respectively 
chosen,  and  worth  at  least  one  thousand  pounds  of  real  and  personal  estate,  within 
such  county.  Seven  members  form  a  quorum  for  business.  This  property  qualifi- 
cation, in  practice,  is  scarce  more  respected  than  that  of  the  voters. 

The  assembly  is  composed  of  such  number  of  delegates,  from  each  county,  as  the 
legislature  may,  from  time  to  time,  direct ;  making  together,  not  less  than  thirty- 
nine.  The  delegate  must  be,  and  have  been,  for  one  whole  year  next  before  his 
election,  an  inhabitant  of  the  county  he  represents,  and  worth  five  hundred  pounds, 
in  real  and  personal  estate,  therein.  The  assembly  have  power  to  choose  a  speaker, 
and  other  their  officers;  to  judge  of  the  qualifications  and  election  of  their  own 
members;  sit  on  their  own  adjournments;  prepare  bills  to  be  passed  into  laws;  and 
to  empower  their  speaker  to  convene  the  members  when  necessary. 

No  judge  of  the  Supreme,  or  other  court,  sheriff,  or  person  holding  any  post  of 
profit  under  the  government,  other  than  justices  of  the  peace,  may  sit  in  the  assem- 
bly.    On  the  election  of  such  person  his  office  becomes  vacant. 

On  the  second  Tuesday  next  after  the  day  of  election,  the  council  and  assembly 
meet,  separately,  and  the  consent  of  a  majority  of  all  the  representatives  in  each 
body,  is  requisite  to  the  enactment  of  a  law.  At  their  first  meeting,  after  each  annual 
election,  the  council  and  assembly,  jointly,  by  a  majority  of  votes,  elect  the  governor; 
they  appoint  the  field,  and  general  officers  of  the  militia;  the  judges  of  the  Supreme 
Court  for  seven  years,  the  judges  of  the  inferior  courts  of  Common  Pleas,  justices  of 
the  peace,  clerks  of  the  Supreme  Court,  and  of  the  Common  Pleas  and  Sessions,  the 
attorney  general  and  secretary  of  state,  for  five  years;  and  the  state  treasurer,  for 
one  year;  all  of  whom  are  commissioned  by  the  governor;  are  capable  of  reap- 
pointment, and  are  liable  to  be  dismissed,  when  convicted  by  the  council  on  the  im- 
peachment of  the  assembly.  Each  member  of  council  and  assembly  makes  oath,  that 
he  will  not  assent  to  any  law,  vote,  or  proceeding  which  shall  appear  to  him  injurious 
to  the  public  welfare,  nor  that  shall  annul  or  repeal  that  part  of  the  third  section  of 
the  constitution  which  makes  the  election  of  members  of  the  legislature,  annual ; 
nor  that  part  of  the  twenty-second  section,  which  provides  for  trial  by  jury  ;  nor  the 
eighteenth  and  nineteenth  sections  which  relate  to  religion.  And  such  oath  may 
be  administered  to  the  members  by  any  member  of  the  respective  houses.  The  oath 
of  the  legislators  being  to  preserve  a  part  only  of  the  constitution,  sound  construc- 
tion warrants  the  induction,  that  they  have  a  constitutional  authority  to  change  all 
other  parts  of  that  instrument;  and  thus,  their  power  is  unrestrained,  as  much  as 
that  of  the  British  Parliament,  which  may,  by  a  simple  act  of  legislation,  remodel 
the  State,  as  has  been  lately  done  in  Great  Britain. 

II.  The  executive  power  is  vested  in  the  governor,  secretary  of  state,  treasurer,  the 
attorney  general,  and  county  prosecutors,  and  in  the  officers  of  the  several  town- 
ships, counties,  and  other  precincts,  viz  :  in  the  township  clerks,  assessors,  collectors, 
commissioners  of  appeals,  surveyors  and  overseers  of  the  highways,  pound  keepers, 
overseers  of  the  poor,  judges  of  elections,  township  committees,  and  constables: 
and  in  the  chosen  freeholders  of  the  county,  the  county  clerk,  collector,  sheriff, 
coroners,  and  the  militia. 

By  the  8th  article  of  the  constitution,  the  governor  is  said  to  have  the  supreme 
executive  power;  but  his  executive  duties  are  circumscribed  by  very  narrow  limits 
and  in  their  performance  he  may  be  aided,  perhaps  controlled,  by  any  three  or  more 
of  the  council,  whom  he  is  authorized  to  call  as  his  privy  council.  Before  entering 
on  his  office  he  swears  faithfully  and  diligently  to  execute  his  office,  and  to  promote 
the  peace  and  prosperity,  and  to  maintain  the  lawful  rights  of  the  State  to  the  best 
of  his  ability.  He  is  captain-general,  and  commander-in-chief  of  all  the  militia,  and 
other  military  force  of  the  State,  and  is  by  special  act  of  assembly,  trustee  of  the 
school  fund.  He  is  empowered,  when  the  post  of.  vice  president  of  council,  or 
speaker  of  assembly  is  vacant,  to  cause  vacancies  in  the  respective  chambers  to  be 
filled.  He  may  proclaim  rewards  of  not  more  than  $!300  for  one  offender,  for  the 
apprehension  of  any  person  charged  with  murder,  burglary,  robbery,  or  other  dan- 
gerous outrage  upon  the  person  or  property  of  the  citizen,  for  the  apprehension  of 
their  accessories,  and  for  the  arrest  of  any  unknown  perpetrator  of  such  offences; 


46  GENERAL  DESCRIPTION. 

may  demand  fugitives  from  justice  from  this  State,  and  draw  his  warrant  for  the 
expenses  of  their  reclamation  ;  may  remit  costs  of  prosecution  and  debts  due  to  the 
State,  from  any  criminal,  on  the  recommendation  of  the  inspectors  of  the  State 
prison  ;  may  suspend  the  execution  of  the  sentence  of  death  against  any  criminal 
until  the  rising  ot' the  next  meeting,  thereafter,  of  the  governor  and  council;  and  in 
conjunction  with  the  legislative  council,  may  grant  pardon  for  any  ofience  after 
condemnation ;  he  may  authorize  the  owner  of  a  slave  condemned  for  certain 
offences,  to  send  him  from  the  State  ;  distribute  copies  of  the  laws  to  the  United 
Stales  and  other  States ;  license  pedlars ;  appoint  notaries,  who  hold  their  offices 
during  good  behaviour;  appoint  inspectors  of  flour  in  certain  cities,  removable  at  his 
pleasure  ;  order  out  the  militia  in  case  of  invasion  or  other  emergency,  when  and  so 
long  as  he  may  deem  necessary,  not  exceeding  two  months ;  and  perform  other  du- 
ties specially  imposed  upon  him  by  the  legislature. 

The  secretary  of  state,  as  we  have  seen,  is  elected  by  the  assembly  in  joint  meet- 
ing, for  five  years.  Before  entering  on  the  duties  of  his  olRce,  he  makes  oath  that 
he  will  faitiifully  perform  them,  and  gives  bond  conditioned  to  like  effect.  He  must 
reside  at  Trenton.  He  must  file  in  his  office  the  laws  of  the  State  as  they  are 
enacted,  so  that  those  of  each  session  be  kept  in  separate  bundles,  and  give  copies  of 
them  when  required,  under  his  hand  and  seal  of  office;  and,  within  four  weeks  from 
the  end  of  every  session,  deliver  a  copy  of  the  laws  therein  passed,  to  the  printer 
thereof,  assist  him  in  comparing  the  proof  sheets  with  the  laws,  and  make  marginal 
notes  thereto.  He  must  record  all  papers  vvhich  come  to  his  hands  pertaining  to 
liis  office  ;  and  tri-monthly  report  to  the  governor,  an  account  of  the  business  done 
in  his  office,  relating  U>  tlie  record  of  wills,  letters  of  administration  and  guardian- 
ship, and  of  the  unfinished  business  therein;  and  must  lay  a  general  statement  of 
the  business  in  his  office  before  the  legislature  at  their  first  session,  annually;  must 
keep  the  books  and  papers  of  the  late  auditor's  office,  and  settle  the  accounts,  if  any 
be  unsettled,  of  any  of  the  agents  of  forfeited  estates  ;  must  record  all  deeds  delivered 
to  him  for  record,  duly  acknowledged  and  proved,  and  must  index  such  deeds;  must 
in  all  cases,  where  money  is  paid  into  the  public  treasury,  and  tlie  receipt  of  the 
treasurer  therefor  is  brought  to  him,  enter  the  same  in  the  public  books  in  his  office, 
in  an  account  with  the  treasurer,  and  indorse  such  entry  upon  the  receipt,  without 
which  it  is  not  available  against  the  State.  He  must  prosecute  clerks  of  courts,  on 
the  report  of  the  treasurer,  who  fail  to  return  the  abstracts  of  fines,  amercements 
and  judgments  on  forfeited  recognizances  for  use  of  the  State.  He  is  register  of 
the  prerogative  office  and  court,  and  is  required  to  record  the  names  of  testators  of 
all  wills,  and  of  intestates,  the  inventories  of  whose  estates  he  may  receive,  and  to 
file  such  wills  and  inventories.  He  must  record  bonds  given  by  the  keeper  of  State 
prison  ;  and  the  partition  lines  of  townships  and  counties,  as  returned  by  the  com- 
missioners of  survey.  He  is  also  clerk  of  the  court  of  appeals,  and  trustee  of  the 
school  fund  ;  and  he  must  keep  suspended  for  public  view  a  list  of  the  fees  payable 
in  his  several  offices. 

The  treasurer,  before  entering  on  his  office,  is  required  to  take  and  subscribe  an 
oath  of  office,  and  give  bond  with  sufficient  sureties  approved  by  the  legislature,  in 
the  sum  of  fifty  thousand  dollars,  conditioned  for  the  faithful  performance  of  his  duties 
and  for  the  fidelity  of  those  em])loyed  by  him;  vvliicli  oath  and  bond  are  to  be  made 
before  the  vice  president  or  justice  of  the  Supreme  Court,  and  to  be  deposited  in  the 
office  of  the  secretary  of  state.  His  duly  is  to  receive  and  keep  the  monies  of  the 
State,  and  to  disburse  them  agreeably  to  law;  to  take  receipts  for  all  payments;  to 
keep  accounts  of  receipts  and  expenditures,  and  of  all  debts  due  to,  and  from  the 
State;  to  make  reports  and  give  information  to  either  branch  of  tlie  legislature  in 
person  or  in  writing,  as  he  may  be  required,  respecting  matters  referred  to  him  by 
the  council  or  assembly,  or  appertaining  to  his  office;  and  generall}-  to  perforui  all 
services  relative  to  the  finances  which  he  may  be  directed  to  pf-rform  ;  to  state,  in 
books,  the  account  of  monies  whicli  he  shall  receive  for  taxes,  or  other  account  in 
behalf  of  liie  Slate,  or  which  he  siiall  pay,  in  pursuance  of  the  acts  and  resolutions 
of  the  legislature,  so  that,  the  net  produce  of  the  whole  revenue,  as  well  as  of  each 
branch  thereof,  and  the  amount  of  disbursements,  may  distinctly  appear;  and  to  lay 
such  accounts,  from  time  to  time,  before  the  legislature  ;  to  receive  reports  of  clerks 
of  courts,  of  fines,  amercements  and  judgments  on  forfeited  recognizances,  and  within 
two  days  after  the  first  day  of  November,  annuall}',  to  return  the  name  of  every  de- 
linquent clerk,  to  the  secretary  for  prosecution  ;  to  cause  to  be  set  up  in  his  office, 
that  clause  of  the  act  of  19th  Nov.  1799,  which  requires  tiie  treasurer's  receipt  for 


EXECUTIVE  POWER.  47 

monies  paid  him,  to  be  entered  in  the  office  of  the  secretary,  and  endorsed  by  him; 
to  receive  taxes  collected  for  the  State  from  the  county  collector,  and  to  prosecute 
for  the  same  when  wrongfully  withheld  ;  to  prosecute  for  tlie  recovery  of  the  tax 
upon  bank  stock,  when  not  paid  according  to  law ;  to  sue  for  all  sums  of  money 
which  may  become  due  to  the  State,  and  receivable  in  his  office,  and  to  make  dis- 
tribution, annually,  of  the  laws  o/  the  State  according  to  law  ;  he  is  also  a  trustee 
of  the  school  fund. 

The  following  abstract  from  the  report  of  the  State  Treasurer  made  to  the  Legisla- 
ture. Oct.  1832,  exhibits  the  condition  of  ths  Treasury,  and  the  sources  of  its  revenue, 
with  the  exception,  that  $30,000  at  least  is  to  be  added  to  receipts  of  the  current  and 
future  years,  for  the  annual  bonus  of  the  Camden  and  Amboy  Rail-road,  and  the 
Delaware  and  Raritan  Canal.  It  will  also  be  observed,  that  besides  the  $40,000  tax 
levied  directly  upon  the  State,  there  is  a  further  sum  of  about  $11,000  annually,  but 
indirectly,  levied  upon  the  holders  of  Bank  stock,  and  appropriated  to  the  school 
fund.  We  append,  also,  the  treasurer's  report  on  the  banks,  exhibiting  in  detail  the 
income  derived  from  that  source,  and  the  actual  condition  of  this  branch  of  business 
in  the  State.  We  may  also  remark,  here,  that  the  only  property  possessed  by  the 
State,  save  a  small  tract  of  land  at  Patterson,  and  some  lots  and  buildings  at  Tren- 
ton, and  the  oyster  beds  in  her  rivers  and  on  her  coasts,  and  the  stocks  mentioned 
in  the  treasurer's  report,  consists  of  2000  shares  of  Camden  and  Amboy  Rail-road 
stock  and  Delaware  and  Raritan  Canal  stock,  valued  at  par  at  $200,000. 

Dr. 
1832.  Dolls.     Cts. 

Surplus  monies  loaned  $20,000  00 

Commissioners  for  negotiating  loan  50  00 

Deaf  and  Dumb,  amount  of  account  2,089  04 

State  Library,                       do.  117  48 
Jurisdiction,  amount  of  account  for  defence 
of  suit  against  New  York  in  relation  to 

boundary  1,401  36 

Legislature,                  amount  of  account  18,728  98 

Printing  account,                       do.  2,253  00 

State  Prison,                               do.  5,800  20 

Salaries,                                     do.  6,636  00 


Incidentals,  do. 

Transportation  of  Criminals,  do. 

Pensions,  do. 

Inquisitions,  do. 

Militia,  do.* 

State  account,  including  salaries  of  Gover- 
nor, Judges,  &c.  4,019  00 

Constable's  account  15  00 

Bills  receivable — 

Due  from  T.  G.  $1000 

Due  from  Presbyterian  Church  at  Patter- 
son 150 


57,076  06 


1,150  00 


Trenton  Bank, 

Due  from  Bank 

Due  from  State  Bank  at  Morris 

Due  from  State  Bank  at  Newark 

Due  from  George  Sherman 


Trenton,  October  23d,  1832. 


10,552 

9,779  91 

195  47 

87  45 

300  00 

10  ^.R" 

34 

83 

$77,991 

23 

*  The  annual  charge  for  militia  expenses  is  $6'20^viz:  $30  to  the  brigade  inspector  of 
each  county,  and  $'200  to  the  (juarterniaster  and  inspector  generals. 


48  GENERAL  DESCRIPTION 

Contra. 


1832. 


Cr. 

Dolls.     Cts. 

$20,000 

00 

50 
14,819 

00 
66 

40,000 

00 

$    509  34^ 
1,150  80 

1   finO 

34i 

760 

00 

77  osQ  noA 

■"""             4   1  ,^0£7      vug 

306 

22^ 

3 

00 

585 

00 

Bills  receivable — 
Received  for  surplus  money  loaned 
Received  for  commissions  paid,  being 

part  of  interest 
Balance  on  hand,  October  25th,  1831 

Taxes — 
Received  from  the  several  counties 

Debts  outstanding — 
Amount  received  on  this  account 
Amount  due  this  account 

Fines  and  forfeitures — 
Received  on  this  account 

Premiums — 
Received  on  this  account 

Revised  laws — 
Received  for  one  copy  sold 

Pedlar's  license — 
Received  for  this  account 

Interest  account — 
Received  balance  of  interest  for  use  of 

surplus  money  loaned  808  00 

1,702  22i 

78,991   23 

Balance  due  as  above  per  contra — 

Deposited  in  Trenton  Bank  9,779  91 

Do.          State  Bank  at  Morris  195  47 

Do.          State  Bank  at  Newark  87  45 

Due  from  George  Sherman,  for  advance  made  for  printing 

law  reports  now  in  progress  300  00 

Balance  on  settlement  10,362  23 


49 


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EXECUTIVE  POWER.  51 

Perhaps  no  country  of  equal  territorial  extent  and  population,  in  the  world,  is 
governed  at  less  cost  than  the  State  of  New  Jersey;  and  if  the  happiness  of  the 
people  be  the  object  and  evidence  of  good  government,  we  do  not  hesitate  to  say, 
that  none  is  better  governed.  The  sum  actually  levied  on  the  people  directly  and 
indirectly,  for  the  maintenance  of  the  State  government,  exclusive  of  the  township 
and  county  polity,  will  not  exceed  $  55,000,  and  is  more  likely  to  be  diminished 
than  increased.  The  whole  population,  at  the  present  period,  1833,  is  not  less  than 
330,000,  which  gives  to  each  individual  16  2-3  cents  tax;  or  dividing  the  number  of 
individuals  by  six,  for  the  number  of  families,  gives  one  dollar  for  every  head  of  a 
family  in  the  State.  This,  it  will  be  observed,  is  only  the  tax  levied  by  the  State, 
as  contradistinguished  from  township  and  county  taxes.  To  ascertain  the  burden 
actually  supported  by  the  people,  we  must  include  not  only  the  latter,  but  also  the 
sums  paid  for  the  maintenance  of  the  militia,  and  of  religious  instruction.  An 
opportunity  is  thus  afforded,  we  trust,  of  settling,  satisfactorily,  the  question  which 
has  lately  been  agitated,  relative  to  the  proportions  paid  by  the  inhabitants  of  the 
Noith  American  republics,  and  the  subjects  of  European  kingdoms,  for  the  mainte- 
nance of  the  social  relations. 

By  the  singular  character  of  our  political  association,  each  citizen  contributes  to 
the  maintenance  of  two  governments.  The  sura  paid  to  the  general  government,  by 
the  whole  community  of  the  United  States,  is  the  net  amount  of  duties  after  the 
deduction  of  drawbacks. 

Taking  that  amount  at  twenty-five  millions,*  and  dividing  it  by  fourteen  millions, 
the  probable  population  of  the  United  States,  in  January,  1834,  we  have  a  charge  of 
$  1  78i  nearly.  But  a  more  favorable  view  may  be  taken  of  this  subject.  The 
extent  of  revenue,  required  for  a  liberal  administration  of  the  government,  is  esti- 
mated at  fifteen  millions  of  dollars,  and  it  is  highly  probable,  that  the  nation  will 
not,  for  many  years,  consent  to  pay  a  larger  sum  than  is  requisite,  and  which,  from 
accumulation,  may  become  dangerous  to  her  we^lfare.  This  sum  would  impose  a 
tax,  supposing  it  be  collected  from  commerce  alone,  and  the  proceeds  of  lands  to  be 
divided  among  the  states,  of  ^1  06  and  a  fraction  upon  each  individual. 

From  the  general  statistical  table  of  the  State,  it  appears,  that  for  the  year  1832, 
there  were  levied,  for  State  purposes,  exclusive  of  the  tax  on  banks,       ^40,366  71 
Tax  on  banks,  per  treasurer's  report,         .....  11,585  44 

County  tax,  as  per  return  of  assessors,     ...         -         -        104,166  00 
Township  taxes,  viz :  Poor,  -  -  -         78,131  00 

Road,   ...  -        192,859  00 

School,  -  -  -  1,366  00 

271,386  00 


427,504   15 


The  militia  expenses,  actually  paid  by  the  treasury  of  the  State,  are  included  in 
the  foregoing  amount;  but  the  time  devoted,  we  had  like  to  have  said,  wasted,  in 
militia  duties,  together  with  the  money  uselessly  expended,  cannot  be  estimated  at 
less  than  one  dollar  for  every  prescribed  day  of  service,  for  each  person  enrolled,  or 
placed  on  the  exempt  list.  There  are  three  training  days  in  the  year.  The  fine  for 
non-attendance  is  two  dollars  per  day,  and  the  sum  paid  by  the  exempt  is  five  dollars 
per  annum,  in  form  of  tax.  Every  officer  and  private  expends,  on  the  day  of  service, 
more  than  would  support  him  at  home.  The  military  force  of  the  State,  by  the 
adjutant  general's  report  for  1832,  amounted  to  ,f  35,360;  that  number  multiplied 
by  four  dollars,  which  we  take  as  the  mesne  expense  of  each  officer,  private,  and 
exempt,  gives  a  total  annual  amount  of  .....  141,440  00 

The  annual  cost  of  religious  instruction,  according  to  the  statement 

hereinafter  given, 120,000  00 

General  government  for  duties  at  179  per  head,  ....  590,700  00 
State  charges,  including  township   and  county  rates,  at  one  dollar 

twenty-nine  cents  and  five  mills  per  head,  nearly,  -         -         427,504  15 

$1,279,644  15 


*  The  receipts  of  the  treasury,  for  the  three  first  quarters  of  1832,  were  $21,730,717  19; 
and  the  treasurer's  estimate,  for  1833,  was  twenty-one  millions;  bul  it  is  generally  supposed 
that  the  receipt  will  much  exceed  the  estimate. 


52  GENERAL  DESCRIPTION. 

This  sum  divided  by  the  number  of  inhabitantsi^  (330,000,)  gives  a  charge  of 
$  3  86,"  nearly,  upon  each  inhabitant, — for  the  payment  of  principal  and  interest 
of  the  public  debt — the  pension  list — for  the  support  of  the  General  and  State  go- 
vernments— for  the  maintenance  of  schools  in  part — for  the  support  of  the  clergy, 
and  the  founding  and  preservation  of  churches — for  the  support  of  the  poor — for 
making  and  repairing  all  other  than  turnpike  roads,  and  the  erection  of  bridges  by 
the  townships  and  counties — and  in  a  word,  i«)r  all  kinds  of  public  expenditure. 

The  attorney  general  is  the  representative  of  the  State  in  all  the  courts  of  the 
commonwealth,  and  prosecutes  in  her  name  all  offenders  against  her  peace  and 
dignity,  and  sues  and  defends  all  suits  in  which  she  has  an  interest.  Deputy 
attornies  are  appointed  by  the  legislature  for  the  counties  respectively,  whose 
term  of  office  is  five  years;  they  aie  vested  in  their  respective  districts  with  the 
same  powers,  entitled  to  the  same  fees,  and  subject  to  the  same  penalties  as 
the  attorney  general.  Yet,  notwithstanding  such  appointment,  he  may  act  in 
such  counties  when  present;  and  any  court  is  empowered  to  appoint  a  special  sub- 
stitute, for  the  term,  in  case  neither  the  attorney  general  nor  the  general  deputy 
shall  attend.  For  neglect  of  duty,  in  prosecuting  forfeited  recognisances,  fines, 
debts,  &c.  due  to  the  State,  he  may,  on  conviction  before  council,  on  impeachment 
by  the  assembly,  be  disabled  to  act  as  attorney  or  solicitor  in  any  court  of  the  State, 
for  one  year.     The  attorney  general  is  one  of  the  trustees  of  the  school  fund. 

A  sheriff  is  annually  elected  by  each  county,  who  is  eligible  three  times  consecu- 
tively, but  who,  after  the  third  year,  cannot  be  again  re-elected,  until  after  the  lapse 
of  three  years.  He  must  be,  and  have  been,  an  inhabitant  and  freeholder  of  his 
county  for  at  least  three  years  next  preceding  his  election;  must  give  bond  to  the 
State  with  five  sureties  in  the  sum  of  .f  20,000,  approved  by  the  judges  of  the  Com- 
mon Pleas,  conditioned  for  the  faithful  performance  of  his  duty,  and  make  oath  or 
affirmation  to  like  effect;  both  of  which  are  filed  in  the  office  of  the  county  clerk. 
If  he  fail  to  give  sucli  bond  and  take  such  oath,  a  new  election  may  be  had;  but  this 
done,  he  may  act  before  receipt  of  commission  from  the  governor.  When  occasion 
requires,  suits  may  be  instituted  on  his  bond,  by  order  of  that  officer.  He  is  far 
excellence  the  executive  officer  of  his  county,  is  the  chief  conservator  of  its  peace, 
and  has  authority  to  call  forth  and  direct  its  physical  force  to  maintain  the  laws. 
He  has  charge  of  the  jails  of  the  county,  and  is  responsible  for  the  conduct  of  their 
keepers.  He  summons  all  juries,  and  executes  all  process  civil  and  criminal  issuing 
from  the  courts,  and  carries  their  judgments  into  effect.  He  may  appoint  deputies, 
who  give  bond  and  make  oath  for  faithful  performance  of  their  duties,  and  have 
their  appointment  filed  with  the  county  clerk.  At  the  request  of  the  United  States, 
and  by  the  statute  of  this  State,  he  has  charge  of  prisoners  committed  by  authority 
of  the  general  government.  He  may  not,  during  the  continuance  of  his  office,  act 
as  justice  of  the  peace  or  keep  tavern;  nor  become  bail  in  any  suit.  In  case  of  his 
death,  removal  or  disability,  a  new  election  is  had  upon  certificate  thereof  by  a  jus- 
tice of  the  peace,  to  the  county  clerk  ;  and  during  the  vacancy,  the  duties  of  his  office 
may  be  performed  by  the  coroner. 

Three  coroners  are  annually  elected  in  each  county,  must  be  inhabitants  and 
freeholders,  and  be  commissioned  by  the  governor;  but  may  act  before  commis- 
sion; and  must  take  oath,  faithfully  to  execute  their  duties.  The  coroner,  as  we 
have  seen  above,  is  the  substitute  for  the  sheriff  where  the  office  of  the  latter  is  va- 
cant, or  where  under  particular  circumstances,  as  when  the  sheriff  is  interested  or 

*  The  Revue  Britaniqne,  No  12,  for  1831,  avers,  that  notwithstanding  the  asserted 
economy  of  the  American  republic,  its  expenses  exceeded,  prn])ortionably  to  its  popula- 
tion, those  of  the  French  monanliy.  Tiie  charjje  upon  each  individual  in  France  is  admit- 
ted, by  the  reviewer,  to  be  31  francs,  and  that  in  the  United  States  is  asserted,  to  he  3.t 
h-ancs.  The  French  estimate  does  not  include  ecclesiastical  expenses,  the  st\n>s  paid  for 
the  extinction  of  the  pnl)lic  debt,  the  maintenance  of  tlie  poor,  the  char2:es  for  education 
and  other  expenses,  whilst  our  cstiniati-  cniitaiiis  all  thes<".  Valuing;  the  dollar  at  5  francs 
33  centimes,  the  charge  on  each  indi\idnal  in  the  Slate  of  New  .li-rscy  vould  he  i20  francs 
69  cts.  But  if  we  include,  in  the  Ann  rican  impost,  no  otiier  «liarncs  than  those  of  tlie 
French  estimate,  the  American  citizen,  by  tiie  rate  paid  in  tiiis  Slate,  docs  not  pay  for 
every  species  of  taxation,  more  than  one-thii-d  of  the  amount  of  the  French  subject,  whose 
burden  is  less  than  that  of  Ihr  sniijcci  r)f  any  other  of  tiie  [jrincipal  monarchies  in  Ein-ojK'. 
The  burden  on  the  people,  of  Niu  .liiscy  is,  jjerhaps,  soiiiething  less  than  that  upon  tlic 
citizens  of  some  of  the  olhc  r  Stales,  which  may  have  contracted  considerable  debts;  but 
it  is  larger  than  is  imposed  in  most  of  ilu-  Western  Stales,  and,  we  think,  may  he  taken 
ag  a  fair  average  of  ciiarges  thronghout  tlic  Union. 


EXECUTIVE  POWER.  53 

has  not  given  bond,  he  is  disqualified.  Where  any  writ  from  any  court  is  directed 
to  the  coroner,  the  return  made  and  signed  by  one  of  them  is  sufficient,  but  such  re- 
turn does  not  prejudice  or  aftect  the  rest.  The  most  ordinary  duty  of  the  coroner, 
however,  is  to  take  inquests  relative  to  deaths  in  prison,  and  of  all  violent,  sudden 
or  casual  deaths  within  his  county  ;  which  he  performs  through  a  jury  summoned 
on  liis  writ,  by  the  constable,  and  over  which  he  presides. 

The  constable  is  the  next  in  grade,  but  is  not  the  least  important  of  the  executive 
officers.  He  is  annually  elected  by  the  qualified  voters  of  the  townsliip,  of  which 
he  may  be  considered  the  sheriff.  He  makes  oath  or  atfirmation,  and  gives  bond  to 
the  township,  for  the  faithful  performance  of  his  duty.  He  executes  all  process 
from  the  justices'  courts,  and  that  issued  by  coroner  on  inquest  of  death  ;  and  he  is 
charged  v/ith  various  executive  duties,  the  performance  of  which  moves  from  him- 
self. Thus,  he  is  a  conservator  of  the  peace,  and  may  arrest  and  confine  persons 
found  in  breach  of  it,  or  contravening  the  act  for  the  suppression  of  vice  and  immo- 
rality; may  call  out  the  inhabitants  to  extinguish  fires  in  forests,  &c.  ;  may  make 
proclamation  in  case  of  riots,  and  seize  rioters  ;  may  arrest  and  disperse  slaves  meet- 
ing together  in  an  unlawful  manner,  and  the  like. 

All  officers  of  the  State  appointed  by  the  legislature  in  joint  meeting,  must  reside 
within  the  State,  and  execute  in  person  such  office;  except,  that,  the  surrogate  ge- 
neral may  appoint  deputies;  officers  of  counties  must  reside  within  their  respective 
counties,  and  are  prohibited  from  farming  out  their  offices  to  others,  under  penalty  of 
five  jmndred  pounds.  Such  officers  desirous  of  resigning,  must  make  their  resigna- 
tion during  the  sitting  of  the  legislature,  and  to  the  members  thereof  in  joint  meeting, 
attending  in  person  for  that  purpose,  or  by  letter.  And  eveiy  officer  issuing  or 
executing  a  warrant  for  removing  a  prisoner  out  of  the  State,  an  inhabitant  thereof, 
as  prohibited  by  the  habeas  corpus  act,  is  disqualified  to  hold  office,  and  is  punish- 
able by  fine  and  imprisonment  at  hard  labour.  The  civil  office  of  any  person  held 
under  the  State,  is  vacated  by  election  and  acceptance  by  the  incumbent  of  a  seat 
in  congress  ;  the  office  of  governor  is  also  vacated,  if  incumbent  accept  of  any  office 
or  appointment  under  the  United  States,  except  such  as  may  be  for  defence  of  the 
State  or  adjoining  posts;  and  the  seat  of  a  member  of  council  or  assembly  is  also 
vacated  by  such  election  and  acceptance,  and  by  the  acceptance  of  any  appoint- 
ment under  the  government  of  the  United  States.  All  officers  elected  in  joint  meet- 
ing neglecting  or  refusing  to  qualify  themselves  for  the  space  of  two  months  after 
information  of  their  election,  make  void  their  posts.  No  alien  can  hold,  or  elect  to 
any  office. 

The  officers  of  the  state  prison  are  essential  arms  of  the  executive  power,  since 
they  aid  in  executing  the  judgments  of  the  law.  They  consist  of  three  inspectors, 
two  of  whom  make  a  quorum,  appointed  annually,  in  joint  meeting  by  the  assem- 
bly ;  the  keeper  nominated  and  removable  by  the  inspectors,  and  his  deputies  and 
assistants  appointed  by  him  and  approved  by  the  inspectors.  The  inspectors  are 
empowered  to  examine  the  accounts  of  the  keeper,  and  any  witness  in  relation 
thereto,  including  the  keeper,  upon  oath;  to  appoint  annually  or  oftener,  one  of 
their  number  acting  inspector;  to  meet  as  often  as  shall  be  necessary,  and  at  least 
quarterly;  and  the  acting  inspector  is  required  to  attend  the  prison,  at  least  once  a 
week  to  inspect  tiie  management  thereof,  and  the  conduct  of  the  keeper  and  his  de- 
puties; to  make  regulations  to  give  effect  to  the  law,  for  the  jiunishment  of  crimes 
and  the  good  government  of  the  prison;  to  punish  prisoners  in  case  of  refractory, 
disorderly  behaviour,  or  disobedience  to  the  rules  of  the  prison,  by  confinement  in 
the  cells  and  dungeons  on  bread  and  water  for  any  time  not  exceeding  twenty  days 
for  one  offence,  and  for  prevention  or  escapes,  to  put  prisoners  in  irons  ;  to  appoint 
an  agent  where  they  may  deem  proper,  for  the  sale  of  articles  manufactured  in  the 
prison.  If  any  vacancy  happen  in  the  board  during  the  recess  of  the  legislature,  it 
may  be  filled  by  the  governor.  The  inspectors  are  allowed  one  dollar  and  fifty 
cents  per  day,  for  every  day  necessarily  employed  in  the  duties  of  their  office. 

The  keeper,  before  entering  on  the  duties  of  his  office,  is  required  to  give  bond  to 
the  State  treasurer,  with  two  sureties  in  the  sum  of  ^1,000,  conditioned  that  he,  his 
deputy  and  assistants,  shall  faithfully  perform  their  trusts,  to  be  filed  in  the  office  of 
the  secretary  of  state.  He  receives  a  salary  of  .f  1,000,  and  his  six  assistants  each 
$475,  per  annum.  The  keeper  is  required  to  receive  all  prisoners  duly  committed 
to  his  custody,  to  treat  them  as  directed  by  law  and  the  rules  of  the  prison  ;  to  pro- 
vide, with  the  approbation  of  the  inspectors,  stock,  materials  and  tools  for  prisoners; 
to  contract  for  their  clothing  and  diet,  and  for  the  sale  of  the  produce  of  their  la- 


54  GENERAL  DESCRIPTION. 

bour;  to  keep  accounts  of  tlie  maintenance  of  offenders,  of  the  materials  furnislied, 
and  manufactures  produced,  subject  to  the  inspection  of  inspectors,  and  to  furnish 
an  abstract  thereof  to  the  legislature.  He  may  punish  offenders  guilty  of  assaults, 
where  no  dangerous  wound  or  bruise  is  given,  of  profane  cursing  or  swearing,  inde- 
cent behaviour,  idleness,  negligence  or  wilful  mismanagement  in  work,  or  disobe- 
dience to  regulations,  by  confining  offenders  in  the  cells  or  dungeons  on  bread  and 
water,  for  a  time  not  exceeding  two  days;  and  in  case  of  offences  which  he  is  not 
authorized  to  punish,  he  is  required  to  make  report  to  the  inspectors.  The  keeper, 
his  deputy  or  assistant,  who  shall  obstruct  the  inspectors  in  the  exercise  of  their 
powers,  is  subject  to  a  fine  of  .^30,  and  removal  from  office. 

It  is  not  within  the  scope  of  tliis  work  to  detail  the  system  of  criminal  jurispru- 
dence in  the  State.  But  we  may,  with  propriety,  observe,  that  so  early  as  1789, 
she  adopted  the  humane  principles  which  now  characterize  the  criminal  laws  of 
the  Union  ;  abolishing  the  punishment  of  death  in  all  cases,  save  treason  and  mur- 
der, and  applying  imprisonment  and  hard  labour  to  the  correction  of  other  offences 
in  proportion  to  their  enormity,  and  seeking  to  reclaim  the  offender  from  the  evil  of 
his  ways.  With  these  views  she  has  constructed  and  regulated  her  penitentiary, 
and  advancing  with  tlie  improvements  of  the  age,  has,  in  the  year  1833,  directed  the 
building  of  a  new  State  prison  upon  the  latest  and  most  approved  models. 

The  first  steps  in  the  science  of  reforming  criminals  in  this,  as  in  other  States, 
have  been  unsteady,  uncertain,  and  tending  to  thwart,  rather  than  to  effect,  the  pro- 
posed object.  The  prisons  have  every  where  been  too  small,  and  have  not  been  con- 
structed upon  plans  which  would  admit  of  the  indispensable  separation  of  the 
prisoners;  and  have,  from  the  free  intercommunion  of  the  criminals,  been  converted 
into  schools  of  vice,  instead  of  asylums  for  repentance,  where  the  convict  might  se- 
curely and  unimpeded  by  ridicule  or  seduction,  pursue  the  work  of  his  own  regene- 
ration. The  effects  of  this  system  are  but  too  truly  stated  by  the  late  governor 
De  Vroom,  in  his  message  to  the  legislature  of  1832.  "The  situation  of  our 
prison,"  he  says,  "is  such  as  to  invite  to  the  commission  of  crime  within  our  State. 
Its  condition  is  well  known  to  that  class  of  offenders  who  are  familiar  with  punish- 
ments. It  offers  to  them  all  the  allurements  of  that  kind  of  society  which  they  have 
long  been  accustomed  to,  freed  from  the  restraints  to  which  they  would  be  obliged 
to  submit  in  other  j)]aces  of  confinement,  and  at  the  same  time  holds  out  a  prospect 
of  speedy  escape.  To  this  may  be  attributed  the  great  number  of  our  convicts,  and 
as  long  as  it  continues,  we  may  expect  our  prisons  to  be  filled.  Within  the  last 
three  years,  tlie  number  lias  increased  from  eighty-seven  to  one  hundred  and  thirty, 
being  an  increase  of  fifty  per  cent.  The  remedy  for  these  evils,  now  obvious,  was 
the  adoption  of  a  system  of  penitentiary  discipline,  combining  solitary  confinement 
at  labour,  witli  instruction  in  labour,  in  morals,  and  religion."  This  system  has  been 
partially  adopted  by  the  act  of  13th  February,  1833,  authorizing  the  construction  of 
a  penitentiary  on  the  plan  of  the  Eastern  Penitentiary  of  Pennsylvania,  with  such 
alterations  and  improvements  as  the  commissioners  may  approve,  adhering  to  the 
principle  of  separate  confinement  of  the  prisoners,  with  hard  labour.  The  estimate 
of  the  cost  of  this  building  is  $150,000,  and  it  is  to  be  of  sufficient  capacity  for  the 
confinement  of  one  hundred  and  fifty  persons.  The  system  will  be  further  perfected 
by  modelling  the  criminal  law  to  the  new  species  of  punishment,  when  the  prison 
shall  liave  been  completed.  That  the  reader  may  have  some  idea  of  the  plan  of  the 
penitentiary  now  being  erected  on  the  lot  belonging  to  the  State,  near  the  old  state 
prison,  we  give  the  following  description  of  its  model. 

"  The  Eastern  State  Penitentiary  is  sitnated  on  one  of  the  most  elevated,  airy, 
and  healthy  sites  in  the  city  of  Philadelpiiia.  The  ground  occupied  by  it,  contains 
about  10  acres.  The  material  with  which  the  edifices  are  built  is  gneiss,  in  large 
masses;  every  room  is  vaulted,  and  fire  proof.  The  design  and  execution,  impart  a 
orrave,  severe  and  awful  cliaracter  to  the  external  aspect.  The  effect  on  the  ima- 
gination of  tlie  spectator  is  peculiarly  impressive,  solemn  and  instructive.  The  ar- 
chitecture is  in  keeping  with  the  design.  The  broad  masses,  the  small  and  well 
proportioned  apertures,  the  continuity  of  lines,  and  the  bold  simplicity  which  cha- 
racterize the  facade,  are  happily  and  judiciously  combined.  This  is  the  only  edifice 
in  this  country,  which  conveys  an  idea  of  the  external  appearance  of  those  magnifi- 
cent and  picturesque  castles  of  tiie  middle  ages,  which  contribute  so  eminently  to 
embellish  the  scenery  of  Europe.  The  front  is  composed  of  large  blocks  of  hewn 
stone  ;  the  walls  are  12  feet  thick  at  the  base,  and  diminish  to  the  top,  where  they 
are  2  3-4  feet  in  tliickness.     A  wall  of  forty  feet  in  height,  above  the  interior  plat- 


EXECUTIVE  POWER.  55 

form,  incloses  an  area  640  feet  square ;  at  each  angle  of  the  wall  is  a  tower,  for  the 
purpose  of  overlooking  the  establishment;  three  other  towers  are  situated  near  the 
gate  of  entrance.  The  fa(;ade  or  principal  front  is  (i70  feet  in  length,  and  reposes 
on  a  terrace,  which,  from  the  inequalities  of  the  ground,  varies  from  three  to  nine 
feet  in  height;  the  basement  or  belting  course,  which  is  10  feet  high,  is  scarped, 
and  extends  uniformly  the  whole  length.  The  central  building  is  200  feet  in 
length,  consists  of  two  projecting  massive  square  towers,  50  feet  high,  crowned  by 
projecting  embattled  parapets,  supported  by  pointed  arches,  resting  on  corbets  or 
brackets.  The  pointed,  munnioned  windows  in  these  towers,  contribute  in  a  high 
degree  to  their  picturesque  effect.  The  curtain  between  the  towers  is  41  feet  high, 
and  is  finished  with  a  parapet  and  embrasures.  The  pointed  windows  in  it  are  very 
lofty  and  narrow.  The  great  gateway  in  the  centre  is  a  very  conspicuous  feature; 
it  is  27  feet  high,  and  15  wide,  and  is  filled  by  a  massive  wrought  iron  portcullis, 
and  double  oaken  gates,  studded  with  projecting-  iron  rivets,  the  whole  weighing 
several  tons;  nevertheless,  they  can  be  opened  with  the  greatest  facility.  On  each 
side  of  this  entrance,  (which  is  the  most  imposing  in  the  United  States,)  are  enor- 
mous solid  buttresses,  diminishing  in  oflfsets,  and  terminating  in  pinnacles.  A  lofty 
octangular  tower,  80  feet  high,  containing  an  alarm  bell  and  clock,  surmounts  this 
entrance,  and  forms  a  picturesque  proportional  centre.  On  each  side  of  this  main 
building,  (which  contains  the  apartments  of  the  warden,  keepers,  domestics,  &c.) 
are  screen  wing  walls,  which  appear  to  constitute  portions  of  the  main  edifice; 
they  are  pierced  with  small  blank  pointed  windows,  and  are  surmounted  by  a  para- 
pet; at  their  extremities  are  high  octangular  towers,  terminating  in  parapets, 
pierced  by  embrasures.  In  the  centre  of  the  great  court  is  an  observatory, 
whence  long  corridors,  eight  in  number,  radiate.  On  each  side  of  these  cor- 
ridors, the  cells  are  situated,  each  at  right  angles  to  them,  and  communicating 
with  them  only  by  small  openings,  for  the  purpose  of  supplying  the  prisoner 
with  food,  &c.,  and  for  the  purpose  of  inspecting  his  movements  without  at- 
tracting his  attention ;  other  apertures,  for  the  admission  of  cool  or  heated  air, 
and  for  the  purpose  of  ventilation,  are  provided.  A  novel  and  ingenious  con- 
trivance in  each  cell,  prevents  the  possibility  of  conversation,  preserves  the  purity 
of  the  atmosphere  of  the  cells,  and  dispenses  with  the  otherwise  unavoidable 
necessity  of  leaving  the  apartment,  except  when  the  regulations  permit — flue.s 
conduct  heated  air  from  large  cockle  stoves  to  the  cells.  Light  is  admitted  by  a 
large  circular  glass  in  the  crown  of  the  arch,  which  is  raking,  and  the  highest  part 
16  feet  six  inches  above  the  floor,  (which  is  of  wood,  overlaying  a  solid  foundation 
of  stone.)  The  walls  are  plaistered,  and  neatly  whitewashed;  the  cells  are  11  feet 
nine  inches  long,  and  seven  feet  six  inches  wide ;  at  the  extremity  of  the  cell,  op- 
posite to  the  apertures  for  inspection,  &c.,  previously  mentioned,  is  the  door-way, 
containing  two  doors;  one  of  lattice  work  or  grating,  to  admit  the  air  and  secure  the 
prisoner;  the  other,  composed  of  planks,  to  exclude  the  air,  if  required;  this  door 
leads  to  a  yard  (18  feet  by  eight,  the  walls  of  which  are  11^  feet  in  height,)  at- 
tached to  each  cell.  The  number  of  the  latter,  erected  on  the  original  plan,  was 
only  266,  but  it  may  be  increased  to  818  without  resorting  to  the  addition  of  second 
stories." 

For  the  better  administration  of  the  government,  the  State  has  been  divided  into 
Counties,  townships,  cities  and  boroughs.  The  object  of  these  divisions  is  to  allocate 
and  circumscribe  the  duties  of  the  various  administrative  officers,  in  the  enforce- 
ment of  the  laws,  civil  and  criminal,  the  collection  of  the  revenues  required  by  the 
commonwealth  and  its  subdivisions,  and,  more  especially,  the  better  to  enable  the  ci- 
tizens to  promote  their  own  happiness  by  the  improvement  of  the  roads,  bridges, 
&c.,  the  education  of  their  offspring,  and  the  maintenance  of  the  indigent.  The 
division  into  counties  is  the  most  general,  and  embraces  the  others,  all  of  which  were 
readily  adopted  by  the  first  English  settlers,  upon  their  coming  hither,  from  models 
to  which  they  had  been  accustomed  in  Europe.  Several  of  the  counties  were  or- 
ganized before  the  year  1709;  but  many  inconveniences  having  arisen  from  the  im- 
perfect definition  of  their  boundaries,  the  limits  of  Bergen,  Essex,  Somerset,  Mon- 
mouth, Middlesex,  Burlington,  Gloucester,  Salem,  and  Cape  May,  were  accurately 
designated  by  an  act  of  assembly,  passed  21st  January,  of  that  year.  These  limits 
have  been  since  modified,  in  the  erection  of  Hunterdon,  Morris,  Salem,  Sussex, 
Warren,  and  Cumberland  counties  (for  which  see  the  titles  respectively  of  these 
counties).  By  an  act  of  9th  March,  1798,  provision  has  been  made  for  ascertaining 
the  bounds  of  each  county  and  township,  in  case  of  any  dispute  in  relation  to  them. 


56  GENERAL  DESCRIPTION. 

The  State  contains  at  present  14  counties  and  125  townships.  The  use  of  these 
divisions  will  be  better  understood  by  examining-  first  the  constitution  of  the  town- 
ships. These  are  made  bodies  corporate  by  the  act  of  21st  February,  1798;  and 
new  ones  are  created,  and  so  constituted,  by  special  laws,  as  the  public  convenience 
requires.  Tlie}'  are  thus  em])owered  to  sue,  and  be  sued,  by  process  left  with  the 
county  clerks.  And  the  qu;ilitied  inhabitants  are  authorized  to  hold  town  meetings 
in  their  respective  townsiiips,  upon  specified  days,  and,  also,  on  special  convocation, 
at  such  places  as  the  electors  may  from  time  to  time  appoint.  At  such  meetings, 
every  white  male  citizen  of  the  State,  of  the  age  of  twenty-one  years,  having  re- 
sided within  the  township  six  calendar  months,  and  paid  taxes  therein  ;  or  being 
seized  of  a  freehold,  or  having  rented  a  tenement,  of  the  yearly  value  of  five 
dollars,  for  the  term  of  one  year  therein,  is  entitled  to  vote.  A  presiding  officer, 
appointed  by  a  plurality  of  voices,  directs  the  business  of  the  meeting,  and  deter- 
mines who  have  or  have  not  the  right  to  participate  therein ;  and  to  preserve 
order  he  may  expel,  and  fine  not  exceeding  one  dollar,  the  unruly,  and  even  im- 
prison an  offender  during  the  session  of  the  meeting.  The  voters  of  the  township 
may  make  regulations  and  by-laws,  from  time  to  time,  as  they  may  deem  proper,  for 
improving  their  common  lands  in  tillage  or  otherwise,  and  for  the  making  and  main- 
taining pounds  ;  and  may  enforce  such  regulations  by  fine,  not  exceeding  twelve 
dollars,  for  each  offence  ;  the  regulations  to  be  recorded  by  the  clerk  of  the  township, 
in  a  book  kept  for  the  purpose.  Such  meeting  may,  also,  provide  and  allow  rewards 
for  the  destruction  of  noxious  animals  ;  may  raise  money  for  the  support  of  the  indi- 
gent, and  education  of  poor  cliildren ;  the  building  and  rearing  of  pounds,  the 
making  and  repairing  of  roads,  the  ascertaining  the  lines  of  the  townshij),  defending 
its  rights,  and  for  other  necessary  charges  and  legal  objects  and  purposes  as  the 
major  part  may  deem  proper  ;  being  such  as  are  expressly  vested  in  the  inhabi- 
tants of  the  several  townships,  by  some  act  of  the  legislature.  The  meeting  may 
elect  annually,  and  whenever  there  shall  be  a  vacancy,  one  clerk,  one  or  more  assess- 
ors, one  or  more  collectors,  who  must  give  bond,  with  surety,  for  the  faitiiful  per- 
formance of  their  duties;  three  or  more  freeholders,  to  determine  appeals  relative  to 
assessments  in  taxation  ;  three  school  committee  men ;  two  freeholders,  commonly 
called  chosen  freeholders;  two  surveyors  of  the  highways;  one  or  more  overseers  of 
the  poor;  one  or  more  constables;  so  many  overseers  of  the  highways,  and  pound- 
keepers,  as  they  shall  judge  necessary  ;  one  reputable  freeholder  as  judge  of  elec- 
tions; and  five  freeholders,  denominated  the  township  committee — whose  duty  is 
to  examine  and  report  to  the  town  meeting  the  accounts  and  vouchers  of  the 
township  officers,  to  superintend  the  expenditure  of  monies  of  the  township,  and 
in  case  of  neglect  of  the  township  meeting  to  supply  vacancies,  to  fill  such  vacan- 
cies, among  the  township  officers  as  may  occur.  Service  in  a  township  office  for  one 
year,  or  payment  of  a  tine  for  refusal  to  serve,  excuses  the  party  from  services  in 
such  office  for  five  years  thereafter. 

The  townships  being  thus  empowered  to  select  their  officers,  and  to  provide  for 
their  wants,  are  made  responsible  for  the  proper  performance  of  duty  by  tiieir  agents; 
and  may  be  fined  for  the  bad  condition  of  the  roads,  and  compelled  to  make  good 
any  loss  sustained  in  the  collection  of  state  and  county  taxes,  by  the  unfaithfulness 
of  the  collectors. 

The  chosen  freeholders  of  the  several  townships  of  each  county,  form  the  admi- 
nistrative council,  or  board  of  the  county.  They  are,  also,  incorporated,  by  the  act  of 
13th  February,  1798,  with  power,  to  sue  and  liability  to  be  sued;  to  hold  lands  and 
chattels,  &.c.  in  trust  for  their  respective  counties,  and  for  such  uses  as  may  be  desig- 
nated by  law,  and  to  sell  and  dispose  of  the  same;  to  make  and  enforce  such  regu- 
lations as  may  be  necessary  for  the  government  of  their  respective  corporations,  not 
contrary  to  the  laws  of  the  State;  to  raise,  at  their  annual  or  other  meeting  held  for 
the  purpose,  monies  for  the  building,  purchase  or  rei)airs  of  poor-houses,  gaols, 
court-houses  and  bridges;  the  surveying  and  ascertaining  the  lines,  the  prosecuting 
and  defending  the  rights,  defraying  the  public  and  other  necessary  charges,  and  ex- 
ecuting the  legal  purposes  and  objects  of  the  county,  as  the  major  part  of  them  shall 
deem  proper;  which  monies  are  expended  under  the  direction  of  the  corporation  : 
to  elect,  annually,  and  pro  tempore  in  case  of  absence  or  refusal  to  act,  a  director  to  , 
preside  at  the  meetiuir  of  the  board  ;  to  meet,  annually,  ujjon  the  second  Wednesday 
in  May,  at  the  county  town;  to  elect  a  clerk  annually,  who  shall  record  the  pro- 
ceedings of  the  board  ;  and  a  county  collector,  a  freeholder  and  resident  of  the 
oounty,  who  shall  give  bond,  with  sureties,  for  the  faithful  performance  of  his  duty  : 


EXECUTIVE  POWER.  57 

to  raise  monies  voted  by  the  board,  by  precepts  to  the  assessors  of  the  respective 
townships,  commanding  tliem  to  assess  such  amount  on  the  inliabitants  and  their  es- 
tates, agreeably  to  the  law  for  the  time  being,  for  raising  money  by  taxation  for  the 
use  of  the  State. 

When  the  lines  of  the  county  have  not  been  surveyed  and  distinctly  marked,  the 
freeholders,  by  prescribed  form,  may  apply  to  the  Supreme  Court  for  commissioners 
to  survey  them.  They  may,  also,  at  their  discretion,  build  or  purchase  a  workhouse 
within  their  county,  and  provide  for  its  government,  and  the  employment  of  its 
inhabitants;  and  may  establish  a  market,  once  or  oftener  in  every  year,  within  the 
county,  for  the  sale  of  live  stock,  to  continue  not  more  than  four  days,  and  establish 
laws  for  its  regulation. 

From  all  assessments,  an  appeal  lies  to  the  commissioners  of  appeal,  who  hold 
stated  and  special  meetings  at  the  usual  place  of  the  respective  town  meetings,  at- 
tended by  the  proper  assessor,  and  have  power  to  summon  and  qualify  witnesses, 
and  whose  decision  upon  the  case  is  final. 

The  township  collector  is  charged,  with  the  collection,  within  his  precinct,  of  all 
taxes,  whether  levied  by  the  township,  county  or  state;  to  make  return  of  default- 
ers in  payment,  on  oath,  to  a  justice  of  the  peace,  who  is  required  to  issue  his  war- 
rant, to  the  constable  of  the  township,  for  levying  the  tax  by  distress  and  sale  of  the 
goods,  or  imprisonment  of  the  delinquent ;  and  the  constable  must  account  with  the 
township  collector.  And  such  collector  and  constable  are  respectively  required  to 
render  to  the  people,  in  township  meeting,  an  account  of  monies  by  them  received, 
and  to  pay,  according  to  their  direction,  any  overplus  which  may  be  in  their  hands. 

All  monies  levied  for  county  use  are  to  be  paid  by  the  respective  township  collec- 
tors, on  or  before  the  22d  day  of  December,  annually,  to  the  proper  county  collector, 
who,  in  case  of  default,  may  proceed  summarily  against  them.  Monies  levied  for 
State  use,  are  to  be  paid  to  the  state  treasurer  by  the  county  collector  on  or  before 
the  30th  December,  annually  ;  and  such  tax  money,  as  he  may  receive  from  sheriffs, 
within  ten  days  after  the  same  shall  have  been  paid  ;  and  in  case  of  the  default  of 
any  county  collector,  the  state  treasurer  may  recover  from  him,  for  the  use  of  the 
State,  the  penalty  of  fifxy  dollars,  before  a  justice  of  the  Supreme  Court,  who  has  ex- 
clusive cognizance  thereof;  and  when  such  collectors  shall  not  have  paid  over 
monies  received  by  them,  the  same  may  be  recovered  by  the  state  treasurer  by  proper 
action  at  law.  The  counties  are  responsible  for  all  monies  belonging  to  the  State, 
received  by  the  county  treasurer,  and  not  paid  over  by  him  to  the  state  treasurer. 
And  it  is  the  duty  of  the  latter  to  add  the  annual  deficiency  of  each  county,  to  the 
quota  of  the  county  for  the  subsequent  year  ;  and  of  the  county  collector  to  charge 
such  deficiency,  and  also  deficiency  of  county  tax,  to  the  delinquent  township. 

The  county  collector  disburses  the  monies  of  the  county  upon  the  orders  of  the 
board  of  chosen  freeholders,  and  for  neglect  or  refusal  so  to  do,  or  to  perform  any  of 
the  duties  connected  with  the  levy  of  taxes  imposed  by  such  board,  he  is  subjected 
to  a  penalty  of  300  dollars. 

Thus,  in  these  subdivisions  of  the  State,  we  have  examples  of  a  pure  democracy 
and  simple  representative  government.  The  people  in  their  township  meetings,  (and 
the  word  township  comprehends  precincts  and  wards,)  discuss  their  common  wants, 
propose  the  remedies,  and  appoint  the  agents  to  give  them  effect.  In  the  larger  dis- 
tricts, where  legislation  in  their  proper  persons  would  prove  inconvenient,  as  well  by 
the  distance  of  the  people  from  each  other,  as  from  their  number  when  collected,  the 
citizens  have  devolved  the  necessary  legislative  power  upon  agents,  endowed  also 
with  an  adequate  executive  capacity.  This  system  works  well,  and  might,  possibly, 
be  beneficially  extended,  by  enlarging  the  sphere  of  action  of  the  chosen  freeholders, 
particularly,  in  giving  effect  to  a  general  and  uniform  system  of  education. 

Having  thus  incidentally  noticed  the  taxation  of  the  townships  and  counties,  we 
may  give  here  the  provisions  for  raising  revenues  for  the  State,  to  which  those  in 
other  cases  are  analagous.      [See  Note  A.] 

1.  The  legislature  annually  ascertains  what  sum  of  money  will  be  requisite  for 
State  expenses  during  the  succeeding  year,  and  passes  an  act  apportioning  such  suril 
among  the  several  counties,  in  a  ratio  of  their  wealth  and  population,  and  fixes  a 
day  for  the  payment  of  the  respective  quotas. 

2.  On  certain  subjects  of  taxation,  they  direct  specific  sums  to  be  levied,  viz:  on 
stud  horses  above  three  years  old,  any  sum  not  exceeding  10  dollars;  on  other  horsea 
and  mules  of  like  age,  any  sum  not  exceeding  six  cents;  and  on  neat  cattle  three 
years  old  and  upwards,  any  sum  not  exceeding  four  cents. 

H 


58  GENERAL  DESCRIPTION. 

3.  The  following  subjects  of  taxation  are  valued  and  rated  at  the  discretion  of  the 
assessor,  viz  :  tracts  of  land  at  any  sum  not  exceeding  100  dollars  the  hundred 
acres.  But  houses  and  lots  of  ten  acres  and  under,  are  rated  with  regard  to  their 
yearly  rent  and  value.* 

Householders,  (under  which  description  all  married  men  are  included,  the  esti- 
mated value  of  whose  rateable  estate  does  not  exceed  30  dollars.)  three  dollars  over 
and  above  their  certainties  and  other  rateable  estate  ;  merchants,  shopkeepers  and 
traders,  not  exceeding  ten  dollars;  fisheries,  ten  dollars;  grist  mills,  six  dollars  the 
run  of  stones  ;  cotton  manufactories  thirty  dollars ;  sail  duck  manufactories,  ten 
dollars;  woollen  manufactories,  ten  dollars;  carding  machines,  unconnected  with 
cotton  or  woollen  manufactories,  and  propelled  by  water  or  steam,  three  dollars;  all 
furnaces,  (other  than  blast)  ten  dollars;  blast  furnaces,  thirty  dollars;  sawmills,  for 
each  saw,  eight  dollars;  forges  that  work  pig  iron,  and  forges  and  bloomeries  that 
work  bar  iron  immediately  from  ore  or  cinders,  for  each  fire,  six  dollars ;  rolling  and 
slitting  mill.-;,  ten  dollars  ;  paper  mills,  eight  dollars ;  snuff  and  oil  mills,  nine  dollars  ; 
powder  mills,  fifteen  dollars;  fulling  mills,  unconnected  with  woollen  manufactory,  four 
dollars  ;  every  ferry  or  toll  bridge,  twenty  dollars;  tan  yards,  each  vat,  thirty  cents; 
every  single  man,  two  dollars;  but  if  he  possess  rateable  estate,  the  tax  whereof 
amounts  to  that  sum,  then  for  such  estate  only;  no  person  taxed  as  a  single  man 
may  be  taxed  as  a  householder;  every  male  slave,  able  to  labour,  under  the  age  of 
sixty  years,  one  dollar;  distillery  for  grain,  molasses  or  other  foreign  material,  thir- 
ty-five dollars;  other  distillery,  nine  dollars  ;  coach  or  chariot,  five  dollars;  phteton, 
coachee  or  four-wheeled  chaise,  with  steel  or  iron  springs,  four  dollars;  four  horse 
stage  wagon,  five  dollars;  two  horse  stage  wagon,  two  dollars  and  fifty  cents; 
covered  wagon,  with  frame  or  fixed  top,  one  dollar;  two  horse  chair,  curricle,  and 
every  two  horse  riding  chair,  with  steel  or  iron  springs,  one  dollar  and  fifty  cents; 
riding  chair,  gig,  sulkey  or  pleasure  wagon,  dearborn  wagon,  with  steel,  iron  or 
wooden  springs,  seventy-five  cents;  printing,  bleaching  and  dying  company,  five 
dollars;   glass  factory,  five  dollars. 

The  assessor  is  required  to  enter  in  his  tax  book  and  duplicate,  a  valuation  of  the 
real  estate,  having  regard  to  the  yearly  rent  and  value  thereof,  and  the  amount  of 
tax  assessed  in  each  township,  above  that  raised  from  the  certainties,  is  to  be  levied 
by  a  per  centage  upon  such  valution. 

He  is  required  between  the  20th  of  June  and  20th  August,  annually,  to  make  an 
exact  list  of  the  persons,  lands,  chattels  and  estates,  including  certainties,  made 
rateable  by  law  in  that  year,  by  which  all  assessments  during  the  year  is  regulated  ; 
and  persons  refusing  to  render  an  account,  or  rendering  a  false  one,  are  liable  to  be 
doubly  taxed. 

The  assessors  of  the  several  townships  of  the  county  meet  at  the  seat  of  justice, 
on  the  first  Monday  of  September,  annually,  to  ascertain  the  amount  of  the  certain- 
ties, and  to  estimate  the  estates,  real  and  personal,  taken  by  the  assessors  of  each 
township,  at  such  valuation  as  a  majority  present  shall  think  just,  according  to  law, 
and  thereby  to  adjust  and  fix  the  quota  of  tax  to  be  levied  in  each  township  ;  and  it 
is  their  duty  at  such  meeting  to  make  out  two  abstracts  of  the  rateables  in  each  town- 
ship, signed  by  the  assessors  present,  and  to  deliver  the  same  to  the  county  tieasu- 
rer,  who  is  required  to  lay  one  of  such  abstracts  before  the  legislature  during  the 
first  week  of  their  stated  annual  session  ;  and  within  fifteen  days  after  their  meet- 
ing, a  duplicate  of  such  assessment  shall  be  delivered  by  the  assessors  to  the  town- 
ship and  county  collectors;  the  last  of  whom  is  required  also  to  laj'  such  duplicate, 
at  the  time  abovementioned,  before  the  legislature. 

The  amount  of  the  certainties  being  deducted  from  the  quota  of  each  township, 

*  The  rationale  of  tliis  arbitrary  limitation  to  the  valiu"  of  the  lands,  is  not  very  apparent.  It 
is  not  possible  in  hiiv  case,  due  rep;ard  to  relative  value  bein,e:  preserved,  that  the  valuation  can 
approximate  to  the  true  marketable  value  of  lands,  which  is  in  many  cases  more  than  fifty 
times  the  raa.\iniuni  of  tiie  statutory  limitation.  Tiie  assessor  nuist  make  his  valuation  by 
adopting  a  maximum  or  minimum,  always  arbiti'ary,  from  which  to  commence  his  gradation, 
and  determine  the  value  of  the  several  classes  of  pro])erty  by  the  l)est  comparison  in  his  power. 
If  the  rule  for  valuation  be  uniform  in  all  the  counties,  the  taxation  v\  ill  be  e(|ual'  But  how- 
ls this  uniformity  to  be  olitained — lo  what  standard  shall  an  appeal  be  made.  It  is  certain  that 
this  mode  of  valuation  alVords  no  means  of  judging  of  the  wealth  of  the  several  counties,  nor 
of  comparing  tlie  value  of  lands  in  this  state  with  that  of  lands  in  other  states.  If  the  standard 
of  valuation  were  the  marketable  value  of  lands,  though  a  variable  one,  it  would  be  one  of  easy 
attainment ;  and  inequality,  desijj^ncd  or  accidental,  could  be  detected  by  a  standard  that  was 
notorious. 


EXECUTIVE  POWER.  59 

the  remainder,  with  the  fees  of  assessment,  collection  and  paying  over  to  the  trea- 
surer, is  assessed  on  the  other  taxable  property  within  the  township,  at  such  rate  per 
dollar  as  will  produce  the  sum  required.  Any  party  aggrieved  by  such  assessment, 
may  seek  redress  from  the  commissioners  of  appeal,  who,  for  that  purpose,  meet  on 
the  second  Tuesday  of  November,  annually. 

The  township  collector  is  required,  within  thirty  days  after  receipt  of  the  dupli- 
cate, to  demand  payment  of  the  tax  from  each  individual  of  his  township,  in  person 
or  by  notice  left  at  his  place  of  residence,  and  also  to  give  notice  of  the  time  and 
place  of  the  meeting  of  the  commissioners  of  appeal;  and  to  pay  the  taxes,  fines  and 
forfeitures  by  him  received,  by  virtue  of  any  law  of  the  State,  to  the  collector  of  the 
county,  by  the  22d  December,  annually;  and  such  sums  as  may  be  recovered  by 
prosecution,  thereafter,  as  soon  as  received.  If  the  taxes  be  not  paid  at  the  time 
appointed,  the  collector  is  to  make  return  to  a  justice  of  the  peace,  on  the  22d  De- 
cember, annuall}',  of  delinquents,  with  the  sums  due  from  them,  declaring  on  oath 
that  lie  had  in  relation  to  them,  respectively  performed  his  duty  according  to  law; 
and  to  take  a  receipt  for  such  list  from  the  justice. 

Within  five  days  after  receipt  of  such  list,  it  is  the  duty  of  the  justice  to  deliver 
warrants  to  the  constables,  requiring  them  to  levy  the  tax  in  arrears,  with  costs,  &c. 
by  distress  and  sale  of  chattels  of  delinquent — or,  in  default  of  clialtels,  to  imprison 
the  body  until  payment  be  made  ;  giving  four  days  notice,  at  least,  by  advertise- 
ment, of  the  time  and  place  of  such  sale.  And  i).  is  the  duty  of  the  constable  to 
pay  such  tax  to  the  townsliip  collector,  within  forty-five  days  from  the  date  of  the 
warrant ;  to  return  tlie  warrant  to  the  justice,  with  an  account  of  the  manner  of  his 
executing  the  same;  a  copy  of  wliicli  warrant  and  return,  the  justice  sliall.  if  de- 
manded, give  to  the  collector,  and  return  the  original  warrant,  if  not  fully  executed, 
to  the  constable. 

The  constable  is  liable  for  so  much  of  the  taxes,  which  by  sucii  warrant  he  was 
required  to  collect,  as  shall  not  be  paid  over  to  the  collector,  unless  the  deficiency 
happen  without  neglect,  fraud  or  default,  on  his  part,  in  suit,  by  township  collector, 
before  a  judge  of  the  Common  Pleas;  and  like  suit  may  be  brought  against  township 
collector,  by  the  county  collector,  for  monies  collected  by  him,  or  received  from 
constable,  and  not  paid  over,  according  to  law;  and  in  case  the  constable  be  prose- 
cuted, such  warrant,  on  cause  shown,  may  be  taken  from  him,  and  transferred  to 
another. 

Tenants  or  persons  having  charge  of  lands,  and  tenements  and  their  chattels,  are 
liable  for  taxes  imposed  on  such  lands;  and  on  payment,  may  deduct  the  amount  from 
their  rent,  or  recover  it  by  suit,  where  no  contract  prevents ;  and  when  the  tax  is  on 
unimproved  or  untenanted  land,  or  the  tenant  is  unable  to  pay,  the  tax  may  be 
levied  by  the  constable  on  the  warrant  of  a  justice,  at  the  instance  of  the  collector, 
by  sale  of  timber,  wood,  herbage,  or  other  vendible  property  of  the  owner,  on  the 
premises. 

The  justices,  constables  and  township  collectors,  render  to  the  township  commit- 
tee, when  required,  an  account  of  the  monies  they  or  any  of  them  may  have  re- 
ceived on  any  assessment,  and  not  paid  to  the  county  collector,  and  must  pay  to  such 
committee,  on  demand,  such  monies;  and  in  default,  are  liable  to  suit  by  the  clerk 
of  the  township,  in  the  name  of  the  inhabitants  thereof. 

Due  provision  is  made  for  the  compensation  of  the  respective  township  and  county 
officers,  for  enforcing  performance  of  their  duties  by  proper  sanctions,  and  for  levy- 
ing monies  becoming  due  from  them  by  virtue  of  their  oflicial  stations. 

Another  prominent  use  made  of  the  township  and  county  division,  is  in  the  system 
for  the  maintenance  of  the  poor. 

The  provisions  for  this  purpose,  like  the  political  subdivisions  themselves,  have, 
in  their  principal  features,  been  copied  from  Great  Britain.  The  wisdom  of  this 
system  is  less  than  equivocal,  but  the  genius  of  legislation  has  not  yet  been  able  to 
substitute  a  better.  Each  township,  or  precinct,  is  required  to  maintain  the  poor 
settled  within  it.  A  settlement  is  gained  by  the  acquisition  of  a  freehold  estate  of 
fifty  pounds  value,  and  residence  of  a  year;  apprenticeship,  or  servitude  by  inden- 
ture, for  a  year;  residence  of  one  year  by  a  mariner,  or  a  person  arriving  directly 
from  Europe;  and  such  residence  and  notice  to  the  overseer,  recorded  by  the  town 
clerk,  in  case  of  other  persons.  From  these  provisions  are  excepted  servants  pro- 
cured from  gaols  and  hospitals  in  other  states.  Bastard  children  have  the  settlement 
of  the  mothers.  Penalties  are  inflicted  upon  such  inhabitants  as  receive  into  their 
houses,  vagabonds,  vagrants,  sturdy  beggars,  and  idle  strolling  aad  disorderly  per- 


60  GENERAL  DESCRIPTION. 

sons ;  and  they  are  liable  to  maintain  such  wanderers,  and  to  pay  the  expenses  of 
their  funerals  in  case  of  death.  A  person  may  remove  from  one  precinct  to  another, 
bearing  the  certificate  of  tiie  overseers  of  the  poor  of  the  precinct  in  which  he  has 
a  settlement,  attested  and  allowed  by  two  justices  of  the  peace,  declaring  such  set- 
tlement, and  delivering  such  certificate  to  the  overseers  of  the  district  into  which 
he  shall  remove.  But  sucli  person,  becoming  chargeable,  may  be  returned  to  his 
place  of  settlement;  residence  under  the  certificate  not  giving  settlement;  and  ex- 
penses incurred  by  the  township  for  maintenance,  relief  or  burial  of  such  resident, 
must  be  paid  by  tlie  precinct  in  vi^hich  he  has  a  legal  settlement. 

Relief  is  granted  to  paupers,  on  the  order  of  a  justice,  at  the  application  of  the 
overseers;  the  order  fi.xing  the  amount,  and  serving  as  the  voucher  for  expenditure. 
And,  as  a  check  upon  the  overseers,  they  are  required  to  register  the  name  and  de- 
scription of  the  pauper,  and  such  order,  in  the  township  book,  together  with  the 
account  of  monies  received  or  disbursed  for  the  use  of  the  poor,  and  registry  of 
transactions  of  their  office,  and  to  lay  such  book  before  the  inhabitants  in  town 
meeting. 

Before  relief  granted,  the  goods  of  the  applicant  are  to  be  inventoried,  and  in  case 
of  death,  sold;   and  the  proceeds  applied  to  reimburse  the  expenditure  for  the  pauper. 

Poor  children,  who  have  no  parents,  or  whose  parents  are  applicants  for  relief, 
and  children  of  paupers  brought  up  in  sloth  and  ignorance,  may,  by  the  overseers, 
with  the  assistance  and  application  of  two  justices,  be  bound  apprentices  for  such 
number  of  years  as  they  may  think  proper,  males  until  21,  and  females  until  IS  years ; 
inserting  in  the  indenture,  a  clause  binding  the  master  to  cause  such  apprentice  to 
be  instructed  to  read  and  write.  And  the  overseers  and  justices  continue  the  guar- 
dians of  the  apprentice. 

Where  the  father  deserts  his  family,  or  a  widow  her  children,  leaving  them  a 
public  charge,  and  leaving  estate,  real  or  personal,  such  estate  may  be  taken  by  the 
overseers,  upon  the  warrant  of  two  justices,  and  the  rents  of  the  land,  and  the  pro- 
ceeds of  the  sale  of  the  chattels,  applied  to  the  maintenance  of  the  deserted  family. 

The  overseers,  with  the  assent  of  the  town  meeting,  may  purchase  or  rent  a 
workhouse,  in  which  to  employ  and  maintain  the  poor  of  the  precinct,  applying  the 
proceeds  of  their  labour  to  the  poor  fund ;  and  such  house  may  be  erected  by  two 
or  more  townships  conjointly.  Or  the  overseers  of  the  township  may  contract  with 
the  overseers  of  any  other  place,  for  the  maintenance  and  employment  of  the  poor 
of  such  other  place  ;  or  the  chosen  freeholders  of  the  county  may  purchase  or  build 
a  poorhouse  for  the  whole  county.  Persons  claiming  relief  and  refusing  to  be  lodged, 
kept  to  work,  and  maintained  in  such  house,  are  rejected. 

When  the  overseers  have  reason  to  believe,  that  any  person  not  having  a  settle- 
ment in  their  precinct  is,  or  is  likely  to  become,  chargeable,  they  may  bring  him,  by 
warrant  from  two  justices,  directed  to  and  served  by  the  constable,  before  such  ma- 
gistrates, who  shall  examine  such  person  on  oath  touching  his  last  place  of  settle- 
ment, and  direct  him  to  remove  thither  by  a  stated  time;  and  on  his  neglect  or  re- 
fusal to  comply  with  such  order,  may  issue  their  warrant  to  the  constable,  connnand- 
ing  him  to  convey  such  person  to  the  constable  of  the  next  precinct;  and  so,  from 
precinct  to  precinct,  until  he  reach  the  place  of  his  legal  settlement.  And  in  case 
such  person  return  to  the  place  from  whicli  he  was  removed,  and  does  not  depart 
therefrom,  within  24  hours  after  notice  given,  such  person,  if  male,  is  liable,  on 
the  order  of  a  magistrate,  to  receive  fifteen  lashes;  if  female,  in  the  discretion  of 
the  magistrate,  to  be  sent  away  again,  or  committed  to  close  confinement,  and  fed,  at 
the  expense  of  the  township,  on  bread  and  water  only  ;  and  both  to  be  sent  back  to 
the  place  to  which  they  may  have  been  first  ordered.  But  if  any  person  complained 
of,  as  a  pauper,  give  bond  with  two  sufficient  sureties,  conditioned  to  indemnify  the 
precinct  against  the  charge  of  his  maintenance,  he  shall  not  be  removed. 

The  overseers  of  the  townsiiip,  to  which  such  pauper  shall  be  legally  removed, 
are  required  to  receive  him,  under  penalty  of  five  pounds,  on  conviction  of  refusal, 
before  a  justice,  to  the  use  of  the  place  from  which  the  removal  was  made.  An  ap- 
peal from  the  order  of  removal  lies  by  the  pauper,  or  other  person  aggrieved,  to  the 
sessions. 

An  idle  vagrant,  vagabond,  or  beggar,  strolling  and  begging  through  the  country, 
may  be  ap])rehendod  by  the  constable,  or  any  inhabitant,  and  carried  before  a  jus- 
tice, who  is  required  to  examine  him  on  oath;  and  if  it  appear  that  he  have  a  set- 
tlement, to  grant  a  warrant  for  removal  as  abovementioned,  but  if  he  have  no  set- 
tlement in  the  State,  then  to  direct  by  such  warrant  that  he  be  conveyed  back  by 


EXECUTIVE  POWER.  61 

every  precinct  through  which  he  had  wandered,  until  he  be  transported  out  of  the 
State  :  and  such  vagrant  returning  into  the  State,  is  liable  to  punishment  by  whip- 
ping. Tliese  provisions  respecting  the  removal  of  indigent  persons,  though  in 
force,  are  not  often  executed. 

The  fund  for  maintenance  of  the  poor  is  augmented  by  fines  imposed  for  breach 
of  the  laws,  and  by  the  personal  estates  of  such  persons  as  may  die  intestate,  with- 
out any  representative.  The  pauper  may  sue  without  costs,  and  have  counsel  ap- 
pointed him  by  the  court,  who  shall  conduct  his  cause  without  fee  or  reward. 
Authority  is  given  to  the  respective  townships  to  raise,  as  for  other  township 
purposes,  such  sum  of  money  as  may  be  deemed  proper  for  the  education  of  pauper 
children  and  children  of  paupers. 

The  father  and  grandfather,  mother  and  grandmother,  child  and  grandchild,  when 
competent,  are  liable  to  maintain  the  pauper. 

A  third  essential  benefit,  promoted  by  the  territorial  subdivision  of  townships  and 
counties,  is  the  formation  and  preservation  of  roads.  The  common  roads  of  the 
country  are  either  public  or  private.  When  ten  or  more  freeholders  deem  a  new 
public  road  necessary,  or  one  existing,  unnecessary  or  proper  to  be  altered,  they  may 
by  petition,  after  giving  ten  days  public  notice  in  the  townships  through  which  the 
road  is  intended  to  pass,  obtain  from  the  court  of  Common  Pleas  the  appointment  of 
six  surveyors  of  the  highways,  liaving  regard  to  those  of  the  township  in  which  the 
road  lies  or  is  to  be  made.  When  the  road  is  to  be  on  the  county  line,  the  applica- 
tion must  be  made  to,  and  the  surveyors  appointed  by,  the  Supreme  Court,  three 
being  taken  from  each  county.  The  surveyors,  after  a  prescribed  notice  has  been 
given,  meet  and  view  the  road  or  ground  proposed  for  the  road,  and  lay  out,  vacate 
or  alter  it,  as  the  case  may  require  ;  and  return  a  map  thereof,  with  the  time  when 
the  same  may  be  opened,  to  the  clerk  of  the  Common  Pleas,  or  to  the  clerk  of  the 
Supreme  Court,  as  the  case  may  be,  who  records  the  return,  and  tlie  road  so  laid  out 
and  opened  becomes,  or  if  vacated  ceases  to  be,  a  public  highway  ;  unless  a  caveat  be 
entered  thereto  within  fifteen  days,  which  operates  as  a  supersedeas  of  proceedings 
until  the  succeeding  court. 

Upon  the  complaint  of  any  one  alleging  himself  aggrieved,  the  court  will  appoint 
six  of  the  chosen  freeholders  of  the  county,  who,  alter  due  notice  as  prescribed  by 
law,  also  view  the  road  proposed  to  be  made,  vacated  or  altered,  and  concurring  in 
report  with  the  surveyors,  it  is  definitively  confirmed,  so  that  no  further  proceedings 
may  be  had  thereon  for  one  year.  But,  if  their  report  diff"er  from  that  of  the  sur- 
veyors, the  latter  becomes  void,  and  tiie  road  or  alteration  may  be  again  applied  for 
under  a  year.  If  no  caveat  have  been  entered,  or  the  person  entering  it  do  not  pro- 
secute it  according  to  law,  or  the  freeholders  make  no  unfavourable  report,  or  be 
equally  divided  in  their  opinions,  the  proceedings  of  the  surveyers  become  valid.  If 
the  application  for  review  be  in  Cape  May  county,  and  the  proposed  or  actual  road 
run  through  lands  of  any  of  the  chosen  freeholders,  one  or  more  justices  of  the  peace 
may  be  appointed  on  the  review.  And  where  the  application  relative  to  the  road  is 
in  tile  Supreme  Court,  three  such  freeholders  from  each  county  are  appointed  to  re- 
view, and  like  proceedings  are  had  in  regard  to  their  report,  as  in  tlie  former  case. 
Any  neglect  of  the  officers  in  regard  to  these  proceedings,  is  punishable  by  a  fine  of 
sixteen  dollars,  to  the  use  of  the  prosecutor.  Four  of  the  surveyors  or  freeholders 
where  the  road  proposed  to  be  made  or  altered  is  in  one  county,  and  two  from  each 
of  the  counties,  where  there  are  more  than  one,  are  necessary  to,  and  sufficient  for 
the  return. 

The  proceedings  for  making,  vacating,  or  altering  private  roads,  are  similar  in 
most  respects,  to  those  in  the  case  of  public  ones.  Such  roads,  however,  are  made 
and  preserved  at  the  expense  of  those  interested  in  them,  who  may  hang  gates 
thereon,  which  are  protected  by  a  penalty  against  those  injuring  them.  By-roads 
if  shut  up,  may  be  laid  out  by  three  of  the  chosen  freeholders,  and  remain  as  private 
roads  until  vacated,  or  altered  in  the  manner  abovementioned. 

For  the  purpose  of  making  or  repairing  roads,  the  township  committee  assign,  in 
writing  to  the  overseers  of  the  roads  respectively,  their  several  limits  of  the  high- 
ways within  the  township.  And  it  is  the  duty  of  such  overseers  to  provide  la- 
bourers, animals,  implements  and  materials  for  the  work,  and  to  erect  such  bridges 
as  can  be  built  by  common  labourers  ;  the  monies  for  which  are  raised  by  order  of 
the  town  meeting,  as  in  other  cases  of  township  expense,  and  the  overseer  accounts 
with  the  town  meeting. 

If  the  township  be  fined  upon  the  presentment  of  the  grand  jury,  or  information 


62  GENERAL  DESCRIPTION. 

of  attx)rney  general,  for  the  bad  condition  of  the  roads,  the  overseer  within  whose 
limits  the  cause  arose,  is  responsible  therefor  with  costs,  or  he  maj  be  proceeded 
against  in  the  first  instance.  The  road  tax  payable  by  any  individual,  may  be  paid 
in  labour  on  the  road  by  himself  or  substitute;  and  the  roads  over  mill-dams  are  to 
be  kept  in  good  and  safe  condition  by  the  owners  of  the  mills  respectively,  so  long 
as  they  shall  be  upheld. 

The  town  meeting  may  determine  whether  the  highways  shall  be  maintained  by 
hire  or  by  labour.  But  if  the  resolution  be  to  maintain  the  roads  by  labour,  the 
township  committee  divide  the  highways,  in  their  township,  into  convenient  districts, 
and  assign  the  inhabitants  to  them,  in  equitable  proportions.  And  whatever  mode 
be  thus  adopted,  must  be  continued  for  three  years.  Inhabitants  who  neglect  to 
perform  their  quota  of  vpork,  are  each  finable  one  dollar  per  day,  for  absence  them- 
selves ;  one  dollar  and  a  half  for  a  horse  and  cart,  and  two  dollars  for  wagon  or  cart 
with  two  horses  or  oxen,  which  have  been  warned  out  and  shall  be  absent.  If  the 
township  vote  to  maintain  the  roads  by  hire,  but  do  not  supply  the  money  therefor, 
the  overseers  must  resort  to  the  labour  system.  If  the  overseer  neglect  his  duty,  he 
is  liable  to  an  action,  and  the  magistrate  on  complaint  of  three  freeholders,  may  issue 
his  precept  against  overseer,  and  on  conviction,  fine  him  any  sum  not  over  twenty, 
nor  under  five  dollars.  The  board  of  freeholders  is  authorized,  at  the  county's  ex- 
pense, to  erect  guide  posts  and  mile  stones,  where  they  may  deem  expedient. 

When  bridges  are  required  in  a  township,  or  between  two  townships,  they  are 
built  at  the  county  expense,  and  if  between  two  counties,  at  their  joint  expense. 
Where  the  cost  does  not  exceed  thirty  dollars,  the  overseer  and  chosen  freeholders 
of  the  township,  are  competent  to  order  its  execution;  where  the  cost  does  not  ex- 
ceed one  hundred  and  fifty  dollars,  tlie  approbation  of  the  overseers  of  the  township, 
and  of  the  chosen  freeholders  of  that,  and  of  the  two  adjacent  townships,  are  neces- 
sary ;  and  where  the  expense  will  exceed  one  hundred  and  fifty  dollars,  the  assent 
of  the  overseers  of  the  highway,  and  of  the  board  of  chosen  freeholders  of  the  county, 
is  required. 

In  addition  to  his  services  as  register  of  the  proceedings  of  the  Circuit  Courts,  the 
Court  of  Sessions  and  Common  Pleas,  the  county  clerk  performs  many  other  execu- 
tive duties.  We  have  already  noticed  his  ministry  in  general  elections.  He  is  the 
recorder  of  deeds,  mortgages,  and  other  conveyances  of  lands  in  his  county,  and  re- 
gister of  marriages  returned  to  him  by  justices  of  the  peace  and  ministersof  the 
gospel ;  the  receiver  of  monies  for  tavern  licenses,  which  he  pays  over  to  the  county 
freeholders;  and  is  the  depository  of  the  dockets  of  the  justices  of  his  county,  after 
their  deaths.  He  is  forbidden  to  act  as  surrogate,  or  practice  as  an  attorney,  within 
his  county. 

The  township  clerk  records  the  proceedings  of  the  town  meetings,  registers  es- 
trays,  and  receives  for  the  use  of  the  township  its  share  of  money  produced  by  the 
sale  of  unclaimed  beasts  impounded  for  damage  feasance;  and  registers  all  births 
and  deaths  in  his  township  dul^'^  communicated  to  him. 

The  present  militia  system  of  the  State,  is  founded  on  the  act  of  18th  February, 
1815,  and  the  supplements  of  1818,  1819,  and  1830  ;  which  require,  that  every  free 
able  bodied  white  male  inhabitant,  of  the  age  of  18,  and  under  45,  years,  shall  be  en- 
rolled by  the  commanding  officer  of  the  company  within  whose  bounds  he  may  reside. 
From  this  requisition  are  exempted,  ministers  of  the  gospel ;  the  vice  president  of 
the  United  States;  the  officers,  judicial  and  executive,  of  the  government  of  the 
United  States;  the  judges  of  the  Supreme  Court  of  this  State;  the  members  of  both 
houses  of  congress,  and  their  respective  officers;  all  custom  house  officers,  with 
their  clerks;  all  post  ofliicers  and  stage  drivers  employed  in  the  transit  of  the  mail; 
ferrymen;  inspectors  of  exports  ;  pilots;  mariners  actually  employed  in  the  sea  ser- 
vice of  any  merchant  within  the  United  States  ;  all  students  of  divinity  and  students 
of  the  two  colleges  in  this  State,  except  in  cases  of  actual  invasion  ;  and  persons  who 
shall  have  served  ten  years  in  any  uniform  corps  of  the  State  ;  and,  at  the  discretion 
of  the  brigade  board,  an  officer  who  has  held  a  commission  for  one  year  in  the  army 
of  the  United  States,  or  under  the  authority  of  any  one  of  the  States,  and  any  sol- 
dier who  may  have  faithfully  served  IS  months  in  the  late  war. 

A  brigade  is  formed  in  each  county,  except  Cape  May;  in  that,  there  is  an  inde- 
pendent regiment,  under  the  command  of  a  lieutenant  colonel,  whose  field  officers 
form  a  regimental  board,  with  the  power  of  a  brigade  board,  in  many  particulars. 
The  brigades  are  formed  into  four  divisions,  of  which  those  of  Burlington,  Glouces- 
ter, Salem  and  Cumberland,  with  the  Cape  May  regiment,  make  the  first;  those  of 


EXECUTIVE  POWER.  63 

Bergen,  Essex,  and  Morris,  the  second;  those  of  Somerset,  Middlesex,  and  Mon- 
mouth, the  third;   and  those  of  Hunterdon  and  Sussex,  the  fourtli. 

The  governor  is  commander  in  chief.  There  is  a  general  staff,  of  which  he  ap- 
points his  four  aids-de-camp,  with  the  ranli  of  lieutenant  colonel;  one  quartermas- 
ter and  one  adjutant  general,  with  the  rank  of  brigadier;  and,  when  the  service 
may  require  it,  one  deputy  adjutant,  and  one  deputy  quartermaster  general,  to  each 
brio-ade  or  division,  with  rank  of  lieutenant  colonel.  To  each  division  there  is  one 
major  general,  and  two  aids-de-camp  appointed  by  him,  with  the  rank  of  major ;  to 
each  brigade,  one  brigadier  general,  with  a  brigade  inspector,  acting  also  as  brigade 
major,  one  aid-de-camp  taken  from  the  line,  appointed  by  the  general,  judge  advo- 
cate, paymaster  and  quartermaster  ;  to  each  regiment,  one  colonel ;  to  each  battalion 
or  squadron,  one  major;  to  each  company  of  infantry,  light  infantry  and  grenadiers, 
one  captain,  one  lieutenant,  one  ensign,  four  sergeants,  four  corporals,  one  drujnmer, 
and  one  fifer ;  to  each  troop  of  horse,  one  captain,  two  lieutenants,  one  cornet,  four 
sergeants,  four  corporals,  one  saddler,  one  farrier,  one  trumpeter,  and  the  foot  and 
cavalry  companies  contain  not  more  than  64,  nor  less  than  40,  privates.  Compa- 
nies of  horse  can  be  raised  only  bj'  permission  of  the  commander  in  chief.  To  each 
company  of  artillery  there  are  a  captain,  two  lieutenants,  four  sergeants,  four  cor- 
porals, one  drummer,  one  fifer,  not  more  than  six,  nor  less  than  three,  gunners  and 
bombardiers,  nor  more  than  62,  nor  less  than  15,  matrosses.  The  regimental  statf 
consists  of  one  adjutant  and  quartermaster,  ranking  as  lieutenants,  taken  from  the 
subalterns  of  the  regiment,  a  paymaster  to  each  battalion  ;  a  surgeon,  surgeon's 
mate,  chaplain,  sergeant  major,  drum  major,  fife  major,  and  quartermaster  sergeant; 
all  of  wliom,  except  the  paymasters,  are  appointed  by  the  field  officers.  To  each 
company  of  riflemen  there  belong  a  captain,  three  lieutenants,  four  sergeants,  four 
corporals,  and  drummer,  fifer,  or  bugler.  Such  companies  are  attached  to  the  bat- 
talion in  whose  bounds  a  majority  of  the  members  reside.  To  each  troop  of  horse 
artillery,  there  are  a  captain,  four  lieutenants,  one  quartermaster  sergeant,  four  ser- 
geants, four  corporals,  one  saddler,  one  farrier,  one  bugler,  one  trumpeter,  and  not 
more  than  100,  nor  less  than  40,  privates. 

All  oflicers  take  rank  from  the  date  of  their  commissions,  except  when  they  are  of 
the  same  date,  and  then  by  lot.  The  captains,  and  ail  other  inferior  officers  of  the 
militia,  are  chosen  by  the  companies;  but  field  and  general  officers  by  the  council 
and  assembly,  and  all  are  commissioned  by  the  governor.  The  brigade  and  regi- 
mental staff  officers,  are  commissioned  by  him  on  certificates  of  their  appointment  by 
the  officers  making  them  ;  non-commissioned  oflicers  and  musicians,  are  appointed 
by  the  captains  and  subalterns.  The  uniform  is  that  worn  by  officers  of  the  United 
States. 

The  commanding  officers  of  each  regiment,  independent  battalion,  and  squadron, 
are  required  to  convene  their  respective  officers  twice  a  year;  and  at  one  of  such 
meetings,  the  orderly  sergeants;  and  at  the  meeting  not  attended  by  the  non-com- 
missioned officers,  may  direct  the  attendance  of  one  of  the  companies  under  their 
command,  for  the  purpose  of  military  improvement.  The  attendance  of  such  com- 
pany is  in  lieu  of  company  training,  and  absence  is  punishable  as  in  other  cases  of 
neglect  of  military  service.  And  the  non-commissioned  officers  attending  such  drill, 
is  entitled  to  fifty  cents  per  day. 

The  militia  meet  three  times,  annually,  for  improvement  in  discipline  and  martial 
exercise  ;  once  by  companies  or  troops,  on  the  3d  Monday  in  April ;  once  by  batta- 
lion or  squadron,  and  once  by  regiment  or  independent  battalion.  The  fine  for  non- 
attendance  on  days  of  exercise,  absence  from  roll  call,  or  leaving  parade  without 
permission,  is,  on  a  field  officer,  eight  dollars  ;  every  other  commissioned  officer, 
four  dollars;  on  every  non-commissioned  officer  and  private,  two  dollars  per  day; 
and  for  appearance  on  parade  v^ithout  appropriate  arms,  fifty  cents,  where  the  soldier 
is  able  to  provide  them.  When  called  into  active  service,  every  militiaman  must 
appear  fully  equipped,  with  every  article  required  by  act  of  congress,  under  penalty, 
if  an  officer,  of  ten  dollars;  and  if  a  private,  two  dollars.  No  militiaman  having  a 
substitute  in  actual  service,  is  therebj'  excused  from  duty  on  parade  days.  But  no 
militiaman  is  finable  more  than  two  dollars  in  one  year,  for  neglect  of  duty,  if  he 
have  attained  thirty-five  years;  provided,  that  when  he  shall  attend  at  any  one  of  the 
days  required  by  law,  and  perforin  military  duty,  he  shall  be  fined  one  dollar  for 
every  other  day's  absence  therefrom.  And  when  the  brigade  board  shall  disband 
any  company,  its  officers  may  be  exempted  from  military  duty. 

Delinquents  are  marked  at  roll  call  by  the  orderly  sergeant,  and  reported  to  the 


64  GENERAL  DESCRIPTION. 

company  court,  composed  of  the  officers  of  the  company  or  troop,  of  which  the  of- 
ficer first  in  rank  is  president.  Such  court  is  empowered,  to  hear  and  decide  on, 
the  excuse  of  delinquents  reported,  and  tlie  president  is  required  to  make  return 
within  ten  days,  to  the  commanding  officer  of  the  battalion,  of  all  delinquents,  and 
the  sum  imposed  on  each.  The  battalion  court  of  appeal,  consists  of  the  command- 
ing officer  of  the  battalion,  the  surgeon,  or  surgeon's  mate,  and  the  senior  captain, 
or,  in  his  default,  of  the  captain  next  in  rank  ;  and  is  empowered  to  hear  excuses  on 
appeal,  and  to  remit  fines  ;  and  in  case  of  permanent  inability,  by  certificate,  to  dis- 
charge from  military  duty.  The  president  of  this  court,  makes  returns  of  delin- 
quents and  the  fines  imposed,  to  the  battalion  and  brigade  paymasters.  Failure  to 
attend  such  court  by  its  members,  or  the  president  to  make  return,  is  punishable,  in 
the  first  case,  by  a  fine  often,  and  in  the  second,  by  a  fine  not  exceeding  thirty,  nor 
less  than  fifteen,  dollars. 

The  battalion  paymaster,  on  receipt  of  the  return,  and  such  fines  as  may  have 
been  collected  by  the  battalion  commandant,  after  efforts  to  collect,  and  after  the 
first  Monday  in  September,  delivers  the  list  of  delinquents  to  a  justice  of  the  peace, 
who  issues  execution  against  them,  as  in  case  of  taxation;  the  constable  being  re- 
quired to  levy  the  same  on  the  goods  of  the  delinquent,  or  in  default  of  goods,  to 
commit  him  to  prison,  until  payment,  &c.  But  the  brigade  board,  or  any  three  of 
them,  may  discharge  delinquent  unable  to  pay.  If,  upon  levy  and  sale,  there  be  a 
balance  in  the  hands  of  the  constable  which  the  delintjuent  will  not  receive,  he  pays 
it  to  the  paymaster  of  the  battalion,  to  be  accounted  for  in  his  settlement  with  the 
brigade  board,  and  certifies  the  same  to  the  judge  advocate,  or  brigade  board. 
The  fines  and  penalties  imposed  on  minors,  are  payable  by  the  parent,  guardian,  or 
master. 

The  battalion  paymaster  returns  to  the  brigade  board  the  list  of  delinquent  com- 
missioned officers  certified  by  the  orderly;  keeps  a  journal  of  their  proceedings;  an 
account  of  fines  and  the  modes  of  their  payment,  whether  voluntary  or  involuntary, 
and  of  such  as  may  not  be  recovered,  with  the  reason  thereof;  all  which  is  submitted 
to  the  brigade  board.  The  battalion  and  brigade  paymasters  are  appointed  by  such 
board,  and  give  bond  with  sureties,  the  first  in  five  hundred,  and  the  second  in  two 
thousand  dollars,  conditioned  for  the  faithful  performance  of  their  duties;  to  which 
effect,  they,  also,  make  oath  before  the  county  clerk.  The  brigade  paymaster  re- 
ceives all  vouchers  and  returns,  and  keeps  distinct  accounts  of  the  monies  arising 
from  fines  and  forfeitures  in  the  several  regiments  and  battalions  in  the  brigade,  and 
of  monies  received  and  paid  by  him,  subject  to  the  examination  of  the  brigade  board  ; 
collects  the  fines  imposed  by  the  board  on  delinquent  officers,  and,  in  case  of  non- 
payment for  sixty  days,  puts  the  list  into  the  hands  of  a  justice  of  the  peace,  which 
is  then  proceeded  upon  as  above  stated. 

The  brigade  board  is  composed  of  the  brigadier  general,  brigade  major  and 
commandants  of  regiments,  independent  battalions,  and  squadrons  of  the  re- 
spective brigades  ;  a  majority  of  whom  form  a  quorum,  meeting  annually  on  the 
third  Monday  in  December,  at  a  place  of  their  own  appointment,  within  the  brigade. 
The  officer  of  first  grade  and  seniority  presides,  and  the  board  has  power  :  To  com- 
pel the  attendance  of  its  members  by  fine,  not  exceeding  twenty  dollars — to  ar- 
range the  regiments,  battalions,  squadrons,  troops,  and  comjianies,  as  they  may 
deem  expedient — to  authorize  the  formation  of  new  uniform  companies,  and  to  at- 
tach them  to  such  battalion  or  regiment  as  they  may  deem  proper — to  draw  orders 
on  the  brigade  paymaster  for  lawful  expenses — to  make  a  reasonable  compensation 
to  the  brigade  and  battalion  paymasters  for  their  services;  adjust  their  accounts,  re- 
move them  in  case  of  malfeasance,  and  to  appoint  a  successor  who  in  case  of  bri- 
gade paymaster  shall  prosecute  his  predecessor  for  monies  of  the  brigade  in  his 
hands — and  also  the  battalion  paymasters  who  may  be  in  arrears — to  allow  adju- 
tants for  extra  services — to  compensate  brigade  judge  advocates — to  assess  fines  on 
delinquent  officers,  returned  by  the  brigade  major  or  battalion  paymaster — to  pre- 
serve order  at  their  meetings  by  imposition  of  fines  not  exceeding  ten  dollars,  upon 
transgressors,  and  to  erect  a  covering  for  the  protection  of  field  artillerj' — to  keep 
an  account  of  all  sums  by  tliem  received  from  their  several  battalion  paymasters,  and 
disbursements,  with  an  account  of  the  expenses  of  the  militia  system,  and  the  ap- 
propriations made  for  arms,  &c. — and  make  reports  thereof,  annually,  to  the  legis- 
lature. 

The  judge  advocate  is  appointed  by  the  brigade  board,  of  which  he  is  ex  officio 
clerk,  and  is  required  to  attend  its  meetings  and  record  its  proceedings. 


EXECUTIVE  POWER.  65 

The  adjutant  general  distributes  all  orders  of  the  commander  in  chief,  to  the  se- 
veral corps,  attends  public  reviews,  if  required,  when  the  commander  in  chief  re- 
views the  troops, — obeys  all  orders  from  him,  executing-  or  perfecting  the  military 
system  established  by  law, — furnishes  blank  forms  of  the  different  returns  directed 
by  the  commander  in  chief, — receives  from  the  several  officers  returns  of  all  militia 
under  their  command,  together  with  reports  of  the  state  of  the  arms,  ammunition, 
&c.  from  which  he  reports  proper  abstracts  to  the  commander  in  chief,  who  lays 
them  before  the  legislature.  He  annually  reports  all  the  militia  of  the  State  to  the 
president  of  the  United  States — Keeps  a  record  of  all  orders,  returns  names  of  com- 
missioned officers,  and  proceedings  relative  to  the  details  of  the  military  force  ordered 
out  by  the  commander  in  chief  upon  requisitions  of  the  president  or  Congress  of  the 
United  States,  in  cases  of  invasion,  or  other  emergency — Records  all  certificates 
of  election  of  officers  before  commissioned  by  the  commander  in  chief — and  lays 
his  accounts,  annually,  before  the  legislature,  who  appropriate,  annually,  one  hun- 
dred dollars  for  his  services. 

The  brigade  inspectors  attend  the  brigade,  regimental  and  independent  battalion 
meetings  of  the  militia  composing  their  several  brigades,  during  the  time  of  their 
being  under  arms,  to  inspect  their  arms,  &c. — makes  returns,  annually,  to  the  ad- 
jutant general  of  the  militia  of  his  brigade,  reporting  particularly  the  name  of  the 
reviewing  off.cer,  the  state  of  the  arms,  &c.  and  every  thing  which,  in  his  judg- 
ment, may  advance  good  order  and  military  discipline.  He  receives  for  ordinary 
duty,  thirty  dollars  per  annum,  and  for  extra  duty,  such  allowance  as  the  brigade 
board  may  direct;  and  is  subject  to  a  fine  of  fifty  dollars  for  malfeasance,  and  the 
forfeiture  of  his  annual  salary,  unless  he  produce  the  acknowledgment  of  the  adju- 
tant general  for  his  returns.  In  the  absence  of  the  brigade  inspector,  the  command- 
ing officer  appoints  some  one  to  perform  his  duties. 

Company  officers  report  their  acceptance  of  office  to  the  commanding  officer  of  the 
battalion,  within  ten  days  after  notice  of  their  election,  otherwise  the  election  is 
deemed  void.  Resignations  are  made  to  the  brigade  commander;  and  where  vacan- 
cy happens  in  the  company,  by  death,  removal  or  resignation,  such  commander  di- 
rects his  warrant  to  the  battalion  commandant,  to  hold  an  election  to  supply  the  va.- 
cancy. 

Persons  enrolled  in  a  uniform  company  are,  upon  the  certificate  of  the  command- 
ing officer,  excused  from  service  in  the  militia  :  but  such  certificate  may  not  be 
given  until  such  persons  have  appeared  in  uniform,  under  penalty  of  ten  dollars 
upon  the  officer. 

The  majors  are  charged  with  organizing  the  several  companies  under  their  respec- 
tive commands.  Where  the  militiamen  of  any  company  or  district,  fail  to  choose  offi- 
cers, the  major  may  appoint  a  sergeant,  to  take  command  of  the  company  until  pro- 
per officers  are  duly  qualified;  and  to  constitute  his  company  court,  such  sergeant 
may  appoint  persons  from  the  list  of  the  company,  who  may  elect  one  of  their  num- 
ber president. 

No  officer  or  private,  on  his  way  to,  or  return  from,  militia  service,  may  be 
charged  toll  or  ferriage,  and  refusal  to  permit  his  passage  is  punishable  by  fine  of 
eight  dollars;  nor  can  he  be  arrested  on  civil  process  on  any  legal  day  for  training, 
nor  can  his  arms,  &c.  be  levied  on  and  sold  under  execution. 

The  commander  in  chief  may,  in  case  of  invasion  or  other  emergency,  order  out 
any  proportion  of  the  militia  of  the  State,  to  march  to  any  part  thereof,  and  conti- 
nue so  long  as  he  may  think  necessary,  not  exceeding  two  months.  In  such  case, 
substitutes  may  be  received  for  any  person  called  on  to  do  a  tour  of  duty,  but  no 
substitute  is  admissible  at  ordinary  training,  under  penalty  on  the  officer,  of  ten 
dollars.  Horses  of  militiamen,  taken  into  service,  are  registered  and  appraised, 
and  their  value  paid  to  the  owner,  in  case  the  horse  be  killed  or  taken  by  the  ene- 
my. The  accounts  of  the  quartermaster,  for  rations  or  ammunition,  must  be  ap- 
proved by  the  commanding  officer  of  the  regiment  or  independent  battalion,  and  by 
the  governor,  before  payment  at  the  treasury. 

Courts  martial  are  appointed,  for  the  trial  of  officers  above  the  rank  of  field  offi- 
cers, by  the  commander  in  chief, — for  field  officers,  by  the  major  generals,  in  their 
respective  divisions, — for  captains  and  subaltern  commissioned  officers,  by  the  bri- 
gadier generals,  each  in  his  own  brigade.  And  the  commandant  of  regiments  and 
independent  battalions  may  institute  a  regimental  court  martial  whenever  they  shall 
find  it  necessary.  Officers  appointing  such  court  nmst,  in  all  cases,  a[)])rove  or  dis- 
approve its  sentence,  and  may  mitigate  or  remit  the  punishment,  except  where  the 

I 


66  GENERAL  DESCRIPTION. 

offence  is  of  a  personal  nature,  when  the  sentence  is  conclusive.     And  such  officer 

may,  incase  of  emergency,  appoint  a  judge  advocate,  2''>^o  tempore. 

The  regimental  court  martial  is  composed  of  five  members,  the  president  of  whom 
shall  not  be  under  the  rank  of  captain.  The  general  court  martial  consists  of  thir- 
teen commissioned  officers,  not  under  the  rank  of  captain,  tlie  senior  of  whom  is 
president.  The  concurrence  of  two-thirds  of  the  court  is  necessary,  in  every  sen- 
tence for  inflicting  punishment;  and  each  member,  with  the  judge  advocate,  swears 
to  determine  the  case  according  to  the  evidence,  that  he  will  not  divulge  the  sen- 
tence until  it  have  been  approved  or  disapproved  ;  and  will  at  no  time,  discover  the 
vote  or  opinion  of  any  member,  unless  required  to  give  evidence  thereof  in  a  court 
of  justice. 

The  expense  of  a  court  martial,  trying  an  officer  of  the  general  staff,  is  payable 
from  militia  fines  in  the  State  treasury  ;  trying  an  officer  above  the  grade  of  major, 
by  the  paymaster  of  the  brigade  ;  trying  a  major,  or  inferior  officer,  by  the  battalion 
paymaster.  Members  of  courts  martial  receive  $1  50  per  day,  and  witnesses  fifty 
cents — payable  on  certificates  of  tlie  judge  advocate. 

Commissioned  officers  guilty  of  unofficer-like  conduct,  may  be  cashiered  by  the 
court,  or  punished  by  fine,  not  exceeding  fifty  dollars.  The  commanding  officer  of 
a  regiment,  battalion,  or  squadron,  failing  to  give  orders  for  assembling  his  command, 
as  directed  by  his  brigadier,  or  in  case  of  invasion,  may  be  cashiered,  and  punished 
by  a  fine  not  e.xceeding  one  hundred  dollars:  and  a  commissioned  officer  of  a  com- 
pany, guilty  of  like  offence,  under  the  orders  of  tlie  commandant  of  the  regiment, 
&c.,  is  subject  to  like  punishment;  and  a  non-commissioned  officer,  to  a  fine  not 
exceeding  thirty  dollars.  The  commanding  officer  of  a  compan}',  &.C.,  failing  to 
return  a  list  of  persons,  notified  to  perform  a  tour  of  duty,  to  the  colonel,  &c.,  may 
be  cashiered,  or  fined  in  a  sum  not  exceeding  one  hundred  dollars. 

Non-commissioned  officers,  or  privates,  appearing  drunk  upon  parade,  disobeying 
orders,  using  reproachful  or  abusive  language  to  officers,  quarrelling  or  promoting 
quarrf'ls  among  fellow-soldiers,  may  be  disarmed  and  put  under  arrest,  until  the 
company  be  dismissed,  and  be  fined  by  court  martial,  not  exceeding  eight  dollars.  A 
militiaman  deserting  whilst  on  a  tour  of  duty,  may  be  fined  not  exceeding  one  hun- 
dred dollars,  and  imprisoned  not  more  than  two  months:  and  if  a  non-commissioned 
officer,  shall  be  degraded  to  the  ranks.  Non-commissioned  officer,  or  private, 
bringing  on  parade,  or  discharging,  within  a  mile  thereof,  any  loaded  fire  arms,  on 
the  day  assigned  for  improvement  or  inspection,  without  permission  from  a  commis- 
sioned officer,  is  subject  to  a  fine  of  one  dollar. 

When  ordered  out  for  improvement  or  inspection,  the  militia  are  under  military 
discipline,  from  the  rising  to  the  setting  of  the  sun,  and  none,  during  such  time, 
may  be  arrested  on  civil  process:  on  days  of  exercise  they  may  be  detained  under 
arms,  on  duty,  in  the  field,  six  hours;  but  not  more  than  three  hours  without  time 
being  allowed  to  refresh  themselves.  The  retailing  of  spirituous  liquors,  on,  or 
within  a  mile  of  the  parade,  is  prohibited  under  a  penalty  of  forfeiture  of  such 
liquors.  The  rules  of  discipline  are  such  as  may  be  established  by  Congress  for  dis- 
ciplining the  regular  troops  of  the  United  States. 

By-standers  at  any  muster,  molesting  or  insulting,  by  abusive  words  or  behaviour, 
any  ofiicer  or  soldier,  while  on  duty,  may  be  put  under  guard,  and  kept  at  the  discretion 
of  the  commanding  officer,  until  sundown;  and  if  guilty  of  like  misconduct,  before  a 
court  martial,  may  be  fined  not  exceeding  twent}^  dollars,  and  costs  of  prosecution. 

Fines  imposed  by  courts  martial,  are  certified  by  tlie  judge  advocate  to  the  brigade 
board,  and  are  collected  by  the  brigade  paymaster,  in  the  manner  above  directed. 
The  sur])lus  money  in  the  hands  of  the  brigade  paymaster,  is  appropriated  to  the 
purchase  of  arms,  accoutrements,  colours,  instruments  of  music,  and  the  preserva- 
tion of  arms  (the  arms  being  subject  to  the  order  of  the  commander  in  chief,  in  case 
of  invasion,  insurrection,  or  war).  And  the  judge  advocate  is  required,  after  the 
annual  meeting  of  the  brigade  board,  to  transmit  to  the  adjutant  general,  a  statement 
of  the  disbursements,  and  arms,  &c.,  to  be  laid  by  him  before  the  legislature.  The 
commandants  of  regiments,  independent  battalions,  and  s(]uadrons,  account  to  the 
brigade  board  for  the  monies  received  by  them  for  teaching  music,  and  oilier  pur- 
poses. 

The  commander  in  chief,  or  of  brigade,  when  the  militia  may  be  called  into  actual 
service,  may  receive  uniform  com[)anies  from  any  brigade  in  the  State  as  volunteers, 
who  having  served  their  tour,  are  exempted  from  draft,  until  their  battalions,  regi- 
ment, or  brigade  shall  have  performed  like  service ;  and  their  brigade  is  accredited 


EXECUTIVE  POWER.  67 

for  the  number  so  volunteering.  Due  authority  is  given  to  the  commander  in 
chief  for  organizing  companies  on  the  sea-board  when  necessary  for  its  protection: 
and  he  may  furnish  any  uniform  company  with  arms,  tlie  property  of  the  State  ;  the 
officers  giving  bond  for  keeping  them  in  repair,  and  returning  them  when  required. 
Uniform  companies  are  attached  to  the  battalion  within  the  bounds  of  which  a  major- 
ity of  the  company  resides- 

Any  person  desirous  to  be  exempt  from  militia  dut}-,  is  required,  on  or  before 
the  first  of  April,  annually,  to  report  himself  to  the  commanding  officer  of  the  com- 
pany, in  the  bounds  of  which  he  may  reside.  Such  officer  returns  the  list  of  exempts 
to  the  township  collector,  on  or  before  the  twentieth  of  June,  annually,  who  taxes 
each,  the  sum  of  five  dollars,  in  addition  to  his  other  taxes ;  designating  it  in  his 
duplicate,  delivered  to  the  township  collector  ;  and  he,  also,  furnishes  the  collector 
of  the  county,  on  or  before  the  first  of  December,  annually,  two  certified  abstracts 
of  the  names  of  such  exempts.  The  township  collector  pays  to  the  county  collector, 
such  taxes,  and  his  certificate  of  the  death,  insolvency,  or  absconding  of  the  exempt, 
is  a  sufficient  voucher  against  the  tax ;  and  the  county  collector  pays  to  the  State 
treasurer,  the  exempt  taxes,  with  other  State  taxes,  and  the  treasurer  carries  them 
to  the  credit  of  the  school  fund. 

The  commanders  of  the  respective  companies  enrol  all  persons  within  their 
bounds  liable  to  perform  militia  duty,  not  returned  as  exempts,  and  fine  them  for 
non-attendance  on  days  of  parade,  according  to  law,  under  the  penalty  of  thirty 
dollars  for  omission.  But  exempts  may  be  classed  as  enrolled  militia  when  called 
into  actual  service.  And  due  provision  is  made  by  law  for  classifyng  the  militia  for 
actual  service  when  required. 

The  following  is  the  state  of  the  militia,  apparent  from  the  last  return  of  the  ad- 
jutant general,  viz:  Commander  in  chief,  4  aids-de-camp;  1  quartermaster  general, 
4  deputies  ;  1  adjutant  general,  4  deputies;  4  major  generals,  each  having  two  aids  ; 
13  brigades  and  brigadiers,  and  the  independent  battalion  of  Cape  May  county. 

Brigade  Staff,  consisting  of  13  brigade  majors  and  one  adjutant,  13  paymas- 
ters, 11  quartermasters,  6  surgeons,  13  judges  advocate. 

Cavalry  : — 1  brigadier  general,  4  colonels,  9  majors,  31  captains,  63  lieutenants, 
25  cornets,  86  sergeants,  73  corporals,  11  saddlers,  10  farriers,  36  trumpeters,  and 
1673  privates,  making  an  aggregate  of  1810.  Cavalry  arms:  sabres  734,  pairs  of 
pistols  609,  holsters  733,  cartridges  376,  cartridge-boxes  359,  horses,  saddles,  and 
bridles,  each,  963. 

Artillery: — 30  captains,  54  lieutenants,  93  sergeants,  75  corporals,  40  bombar- 
diers, 68  gunners,  36  drummers,  25  fifers,  1802  privates, — total  1886.  Ordnance 
apparatus  and  equipments:  18  six  pounders,  8  four  pounders,  1  two  pounder,  1 
swivel,  18  tumbrels  and  wagons,  25  ramrods  and  screws,  16  port-fire  stocks,  33 
dragropes,  14  handspikes,  159  muskets,  19  bayonets,  329  swords,  39  cartouche 
boxes,  23  powder  horns  and  wires,  and  43  knapsacks. 

Rifle  Corps  : — 17  captains,  44  lieutenants,  48  sergeants,  16  corporals,  22  drum- 
mers, 16  fifers,  12  buglers,  1052  privates, — total  1115.  Jlrrns  and  cqjupments :  54 
swords,  336  rifles,  132  fusees,  117  muskets,  17  powder  horns  and  pouches. 

Infantry: — Colonels  47,  majors  96,  adjutants  58,  paymasters  98,  quartermasters 
48,  surgeons  47,  surgeon's  mates  37,  drum  majors  20,  fife  majors  21,  sergeant- 
majors  33,  captains  406,  lieutenants  397,  ensigns  327,  sergeants  1065,  corporals 
664,  drummers  329,  fifers  263,  privates  28,882, — aggregate  30,456.  Arms  and 
equipments:  swords  796,  espontoons  57,  muskets  8268,  bayonets  3565,  iron  rara 
rods  5084,  firelocks,  other  than  muskets,  3373,  cartridge  boxes  1293. 


68 


GENERAL  DESCRIPTION 


RECAPITULATION. 


III.  The  judiciary,  as  established  under  the  colonial  government,  was  recognised 
by  the  constitution,  in  the  general  clause  continuing  the  laws  existing  at  the  time  of 
its  adoption,  and  in  that,  limiting  the  tenure  of  oflice  of  the  judges.  Some  modifi- 
cations and  enlargement  of  jurisdiction  have,  however,  since  been  made  ;  and  tiie 
judiciary  power  is  now  vested  in  a  Court  of  Appeals,  Court  of  Chancery,  Supreme 
and  Circuit  Courts,  Courts  of  Oyer  and  Terminer,  and  General  Jail  Delivery: 
Courts  of  Common  Pleas,  Quarter  Sessions  and  Orphan's  Court,  and  Courts  for  the 
trial  of  small  causes,  holden  by  Justices  of  the  Peace.  These  institutions  will  be 
best  viewed,  passing  from  those  of  the  lowest  to  those  of  the  highest  order  ;  and  at- 
tempting an  outline  of  the  constitution  of  each. 

The  courts  for  the  trial  of  small  causes  or  Justices'  Courts,  now  depend  upon  the 
act  of  12th  of  February,  1818,  and  its  supplements.  J3y  these,  every  suit  of  a 
civil  nature,  at  law,  including  suits  for  penalties,  where  the  matter  in  dispute  does 
not  exceed  the  value  of  one  hundred  dollars,  is  cognizable  before  a  justice  of  the 
peace  of  any  county,  who  holds  a  court  of  record,  endowed  with  the  usual  pow- 
ers of  such  courts.  From  this  jurisdiction,  however,  are  excepted,  actions  of  re- 
plevin, slander,  trespass  for  assault,  battery,  or  imprisonment,  and  actions  wherein 
the  title  to  real  estate  may  come  in  question.  The  territorial  jurisdiction  of  the  jus- 
tice is  coextensive  with  his  county,  and  his  process  is  confined  to  it,  except  in  the 
case  of  the  subpana  ad  testificandum,  which  may  run  into  other  counties.  The  con- 
stables of  the  several  townships  of  the  county  are  the  ministerial  oilicers  of  the  court, 
who  execute  its  process,  tested  on  the  day  it  is  issued,  and  signed  and  sealed,  by  the 
justice. 

The  initiatory  process  is  summons  or  warrant.  The  first  is  required  when  the  de- 
fendant is  a  freeholder,  and  resident  of  the  county  where  issued,  and  in  cases  where 
defendant  cannot  be  held  to  bail;  and  m.ay  be  used  on  all  occasions,  at  the  election 
of  plaintiff;  the  warrant  may  issue  against  persons  not  freeliohlers,  or  against  free- 
liolders  about  to  abscond  from  the  county.  The  summons  is  returnable  in  not  less 
than  five,  nor  more  than  fifteen  days  from  its  date  ;  and  must  be  served  at  least  five 
days  before  the  day  given  therein  for  appearance,  personally,  upon  the  defendant, 


JUDICIARY.  69 

or  by  a  copy  left  at  his  dwelling.  The  warrant  is  returnable  forthwith.  Upon  ar- 
rest the  defendant  either  gives  bond,  with  freehold  surety,  to  the  constable  for  his 
appearance  at  a  stated  day,  not  more  than  eight  from  the  service,  or  is  carried  be- 
fore the  justice,  where  he  enters  into  recognisance  with  like  security,  conditioned 
for  his  appearance,  or  is  committed  to  prison  to  await  the  time  of  hearing,  which 
must  not  be  more  than  three  days  from  the  return  of  the  warrant ;  or  he  is  held  by 
the  constable,  until  the  plaintiff  be  notified  and  have  time  to  proceed  to  trial. 

The  amount  of  the  sum  demanded  is  endorsed  upon  the  writ,  with  the  costs,  and 
may  be  paid  to  the  constable  in  full  discharge  of  the  debt  and  arrest. 

On  the  appearance  of  the  parties,  the  trial  is  had,  or  the  hearing  is  adjourned, 
by  the  justice  himself,  or  on  cause  shown  by  either  party,  not  longer  than  fifteen  days : 
but  if  the  defendant  do  not  appear,  judgment  may  be  rendered  by  default;  and  by 
consent  of  parties  may  be  entered,  without  process,  for  any  sum  within  the  juris- 
diction of  the  justice. 

After  appearance  of  defendant,  and  plea  entered,  and  before  inquiry  into  the  me- 
rits of  the  cause  by  the  justice,  either  party  may  demand  a  trial  by  jury;  upon 
which,  where  the  sum  claimed  does  not  exceed  sixteen  dollars,  six  jurymen,  and 
where  over  sixteen  dollars,  twelve  jurymen  may  be  summoned.  The  costs  of  the 
jury  of  twelve,  when  finding  for  the  applicant,  above  five,  and  not  exceeding  twenty- 
five  dollars,  are  paid,  in  part  by  him;  but  if  finding  for  him,  five  dollars,  or  under, 
then  the  whole  costs  are  paid  by  the  applicant;  the  costs  of  the  jury  of  six,  finding 
in  favour  of  the  applicant,  under  five  dollars,  are  wholly  payajjle  by  him. 

By  consent,  and  at  request  of  the  parties,  the  justice  may  enter  rules  of  refer- 
ence of  the  matters  in  difiierence  to  such  persons  as  shall  be  nominated  by  the  par- 
ties. 

Upon  judgment  rendered  before  the  justice,  no  execution  can  issue  against  a  fe- 
male, when  the  debt  is  under  two  dollars.  Where  the  debtor  is  a  freeholder,  and 
when  sued  by  summons,  he  is  to  be  taken  as  sucli,  unless  the  presumption  be  dis- 
proved, or  when  a  sufficient  freeholder  of  the  county  shall  join  with  him  in  confes- 
sion of  judgment  to  the  adverse  party,  stay  of  execution  may  be  had,  where  the 
judgment  is  over  five,  and  under  fifteen  dollars,  for  one  month;  when  over  fifteen 
and  under  sixty  dollars,  for  three  months,  and  when  over  sixty  dollars,  for  six  months. 

The  execution  continues  in  force  for  one  year  from  the  time  it  is  issued ;  but  may 
be  renewed  upon  scire  facias,  and  judgment  thereon,  and  takes  priority  from  the 
time  of  levy  made,  and  the  surplus  proceeds  of  sale  under  the  first  execution  are 
applicable  to  the  satisfaction  of  others,  in  successive  order.  The  levy  is  made  on 
the  goods  and  chattels  of  defendant ;  and  if  another  claim  property  in  the  goods  le- 
vied upon,  the  constable  stays  the  sale  for  ten  days,  unless  indemnified  by  plaintiff"; 
during  which,  the  claimant,  on  application  to  a  justice,  may  have  his  rights  tried  by 
a  jury  of  six  men,  and  if  the  application  be  not  made  within  that  time,  the  claim  is 
deemed  abandoned.  The  verdict,  if  against  the  claimant,  protects  the  constable  in 
making  sale  of  the  goods.  For  want  of  goods  whereon  to  levy,  the  body  of  the  de- 
fendant is  liable  to  imprisonment  until  the  debt  and  costs  be  paid,  or  until  delivered 
by  due  course  of  law:  and  where  there  are  no  personal  effects  an  action  may  be 
brought  in  the  Common  Pleas,  on  the  judgment  before  the  justice,  in  order  to  reach 
the  real  estate. 

From  the  judgment  of  the  justice,  on  default,  on  absence  or  confession  of  defen- 
dant, or  when  the  matter  in  dispute  does  not  exceed  three  dollars  in  value,  there  is 
no  appeal.  In  other  cases,  an  appeal  lies  by  either  party  to  the  Common  Pleas  to 
be  holdennext  after  rendition  of  judgment;  the  appellant  giving  bond,  with  surety, 
to  the  other  party  conditioned  for  the  prosecution  of  his  appeal.  The  justice  de- 
termining the  cause  is  excluded  from  sitting  upon  it  in  the  appellate  court. 

The  judgment  of  the  justice  may,  also,  be  revised  by  the  Supreme  Court,  by 
certiorari  (but  not  by  writ  of  error)  issued  within  eighteen  months  from  the  rendi- 
tion. Any  justice  is  authorized,  in  cases  in  a  Justice's  Court,  to  take  the  deposition 
of  infirm,  sick,  or  going  witnesses,  and  to  issue  commission  for  the  examination  of 
witnesses. 

The  justices  (among  whom  are  to  be  esteemed  the  mayor,  recorder,  and  alder- 
men of  any  city,  borough,  or  town  corporate,  within  their  respective  territorial  ju- 
risdictions) are  chosen  by  the  legislature  in  joint  meeting,  for  the  term  of  five  years, 
and  may  be  reappointed  for  such  terms,  indefinitely,  and  dismissed  upon  impeach- 
ment by  the  assembly,  and  conviction  by  the  council.  Such  justices  are,  by  the  act 
of  1794,  conservators  of  the  peace,  and  as  such,  are  charged  and  empowered  to 


70  GENERAL  DESCRIPTION. 

cause  the  laws  to  be  observed,  and  to  apprehend  and  punish  oiFenders  as  the  laws 
may  direct.  They  exercise  also  many  ministerial  duties,  as  notaries  in  certain  cases; 
and  act  as  substitutes  for  the  coroner,  &c.  &c.  As  the  Justices'  Court  is  that  which 
disposes  of  the  major  part  of  the  disputes  among  the  citizens,  we  have  occupied 
more  space  in  relation  to  it  than  we  shall  give  to  the  courts  of  higher  order. 

The  Court  of  Quarter  Sessions,  in  each  county,  is  composed  of  the  justices  of  the 
county,  or  any  three  of  them  ;  and  is  a  court  of  record,  having  cognisance  of  all  in- 
dictable offences  perpetrated  in  the  county  :  and  authority  by  its  precepts  to  the 
sheriff,  to  summon  grand  and  special  juries,  and  to  do  all  necessary  things  relative 
thereto,  as  directed  by  law ;  sending,  however,  all  indictments  found  for  treason, 
murder,  manslaughter,  sodomy,  rape,  polygamy,  arson,  burglary,  robbery,  forgery, 
perjury,  and  subornation  of  perjury,  to  be  tried  in  the  Supreme  Court,  or  Court  of 
Oyer  and  Terminer.  To  this  court  the  several  justices  of  the  county  send  their  re- 
cognisances for  keeping  the  peace  or  good  behaviour,  and  the  examination  of  of- 
fenders, taken  before  them  ;  and  generally  return  to  it  the  recognisances  of  witnesses 
and  of  bail  in  criminal  cases.  It  has  cognisance  of  cases  of  bastardy  ;  may  grant 
tavern  licenses,  the  sums  payable  for  which,  not  less  than  $10  nor  more  than  $70, 
pertain  to  the  county  treasury;  may  recommend  to  the  governor  persons  for  license 
as  pedlars;  may  hear  appeals  from  the  order  of  justices,  between  master  and  ser- 
vant, and  in  pauper  cases,  and  from  conviction,  by  justices,  under  the  acts  for  sup- 
pressing vice  and  immorality,  &c.;  and  has,  generally,  the  powers  of  a  court  of 
record,  relative  to  the  subjects  of  its  jurisdiction. 

The  Common  Pleas  consist  of  judges  appointed  by  the  legislature,  in  joint  meet- 
ing, who  hold  their  otfices  for  five  years.  The  number  in  each  county  is  unlimited, 
and  varies  from  time  to  time.  Any  one  of  the  judges  may  hold  the  court.  They 
choose  their  own  president  for  a  year,  and  receive  no  salary  or  compensation,  but 
certain  bench  fees,  divided  among  them,  rarely  amounting  to  their  expenses  at  the 
court.  Their  territorial  jurisdiction  is  only  coextensive  with  the  county,  but  they  may 
issue  subpoenas  for  witnesses  throughout  the  State.  The  court  has  unlimited  ori- 
ginal jurisdiction,  at  common  law,  in  all  personal  actions  where  the  freehold  does 
not  come  in  question,  with  some  restriction  as  to  costs,  in  cases  cognisable  before  a 
justice.     Its  proceedings  may  be  revised  on  writ  of  error  to  the  Supreme  Court. 

The  judges  of  the  Court  of  Common  Pleas,  in  the  several  counties,  or  any  three  of 
them,  constitute  the  Orphans'  Court ;  which  is  a  court  of  record,  and  is  holden  four 
times  a  year,  in  the  same  week  with  the  Courts  of  Quarter  Sessions,  and  at  such  other 
times  as  the  judges  may  deem  proper.  This  court  is  empowered  :  to  determine  all 
■controversies  respecting  the  existence  of  wills,  the  fairness  of  inventories,  the  right 
of  administration  and  guardianship,  the  allowance  of  the  accounts  of  executors,  ad- 
ministrators, guardians,  or  trustees,  audited  and  stated  by  the  surrogate  ;  to  award 
process  lo  bring  before  them  all  persons  interested,  or  witnesses,  in  any  pending 
cause;  or  who,  as  executors,  administrators,  guardians,  trustees,  or  otherwise,  are 
accountable  for  any  property  belonging  to  an  orphan,  or  person  under  age.  And 
the  ordinary,  his  register,  and  surrogates,  are  required  to  transmit  into  this  court, 
upon  application,  copies  of  all  bonds,  inventories,  accounts,  &c.,  relating  to  estates 
of  orphans,  &c.  Where  insufficient  surety  has  been  taken  on  granting  letters  of 
administration,  or  guardianship,  this  court  has  power  to  require  administrators  or 
guardians  to  give  further  security  ;  and  upon  refusal,  or  nialfeasance  in  tiieir  trust, 
to  dismiss  them  and  substitute  others:  and  where  an  executrix  having  minors  of  her 
own,  or  is  concerned  for  other  minors,  or  is  like  to  marry  without  securing  the 
minors'  estates;  or  where  an  executor,  guardian,  or  other  trustee  of  minors'  estates 
is  like  to  prove  insolvent,  refuses  or  neglects  to  account  for  such  estates,  to  order 
that  he  give  security  to  those  for  whom  he  is  concerned,  by  mortgage  or  bond,  in 
such  sum  as  the  court  may  deem  proper;  conditioned  for  the  performance  of  their 
respective  trusts  :  and,  where  the  surely  in  bond  given  by  an  administrator  or  guar- 
dian, alleges  that  such  officer  is  wasting  or  mismanaging  the  estate,  whereby  the 
complainant  is  liable  to  damage,  the  court  may  compel  such  officer  to  render  an  ac- 
count, and  if  tlie  malfeasance  be  apparent,  may,  on  pain  of  dismissal,  compel  him 
to  give  separate  security  to  his  surety  for  the  faithful  performance  of  duty  :  and 
W'here  there  are  two  or  more  acting  executors,  guardians,  or  administrators,  the  court 
may,  from  time  to  time,  on  the  application  of  any  one  of  them,  and  sufficient  reason 
shown,  order  the  executor,  &c.,  to  account  with  his  coexecutor,  &c.,  and  compel 
him  to  give  separate  security  to  such  executor,  &c.,  and  on  refusal,  to  authorize  such 
coexecutor,  &c.,  to  sue  for  the  assets  in  the  hands  of  the  executors,  &c.,  refusing. 


JUDICIARY.  71 

The  court  has  also  authority,  to  make  partition  of  the  lands  of  an  intestate, 
among  his  heirs,  when  any  of  them  are  under  the  age  of  twenty-one  years  ;  and  also 
of  the  landis  devised  to  two  or  more  devisees,  under  such  age,  where  the  bounds  of 
each  devisee's  share  is  unascertained  ;  and  to  appoint  commissioners  for  the  ad- 
measurement of  dower.  But  where  the  lands  of  such  intestate  or  devisor  lie  in  two 
or  more  counties,  the  duty  of  partition  devolves  upon  the  surrogate  general.  The 
court  may  order  sale  of  lands  for  the  payment  of  debts  when  the  personalty  is  ex- 
hausted, either  upon  application  of  the  executor,  administrator,  or  creditor  ;  or  the  sale 
of  lands  of  orphans,  when  necessary  for  their  maintenance  and  education  ;  and  direct 
the  fulhlment  of  contracts  for  the  conveyance  of  real  estate,  made  by  the  testator  or 
intestate,  in  his  life  time:  and  may  also  compel  creditors  of  the  estates  of  decedents, 
to  render  their  accounts,  within  astated  time,  under  penalty  of  being  barred  of  tiieir 
actions.  And  in  case  the  estate  prove  insolvent,  may  direct  distribution  of  pro- 
ceeds among  creditors;  and  where  the  debts  are  paid,  may  divide  the  balance  among 
the  representatives  of  decedent. 

This  court  has  jurisdiction,  also,  in  the  settlement  of  the  accounts  of  assignees, 
under  the  assignment  of  a  debtor  for  the  benefit  of  creditors. 

By  the  8th  article  of  the  constitution  the  governor  is  tx  officio  ordinary,  or  sur- 
rogate general.  One  deputy  or  surrogate,  in  each  county,  is  appointed  by  the  legis- 
lature, for  five  years,  whose  power  is  confined  within  the  same,  and  whose  duty 
is — to  take  the  depositions  to  wills,  (ten  days  after  death  of  testator)  adminis- 
trations, inventories,  and  administration  bonds,  in  cases  of  intestacy,  and  issue 
thereon  letters  testamentary  and  of  administration ;  but  where  doubts  arise  on 
the  face  of  the  will,  or  a  caveat  be  put  in  against  proving  it,  or  disputes  hap- 
pen respecting  the  existence  of  a  will,  the  fairness  of  an  inventory,  or  tiie  right  of 
administration,  he  is  to  issue  citations  to  all  persons  concerned,  to  appear  at  the 
next  Orphans'  Court,  of  the  county,  where  the  cause  is  determined  in  a  summary 
way,  subject  to  an  appeal  to  the  Prerogative  Court,  to  which  all  other  proceedings 
of  the  surrogate  may,  also,  be  carried  directly  by  appeal:  To  record  all  wills  and 
inventories  proven  before  him,  or  the  Orphans'  Court,  with  the  proofs  ;  all  letters  of 
guardianship  and  letters  testamentary  by  him  granted,  a  copy  of  which,  under  his 
hand  and  seal,  is  evidence  in  any  court  of  the  State.  He  transmits  to  the  register 
of  the  Prerogative  Court,  on  the  first  Mondays  of  February,  May,  August,  and 
November,  annually,  all  wills  and  inventories  proved  by  him,  and  a  return  of  all 
letters  of  administration  granted  during  the  preceding  three  months,  to  be  filed  in 
the  register's  office.  Files  all  administration  and  guardianship  bonds,  and  other 
writings,  required  by  law,  in  conducting  the  business  of  his  office:  Gives  bond  for 
the  faithful  performance  of  his  duties,  with  sureties  in  the  sum  of  two  thousand 
dollars  :  Audits  and  states  the  accounts  of  executors  and  administrators,  exhibited 
to  him,  and  report  the  same  to  the  Orphans'  Court,  giving  at  least  two  months'  no- 
tice of  his  intention,  in  at  least  five  of  the  most  public  places  of  the  county,  as  near 
as  may  be,  to  tlie  place  of  residence  of  the  parties  concerned.  He  is  required  to 
keep  up  in  his  office,  at  all  times,  in  some  conspicuous  place,  a  true  list  of  all  fees 
lawfully  demandable  by  him  as  surrogate,  or  as  clerk  of  the  Orphans'  Court;  and  he 
is  punishable  for  extortion  by  fine. 

The  jurisdiction  of  the  ordinary  or  surrogate  general  extends  only  to  the  grant- 
ing of  probate  of  wills,  letters  of  administration,  letters  of  guardianship  and  the 
hearing  and  finally  determining  all  disputes  that  may  arise  thereon.  For  the  last 
purpose,  he  holds,  at  stated  periods,  a  Prerogative  Court,  at  the  times  and  places 
for  holding  the  Court  of  Chancery,  where  he  hears,  and  finally  determines,  all 
causes  that  come  before  him,  either  directly  or  by  appeal  from  any  of  the  surrogates 
or  from  the  Orphans'  Court.  Of  this  court  the  secretary  of  state  is  register,  and  is 
required  to  record  the  names  of  the  testators  of  all  wills  he  may  receive,  in  alpha- 
betical order,  with  the  year  in  which  they  were  proved,  and  to  file  such  wills  in  his 
office,  the  wills  of  each  year  and  county  to  be  put  by  themselves  ;  and  in  like  man- 
ner to  record  the  names  of  all  intestates,  and  all  inventories  in  manner  aforesaid  ; 
and  transcripts  of  any  will  or  testament  registered  by  him  are  receivable  in  evidence 
in  all  courts  of  the  commonwealth. 

Supreme  and  Circuit  Courts. — The  first  consists  of  a  chief  justice  and  two  as- 
sociates, and  holds,  annually,  at  Trenton,  four  terms,  commencing  on  the  last 
Tuesday  of  February,  the  second  of  May,  the  first  of  September,  and  the  second 
of  November,  by  the  chief  justice  or  any  one  of  the  justices.  Issues  in  this 
court,  determinable  by  jury,  are  tried  in  the  county  where  the  lands  in  question 


72  GENERAL  DESCRIPTION. 

lie,  or  the  cause  of  action  arises ;  unless  upon  motion  upon  behalf  of  the  State, 
when  the  State  is  party,  or  where  the  amount  in  dispute  is  three  thousand  dol- 
lars, and  either  party  order  the  trial  at  bar,  which  he  may  do,  receiving  only 
the  costs  of  a  Circuit  Court  if  he  do  not  recover  that  sum.  Transitory  actions, 
at  the  discretion  of  the  court,  are  tried  in  the  county  in  which  the  cause  of  action 
arose  ;  and  trials  by  foreign  juries  may  be  had  where  the  court  deem  it  proper. 
The  court  has  original  jurisdiction  in  all  cases  without  regard  to  amount,  but  the 
party  recovering  not  more  than  two  hundred  dollars,  exclusive  of  costs,  is  not  entitled 
to  costs,  unless  the  freehold,  inheritance  or  title  to  real  estate  may  come  in  question, 
or  the  suit  be  removed  into  this  court  by  the  defendant.  But  no  suit  may  be  re- 
moved from  an  inferior  court  by  habeas  corpus  unless  the  value  of  the  matter  in  con- 
troversy exceed  two  hundred  dollars.  It  has  power  to  appoint  commissioners  of  bail, 
and  to  make  rules  for  justifying  such  bail ;  to  try  treason  committed  out  of  the  State; 
to  review  proceedings  of  justices  in  eases  of  landlords  and  tenants;  to  authorize 
the  filing  of  an  information  in  the  nature  of  a  quo  warranto;  to  make  partition  of 
land  and  tenements  between  jointtenants  and  tenants  in  common  ;  to  appoint  com- 
missioners to  ascertain  county  lines;  to  entertain  prosecutions  against  vessels  seized 
for  engaging  in  tiie  slave  trade;  to  issue  writs  of  dower,  and  admeasurement  of 
dower,  &c.;  and  writs  of  error  in  all  cases  to  the  Common  Pleas,  and  to  determine 
thereon,  and  also  to  determine  causes  removed  hither  by  certiorari  from  the  Or- 
phans' Cijurt :  to  apjjoint  viewers  of  roads  in  certain  cases,  and  to  receive  and  de- 
termine on  tlieir  report. 

The  chief  justice,  or  one  of  his  associates,  twice  in  a  year,  holds  a  Circuit  Court 
in  every  county  except  in  that  of  Cape  May,  for  the  trial  of  issues  which  have  been 
joined  in,  or  brought  into  tlie  Supreme  Court,  and  which  may  be  triable  in  the  county: 
but  the  same  judge  does  not  hold  the  court  twice  in  succession  in  the  same  county, 
unless  on  special  occasions;  and  the  clerks  of  the  Common  Pleas,  in  the  several 
counties,  are  clerks  of  the  Circuit  Courts,  and  of  tlie  Courts  of  Oyer  and  Terminer 
and  General  Jail  Delivery. 

The  Court  of  Oyer  and  Terminer  is  holden  semi-annually,  in  each  county,  except 
that  of  Cape  May,  where  it  is  holden  annually  only,  by  one  of  the  justices  of  the  Su- 
preme Court,  and  the  judges  of  tiie  Courts  of  Common  Pleas,  or  any  three  of  them. 
It  has  cognisance  of  all  crimes  and  offences  within  the  county;  and  authority  to  de- 
liver the  jails  of  tlie  prisoners  therein.  Its  process  runs  into  all  the  counties  of  the 
State,  and  it  may  direct  that  indictments  found  in  it  for  offences  indictable  in  the 
Quarter  Sessions  be  sent  to  the  sessions  for  trial. 

The  Supreme  Court  has  original  jurisdiction  in  criminal  cases,  and  appellate  ju- 
risdiction from  the  Court  of  Oyer  and  Terminer,  &c. 

The  governor  is,  by  the  constitution,  chancellor  of  the  State,  and  holds  at  Tren- 
ton, annually,  four  stated  terms  on  the  third  Tuesday  of  January,  the  first  in  April, 
the  second  in  July,  and  the  second  in  October,  and  such  stated  terms  as  he  may  from 
time  to  time  ajjpoint.  If  the  court  be  not  opened  at  any  of  tlie  said  terms,  the  pro- 
cess returnable,  and  the  suits  pending  tiierein,  are  continued,  of  course,  until  the 
court  shall  sit.  This  court  is  considered  as  always  open  for  the  granting  of  injunc- 
tions, writs  of  nc  ticat  to  prevent  the  departure  of  defendants  from  the  State,  and 
other  writs  and  process  in  vacation.  The  chancellor  may  call  to  his  assistance<the 
chief  justice  or  other  justice  of  the  Supreme  Court,  or  one  or  more  masters  of  chan- 
cery, to  advise  with  on  the  hearing  of  a  cause,  argument,  or  motion;  or  he  may  send 
any  matter  of  law  to  the  Supreme  Court  for  its  opinion  ;  or  if  a  matter  of  fact  ren- 
der the  intervention  of  a  jury  necessary,  he  may  send  an  issue  for  trial  to  such  court. 
The  masters  in  chancery  are  appointed  by  the  chancellor,  and  the  clerk  of  the  court 
formerly  named  by  him,  is  now,  by  virtue  of  the  act  of  1  1th  February,  1831,  ap- 
pointed by  the  legislature  in  joint  meeting,  and  continues  in  office  five  years. 

In  addition  to  the  subjects  of  jurisdiction  abovementioned,  we  may  add  here,  that 
of  foreclosure  of  mortgages  as  a  prominent  one.  But  the  jurisdiction  of  this  court 
is  extensive  and  complex,  embracing  those  many  subjects  on  which  the  law  cannot 
justly  operate,  by  reason  of  its  generality,  and  is  not  defined  by  the  statutory  law. 
A  knowledge  of  it  can  be  obtained,  therefore,  only  from  the  thousand  volumes  of 
Eno-lish  and  American  law,  and  it  must  remain  a  mystery  to  all  but  the  erudite 
student. 

To  the  Supreme  and  Chancery  Courts  a  reporter  is  attached,  whose  duty  is,  to  re- 
port and  publish  their  decisions. 

The  governor  and  council,  seven  of  whom  make  a  quorum,  constitute  the  court  of 
appeals  in  the  last  resort,  in  causes  of  law  or  equity  removed  from  the  Supreme 


JUDICIARY.  73 

Court,  or  from  Chancery,  after  final  judgment;  and  possess  the  power  of  granting 
pardons  to  criminals  after  condemnation,  in  all  cases  of  offence.  This  court  holds 
annually  at  Trenton,  two  terms  ;  one  commencing  on  the  third  Tuesday  in  May,  and 
the  other  on  the  first  Tuesday  of  November ;  but,  if  the  legislature  be  elsewhere  in 
session  at  either  of  the  said  terms,  the  court  is  holden  wliere  the  legislature  may  be  ; 
and  the  governor,  with  the  advice  of  the  council,  or  three  of  them,  may  hold  ano- 
ther term,  at  Trenton,  annually.  The  secretary  of  state  is  the  elerk  of  the  court. 
The  members  of  council,  sitting  as  judges,  receive  the  same  pay  and  mileage,  as 
when  sitting  in  council ;  and  the  clerk,  as  when  acting  as  clerk  of  council.  If  a  suf- 
ficient number  of  members  do  not  attend  the  court,  on  the  first  day  of  term,  it  may 
adjourn  from  day  to  day,  or  until  the  next  term,  and  all  proceedings  therein  are  con- 
tinued, of  course. 

Compensation  of  Officers.  The  compensation  of  the  chancellor,  judges  of  the 
Common  Pleas,  Orphans'  Courts,  Quarter  Sessions,  and  justices,  and  of  tlie  clerks, 
sheriffs,  coroners  and  constables,  engaged  therein,  secretary  of  state,  attorney  gene- 
ral and  deputies,  is  by  fees,  respectively,  allotted  to  them  by  law. 

The  chief,  and  other  justices  of  the  Supreme  Court,  are  allowed  a  per  diem  com- 
pensation for  attending  the  Circuit  Courts,  in  addition  to  their  annual  salaries,  and 
certain  fees  on  law  proceedings,  and  an  allowance  for  travelling  expenses,  which  may 
increase  their  compensation  on  the  whole  to  $1,300  or  $1,400  per  annum.  The 
statutes  regulating  fees  are  perpetual ;  but  those  which  fix  salaries  are  annual  ;  and 
thus  the  chief  officers  of  State  are  kept  dependent  upon  the  legislature.  The  act  of 
2d  Nov.  1832,  allotted  for  the  then  next  succeeding  year,  to  the  governor,  at  the 
rate  of  $2,000;  chief  justice,  $1,200;  associate  justice  of  Supreme  Court,  $1,100; 
treasurer,  $1,000;  law  reporter  and  chancery  reporter,  each  $200;  attorney  gene- 
ral, $80;  quartermaster  general,  $100;  adjutant  general,  $100.  All  of  which  are 
payable,  on  warrants  signed  by  the  governor  or  vice  president.  Tiie  salary  ceases 
on  the  removal  of  the  officer  by  death  or  otherwise. 

The  same  act,  allotted  to  the  vice  president  of  council  and  speaker  of  assembly, 
$3  50;  and  to  every  member  of  council  and  assembly,  $3  per  day;  and  $3  for 
every  twenty  miles  of  travel  to  and  from  the  seat  of  government;  to  the  secretary 
of  council  and  clerk  of  assembly,  each  $3  50  per  diem  ;  and  eight  cents  per  sheet 
of  100  words,  for  recording  minutes,  and  the  like  for  copy  for  the  printer,  and  per 
sheet  to  engrossing  clerk.     To  the  sergeant  at  arms  and  door  keepers,  $2  per  day. 

IV.  Having,  as  fully  as  our  limits  will  permit,  pourtrayed  tlie  physical  and  poli- 
tical condition  of  the  State,  it  remains,  to  complete  our  view,  that  we  trace  an  out- 
line of  the  provisions  which  exist  for  religious,  moral,  and  intellectual  improvement. 
The  principal  religious  associations  are  the  Presbyterian,  Baptist,  Methodist,  Dutch 
Reformed,  Quaker,  and  Catholic.  Beside  these,  there  are  several  other  Christian 
denominations,  such  as  Universalists,  Chris-ti-ans,  &c.  &c.,  but  the  number  of  mem- 
bers pertaining  to  them,  are  inconsiderable.  We  have  sought  to  give  the  condition 
of  each  fiom  their  records,  and  where  such  documents  were  not  accessible,  from 
other  authentic  sources. 

The  Synod  of  the  Presbyterian  Church  of  New  Jersey,  comprises  the  Presbyteries 
of  Newark,  Elizabethtown,  New  Brunswick,  Newton,  and  Susquehanna.  But  we 
do  not  note  the  latter.  The  reader  will  observe,  that  in  the  following  table,  P.  at- 
tached to  a  minister's  name,  denotes  that  he  is  pastor  of  some  church,  and  P.  at- 
tached to  a  church,  that  it  has  a  pastor.  W.  C.  stands  for,  without  charge;  S.  S. 
for  stated  supply;  O.  S.  for  occasional  supply;  V.  for  vacant;  Fresh,  for  Presby- 
tery ;  Prest.  for  president  of  some  college ;  Prof,  for  professor  in  some  college  or 
theological  seminary  ;  Miss,  for  missionary ;  Chai).  for  chaplain  to  the  navy  or  some 
public  station;  Ch.  for  church;  Cong.^ox  congregational.  Tlie  expense  of  each 
church  will  not  exceed  : 


74 


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78 


GENERAL  DESCRIPTION. 


The  Baptists  in  New  Jersey  have  sixty-one  churclies,  whose  location  and  condition, 
in  some  measure,  appears  from  the  following  table.  Their  general  affairs  are  directed 
by  a  state  convention,  which  assembles,  annually,  on  the  first  Wednesday  of  Novem- 
ber, at  such  place  as  may  be  fixed  at  the  prior  meeting.  It  maintains  six  missiona- 
ries, and  its  funds,  in  1832,  amounted  to  $1143  74.  The  cost  of  maintaining  each 
church,  including  the  funds  raised  for  all  kinds  of  ecclesiastical  purposes,  is  esti- 
mated at  $300,  making  in  the  whole,  $18,300. 


STATISTICAL  TABLES  OF  ASSOCIATIONS  AND  CHURCHES. 

NEW  JERSEY  ASSOCIATION.—"  There  is  a  healthful  action  in  this  body.  Sabbath  schools,  tracts, 
temperance  and  inissioniiry  operations,  are  encouraged  to  a  very  laudibl'.i  extent  by  the  churches;  and  in 
many  of  them  seasons  of  rel'resliing  have  been  enjoyed  during  the  year  past.  There  is  an  efficient  body  of 
ministers  belonging  to  the  association,  most  of  them  in  the  prime  of  manhood." 


CHURCHES. 


Cohansey, 
Cape  May, 
Salem, 

Dividing  Creek, 
Tuckahoe, 
Pemberton, 
Pittsgrove, 
Upper  Freehold, 
Manahawkin,    - 
Jacobstown, 
West  Creek, 
Burlington, 
Mount  Holly,   - 

Evesham, 
Trenton  and  Lam- 

berton, 
Williamsburg, 
Port  Elizabeth, 
Haddonfield,     - 
Canton,    - 
Bordentown,     - 
Woodstown, 
2d  Cohansey, 
AUowaystown, 
2d  Cape  May,  - 

Churches  24. 


MINISTERS. 


H.  Smalley,  TV.  Sheppard, 
Samuel  Smith, 
Charles  J.  Hopkins, 
Thomas  Brooks,    - 
William  Clark,      - 
Clarence  W.  Mulford,    - 
William  Bacon, 
James  M.  Challiss, 
C.C.Park,    -         -         -         - 
— Ezekiel  Sexton, 

—  G.  Allen,  P.  Powell,  J.  Boozer, 

J.  Sheppard,  J.  Maylin, 

J.  E.  Welsh,  £.  W.  Dickerson, 


Morgan  J.  Rhees, 


John  Sisty,  5.  Hervey, 

E.  M.  Barker;  J.  P.  Thompson, 


J.  C.  Harrison, 
Ambrose  Garrett, 


Ministers  24. 


POST  OFFICES. 


Roadstown,  - 
Cape  May,  - 
Salem,  -  - 
Dividing  Creek, 
Tuckahoe,  - 
Pemberton,  - 
Pittsgrove,  - 
Imlaytown,  - 
Manahawkin, 
New  Egypt,  - 

Burlington,   - 
Mount  Holly. 

Evesham, 

Trenton,  -     - 
Princeton, 
Millville,  -     - 
Haddonfield, 
Canton,     -     - 
Bordentown, 


Bridgetown, 
AUowaystown, 
Cape  May,    - 


Bap. 

Total 

Consti. 

55 

18S 

1900 

7 

80 

1712 

5 

141 

1755 

5 

55 
20 

1762 

28 

170 

1764 

4 

34 

1771 

16 

196 

1766 

5 

25 

1770 

6 

62 

1785 

4 

33 

1792 

1 

77 

1801 

7 

92 

1801 

12 

58 

1803 

20 

159 

1805 

2 

38 

1805 

2 

11 

1805 

2 

54 

1818 

12 

64 

1811 

36 

1821 

11 

43 

'1821 

5 

74 

3 

50 

1830 

42 

1828 

l213 

1802 

NEW  YORK  ASSOCIATION. 


CHURCHES. 

MINISTERS. 

CLERKS. 

POST  OFFICES. 

Bapt. 

Total 

Consti. 

Middletown,  - 

.          , 

. 

Middletown,   - 

14 

132 

1688 

Piscataway,    - 

.          - 

- 

New  Brunswick, 

18 

129 

1689 

Scotch  Plains, 

John  Rogers, 
E.  Frost,    •     - 

- 

Scotch  Plains, 

18 

126 

1747 

Morristown,   - 

P.  C.  Broome, 

. 

Morristown,    - 

1 

39 

1752 

Mount  Bethel, 

M.  R.  Cox,     - 

- 

- 

22 

83 

1767 

Lyon's  Farms, 

P.  Sparks,       - 
J.  Wilcox,       - 

- 

- 

14 

58 

1769 

Northfield,      - 

A.  Elliott,      - 

. 

- 

o 

72 

1785 

Samptown, 

L.  Lathrop,     - 

. 

- 

30 

133 

1792 

Newark,     -     - 

Daniel  Dodge, 

. 

Newark, 

8 

120 

1801 

Randolph, 

— M.  Quin,  sup. 

- 

- 

20 

1802 

New  Brunswick, 

G.  S.  Webb,  - 

P.  P.  Runyon, 

New  Brunswick, 

29 

111 

1816 

Perth  Amboy, 

Jacob  Sloper, 

. 

- 

1 

35 

1818 

Plainfield, 

D.  T.  Hill, 

D.  Dunn,     - 

Plainfield, 

24 

113 

1818 

Paterson, 

D.  D.  Lewis,  - 

- 

Paterson, 

1 

48 

1825 

Churches  15. 

Ministers  14. 

Totals 

190 

1319 

79 


WARWICK  ASSOCIATION. 


CHURCHES. 

JIINISTEUS. 

CLERKS. 

POST  OFFICES. 

Bap. 

Total 

Consti. 

1st  Wantage, 
2d  Wantage, 
Newfoundland, 
Hardiston,     - 
1st  Newton,    - 
Hamburg,     - 

Tim.  Jackson, 
A.  Harding,    - 

Henry  Ball,    - 
T.  Teasdale,  - 
John  Teasdale, 

Ministers  4. 

H.  Martin,      - 
Israel  Dillison, 
I.  Deaii;      -     - 
T.  Beardslcy, 
J.  B.  Maxwell, 
I.  H.  Wood, 

Deckertown, 

Newfoundland, 

Newton^     -     - 
Hamburg, 

Totals 

1 

4 

23 

11 

24.5 
39 
27 

C3 
50 

88 

1756 
1797 

Churches  6. 

39 

512 

CENTRAL  ASSOCIATION. 


CHURCHES. 

MINISTERS. 

POST  OFFICES. 

Bap. 

Total 

Consti. 

1st  Hopewell, 

John  Boggs, 

Hopewell, 

7 

172 

1715 

Hightstown, 

John  Seger, 

Hightstown, 

5 

220 

1745 

Amwell, 

C.  Bartolett,  Thos.  Burrass, 
Wm.  Pollard,  E.  Burrass, 

- 

23 

164 

1798 

2d  Hopewell, 

C.  Suydam, 

- 

1 

48 

1803 

Sqiian, 

— 

Manasquam, 

40 

Nottingham  Square, 

— 

Trenton,     - 

115 

Sandy  Ridge,     - 

Joseph  Wright, 

- 

7 

79 

Lambertsville,    - 

D.B.  Stout, 

Lambertsville,    - 

4 

27 

Oxford, 

— 

- 

18 

30 

1831 

Washington, 

J.  C.  Goble, 

South  River, 

27 

129 

Churches  10. 

Ministers  10. 

Totals 

92 

1024 

HUDSON  RIVER  ASSOCIATION. 


2d  Newark, 


P.  L.  Piatt, 


Newark, 


15 


33 


1831 


PHILADELPHIA  ASSOCIATION. 


Kingwood, 


Wm.  Curtis,  j3.  lVilliamson,\Kingwood, 
W.  R.  Robinson,  -         I 


198  1742 


CENTRAL  UNION  ASSOCIATION. 


Camden,   - 


— A.  Smith,  C.  Sexton,         Camden, 


33    1818 


UNASSOCIATED  CHURCHES. 


Schooly's  Mountain, 
Hackensack, 


— Michael  Quin, 
Henry  Tonkin,   - 


Schooly's  Mountain, 
Hackensack, 


14 


1832 
1832 


SUMMARY  VIEW. 


ASSOCIATIONS. 

rn 

d 

6 

> 

i 
o 

21 

9 

13 

4 

1 

1 
2 
2 

53 

a 

'a 
o 

c 
o 

MEETINGS  IN  1833. 

New  Jersey,     - 
Central,      -     . 
New  York, 
Warwick,    -     - 
Hudson  River. 
Philadelphia,  '- 
Central  Union, 
Unassociated  chs. 

24 
10 
15 
6 
1 
1 
1 
3 

61 

9 
3 
3 

1 

1 
17 

3 

1 
1 

fi 

7 

213 

92 

190 

39 

15 

7 

4 
560 

1802 

1024 

1319 

512 

33 

198 

33 

GO 

1811 

1791 
1791 
1815 
1707 
1832 

Upper  Freehold,  Sept.  24. 

Washington,  Oct.  16. 

1st.  Ch.  N.  Y.  city.  May  28. 

Orange,  N.  Y.  June  U. 

Oliver  Street  Church,  June  19. 

Spruce  Street  Church,  Oct.  1. 

Second  Street  Church,  May  28. 

Totals 

3981 

80 


GENERAL  DESCRIPTION. 


The  clergymen  report,  that  during  the  years  1831  and  1832,  1000  persons  have 
been  baptized  in  the  State,  and  that  a  spirit  of  enlightened  liberality  is  diffusing 
itself  among  the  churches. 

In  addition  to  what  is  done  for  the  objects  of  the  convention,  from  two  to  three 
hundred  dollars  are  annually  raised  for  foreign  missions. 

The  Methodist  Episcopal  Church,  in  New  Jersey,  is  divided  into  three  districts, 
each  under  the  charge  of  a  presiding  elder,  always  a  minister,  appointed  by  the 
bishop,  and  changed  at  least  once  in  four  years.  Each  district  is  divided  into  cir- 
cuits and  stations  ;  thus,  the  district  of  West  Jersey,  compreliending  Burlington 
county,  and  the  country  south  thereof,  contains  eight  circuits  and  three  stations,  and 
supernumeraries  included,  twenty-three  ministers ;  the  district  of  East  Jersey,  in- 
cluding the  country  as  far  north  as  Flemington  and  Belleville,  four  circuits  and  ten 
stations,  and  twenty-three  ministers  ;  and  Asbury  district,  comprehending  the  re- 
mainder of  the  State,  eight  circuits,  three  stations,  and  eighteen  ministers. 

Circuits  are  formed  of  territories  of  greater  or  less  dimensions,  including  several 
churches,  under  the  charge  of  one  pastor,  aided,  commonly,  by  one  or  more  assistants, 
who  serve  the  churches  in  rotation.  Stations  consist,  generally,  of  one  church,  but 
occasionally,  of  more,  confided  to  the  care  of  one  pastor,  who,  sometimes,  where 
there  are  more  churches  than  one,  has  an  assistant.  The  circuits  and  stations  de- 
pend, in  their  government,  upon  the  annual  conference  of  Philadelphia,  and  upon 
the  quarterly  conferences  held  in  them  respectively.  Disputes  among  the  members 
of  any  church,  may  be  considered,  in  the  first  instance,  by  a  committee  of  their 
church,  from  whose  decision  an  appeal  lies  to  the  quarterly  conference,  composed  of 
the  pastor,  local  preachers,  exhorters,  stewards,  and  class  leaders,  at  whose  head  is 
the  presiding  elder  of  the  district;  and  its  determination  is  conclusive,  unless  one  of 
the  parties  be  a  minister  ;  in  such  case,  he  may  appeal  to  the  annual  conference  ;  and 
if  he  be  a  travelling  minister,  from  the  annual,  to  the  general,  conference. 

The  whole  number  of  clergymen  of  this  denomination,  in  the  State,  is  sixty-four; 
the  cost  of  whose  maintenance,  including  donations  of  every  character,  together 
with  the  expenses  of  maintaining  the  churches,  is  estimated  at  about  $412  each,  per 
annum  ;  which,  distributed  among  the  whole  number  of  members,  (15,467,)  gives  an 
average  charge  of  $1  77,  annually,  upon  each  member.  And  the  annual  cost  of 
establishing  and  repairing  churches,  is  stated  at  twenty-five  cents,  each  member; 
so  that  the  whole  average  annual  charge,  for  religious  instruction,  upon  each  mem- 
ber of  the  Methodist  Church,  may  be  set  down  at  about  two  dollars. 

The  following  table  shows  the  circuits  and  stations  of  the  several  districts,  with 
the  number  of  communicants  and  clergymen,  in  each,  for  the  year  1832. 


WEST  JERSEY  DISTRICT. 

Men's.  Min's. 

Burlington,      -        -        424  2 

Pembertoii,      -        -        878  4 

Tuckerton,      -        -        848  2 

Baigaintnvvn,          -        989  2 

Cumberland,            -        894  2 

Bridgeton,        -        -        357  1 

Gloucester,     -        -        955  2 

Salem,    -        -        -      IIBO  5 

CamdeB,          -        -        713  2 

Presiding  Elder,           -        -  1 

7218  23 


EAST  JERSEY 

New  Brunswick  and 

Somerville, 
Freebold, 
Trenlon, 
Crosswicks,     - 
Pennington,     - 
Plainlield, 
Railway, 
Elizabcthtown, 
Woodbridge, 
Bloomfield  and  Oran, 
Belleville, 
Newark, 

Somerset  Mission,  - 
Bergen  Neck,  do.  - 
Presiding  Elder, 


DISTRICT. 
Mem's.  Min'i 
} 


268 

678 
360 
539 
156 

32 
152 
136 

75 

;e,  450 

160 

779 

106 

33 


3924 


ASBURY  DISTRICT. 

Mem's.  Min's. 
Kingswood,     -        -        170 
Asbury,  -        -        698 

Belvidere  and  Warrent.  167 
Newton  and  Hamburg,   937 


Jlilford, 
IFaverstraw,     - 
Paterson, 
Essex,     - 
Morristown,    - 
New  Providence, 


30 
210 
420 
445 

178 
150 

4425  18 
3924  23 
7218      23 

15,567     64 


The  condition  of  the  Episcopalian  Church  is  drawn  from  the  report  of  the  gene- 
ral convention  of  the  Protestant  Episcopal  Church,  in  the  United  States  of  Ame- 
rica, held  in  the  city  of  New  York,  October  1832,  and  from  the  report  of  the  50th 
annual  convention  of  the  church  in  the  diocese  of  New  Jersey,  lield  at  Camden  in 
May  1833.  From  these  it  appears  that  during  the  year,  ending  October  1832,  there 
were  three  persons  admitted  to  the  order  of  the  priesthood,  and  one  to  that  of  dea- 
con: That  there  have  been  eleven  institutions  within  the  last  three  years;  that 
eight  clergymen  have  been  received  in  the  diocese,  and  there  were  therein  eighteen 
resident,  all  presbyters:    That  the  number  of  Episcopal  families  is  310 ;  of  comma- 


RELIGIOUS  INSTITUTIONS. 


81 


nicants,  900;  baptisms  reported,  517;  persons  confirmed, 168;  candidates  for  the 
ministry,  2  ;  and  congregations,  33;  located  and  supplied,  as  mentioned  in  the  fol- 
lowing list. 


NAME. 

Christ, 

St.  Matthew's, 

St.  Paul's, 

Trinity, 

Christ  Chapel, 

St.  John's, 

St.  Mark's, 

St.  Peter's, 

Christ, 

St.  Luke's, 

St.  James's, 

St  John's, 

St.  Peter's, 

St.  Peter's, 

Christ, 

Christ, 

St.  Peter's, 

St.  James's, 

Trinity, 

St.  Thomas's, 

St.  Michael's, 

Trinity, 

St.  Mary's, 

St.  Andrew's, 

St.  Mary's, 

St.  Paul's, 

St.  Peter's, 

Trinity, 

St.  Thomas's, 

St.  John's, 

St.  Stephen's, 

St.  John's, 

St.  George's, 


PLACE. 

New  Brunswick, 

Jersey  City, 

Paterson, 

Newark, 

Belleville, 

Elizabethtown, 

Orange, 

Morristown, 

Newton, 

Hope, 

Knowlton, 

Johnsonsburgh, 

Spots  wood. 

Freehold, 

Shrewsbury, 

Middletown, 

Perth  Amboy, 

Piscataway, 

Woodbridge, 

Alexandria, 

Trenton, 

Princeton, 

Burlington, 

Mount  Holly, 

Colestown, 

Camden, 

Berkeley, 

Swedesborough, 

Glassborough, 

Chew's  Landing, 

MuUica  Hill, 

Salem, 

Penn's  Neck, 


INCUMBENTS. 

J.  Croes. 

E.  D.  Barry,  D.  D. 

R.  Williston,  Minister. 
M.  H.  Henderson. 

(Vacant.) 
B.  G.  Noble. 

B.  Holmes. 
H.  R.  Peters. 

C.  Dunn. 

P.  L.  Jaques,  dea.  M'y. 

P.  L.  Jaques,  dea.  M's. 

P.  L.  Jaques,  dea.  M'y. 

J.  M.  Ward. 

J.  M.  Ward,  Minister. 

H.  Finch. 

H.  Finch. 

J.  Chapman. 

W.  Douglass,  Minister. 

W.  Douglass,  Missionary. 

W.  Douglass,  Missionary. 

F.  Beasley,  D.  D. 

(Just  organized.) 
C.  H.  Wharton,  D.  D. 

G.  Y.  Morehouse. 

(Vacant.) 

(Vacant.) 

(Vacant.) 
N.  Nash,  Rector  Elect. 

(Vacant.) 

(Vacant.) 

(Vacant.) 
H.  M.  Mason. 
H.  M.  Mason. 


It  also  appears,  that  the  Sunday  schools  flourish,  and  are  gradually  connecting 
themselves  with  the  diocesan  Sunday  school  society ;  that  the  missionary  fund 
amounts  to  $4,500,  which  contributes  to  aid,  most  materially,  in  reviving  and  sup- 
porting eld  and  decayed,  as  well  as  new  congregations;  the  episcopal  fund,  to 
$2,049.33 ;  that  the  fund  for  the  relief  of  widows  and  children  of  deceased  clergy- 
men, has  of  late  years  rapidly  increased,  and  now  amounts  to  almost  $15,000;  and 
that  the  Episcopal  Society  for  the  promotion  of  Christian  Knowledge  and  Piety  pur- 
sues the  even  and  noiseless  tenor  of  its  way,  doing  good  by  the  distribution  of  Bi- 
bles, prayer  books,  tracts,  and  aiding  the  missionary  fund,  and  candidates  for  orders. 
Its  permanent  fund  exceeds  $1,500.  Six  hundred  dollars  per  annum  is  estimated  as 
the  annual  expense  of  each  church. 

The  want  of  full  parochial  reports  renders  it  impracticable  to  give  an  accurate 
statement  of  the  actual  condition  of  the  respective  churches. 

The  Reformed  Dutch  Church  of  New  Jersey  consists  of  three  classes,  attached 
to  the  particular  synod  of  New  York,  the  condition  of  which  is  apparent  from  the 
annexed  tables.  We  are  unable  to  furnish  a  detailed  account  of  the  cost  to  the 
members  of  maintaining  this  cliurch,  but  we  are  instructed,  from  good  authority, 
that  $650  will  amply  cover  all  the  expenses  of  each  church.  There  are  36  churches, 
and  consequently  the  whole  charge,  about  $23,400,  annually,  including  theological 
and  missionary  contributions. 


82 


GENERAL  DESCRIPTION. 


CLASSIS  OF  NEW  BRUNSWICK. 


CHURCHES. 

PASTORS. 

Census. 

Comniun 

cants. 

Ba 

pt. 

S 

O    m 

a 
i^  •  — 
o 

c 

o 

o  . 

o  o 

15  bi 

a 

.is 

1^ 

Rc'd. 

•T3 

a 

E 

"3 

Q. 

-d 

3 

e 
s 

o 
o 

.S  c 

c 

to 

« 

'J 

■Jo 

3 

o 

fi 

c 

o 

O 

Q 

cn 

Q 

O 

s 
25 

< 
3 

New  Brunswick, 

Samuel  B.  Howe, 

20 

24 

5 

2 

345 

Six  Mile  Run, 

Vacant, 

Hillsborough, 

J.  L.  Zabriskie, 

130 

279 

8 

14 

9 

8 

2S4 

26 

4 

Rarilan, 

A.  Messier, 

310 

1700 

7 

12 

8 

11 

355 

16 

Bedminster, 

Isaac  M.  Fisher, 

North  Branch, 

A.  D.  Wilson, 

Rockavvay, 

Jacob  I.  Shultz, 

78 

508 

101 

9 

1 

] 

108 

17 

2 

Lebanon, 

Do. 

110 

cm 

100 

1 

3 

3 

1 

100 

12 

1 

Spotswood, 

Henry  L.  Rice, 

208 

1160 

15 

1 

115 

21 

5 

Freehold, 

S.  A.  Van  Vranken, 

Middletown, 

J.  T.  Beekman, 

110 

GOO 

125 

17 

142 

8 

12 
25 

Minisink, 

C.  C.Ellinge, 

90 

2 

2 

2 

190 

11 

Mahakkamak, 

Do. 

] 

29 

2 

3 

130 

4 

5 

Walpack, 

Vacant, 

( 

CLASSIS  OF  BERGEN. 


Bergen, 

Hackensack, 

E.  Neighbourhood,* 

Belville, 

Fairfield, 

Pompton  Plains, 

Pompton, 

Montville, 

Ponds, 

Preakness, 

Wyckoff, 

Bergen  Neck, 

Jersey  City, 

Schraalenberg, 

Stonehouse  Plains, 


B.  C.  Taylor, 
J.  V.  C.  Romeyn, 
Philip  Duryea, 
Gustavus  Abeel, 
Henry  A.  Raymond, 
James  R.  Talmage, 
Isaac  S.  Demund, 
Frederic  F.  Cornell, 
Z.  H.  Kuypers, 

Do. 

Do. 
Ira  C.  Boice, 
Vacant, 
Vacant, 
Vacant, 


185 

90 

100 

120 

170 

170 

130 

100 

65 

55 

78 

64 

56 

166 


1050 


1000 
1060 

500 
353 
251 
4.57 
384 
254 


195 

98 

118 
133 

108 
100 
50 
46 
48 
62 
35 
63 
157 


12 


10    198  24   2 


71 

145 

132 

114 

111 

70 

65 

53 

67 

39 

61 


Minister  without  charge — Rev.  John  Duryea. 

*  N.  B.  The  Report  from  the  Church  at  English  Neighbourhood  is  for  four  years. 


CLASSIS  OF  PARAMUS. 


Tappan, 

N.  Lansing, 

161 

617 

150 

1 

13 

4 

5 

155 

34 

3 

Clarkstown, 

Alex.  H.  Warner, 

159 

714 

3 

3 

5 

160 

11 

Saddle  river  and  ~) 
Pasgack                 5 

Stephen  Goetchius, 

147 

61] 

248 

1 

5 

3 

2 

3 

250 

16 

Do. 

72 

225 

51 

51 

8 

ParannK«»&lstRef  ) 

W.  Ellingc, 

170 

incin 

286 

10 

3 

o 

291 

25 

D.  C.  ofTotowa,      5 

Do, 

130 

765 

112 

!l 

121 

23 

2 

Warwick, 

J.  I.  Ciiristie, 

o 

5 

7 

1 

3 

1 

2dRef.  D.C.Tolowa, 

Isaac  D.  Cole, 

ion 

450 

11 

5 

4 

90 

23 

Aquackinunck, 

Wm.  R.  Bogardus, 

200  1068 

119 

3  42 

o 

160 

29 

2 

West  New-Hamp-  ) 

J.  Wvnkoop, 

stead  «&  Ramapo,    \ 

Do. 

The  Quakers,  or  Society  of  Friends,  as  is  well  known,  have  been  divided  into 
two  great  parts,  each  claiming  to  hold  the  ancient  doctrines  of  the  church.  Ai  tiieso 


RELIGIOUS  INSTITUTIONS.  8S 

parts  do  not  concur  in  the  account  of  their  former  or  present  condition,  we  have 
deemed  it  proper  to  publish  the  statement  of  each.  Both  parties  claim  the  vene- 
rated name  of  "Friends,"  but  we  are  compelled  to  distinguish  them  by  the  titles 
they  give  to  each  other.  The  first  of  the  following  statements  is  given  by  the 
Hic/isUe,  and  the  second  by  the  Orthodox  party. 

1st.  "Friends'  meetings  in  New  Jersey,  and  members. — Burlington  quarterly  meet- 
ing, before  the  division,  was  composed  of  five  monthly  meetings,  eighteen  meetings 
for  worship,  and  1S49  members. 

Burlington  quarterly  meeting  of  Friends,  since  the  division,  is  composed  of  four 
monthly  meetings,  fourteen  meetings  for  worship,  and  1049  members. 

And  that  of  the  Orthodox  Friends,  four  monthly  meetings,  thirteen  meetings  for 
worship,  and  800  members. 

Haddonfield  quarterly  meeting,  before  the  division,  was  composed  of  five  monthly 
meetings,  ten  meetings  for  worship,  1686  members. — Haddonfield  quarterly  meet- 
ings of  Friends,  since  the  division,  is  composed  of  four  monthly  meetings,  six 
meetings  for  worship,  859  members.  That  of  the  Orthodox  Friends  consists  of  five 
monthly  meetings,  nine  meetings  for  worship,  and  827  members. 

Salem  quarterly  meeting,  before  the  division,  was  composed  of  five  monthly 
meetings,  ten  meetings  for  worship,  1536  members. — Salem  quarterly  meeting  of 
Friends,  since  the  division,  is  composed  of  five  monthly  meetings,  ten  meetings  for 
worship,  and  1238  members.  And  that  of  the  Orthodox  Friends,  three  monthly 
meetings,  four  meetings  for  worship,  and  298  members. 

Shrewsbury  quarterly  meeting,  before  the  division,  was  composed  of  four  monthly 
meetings,  eight  meetings  for  worship,  and  925  members. — Shrewsbury  quarterly 
meetino-  of  Friends,  since  the  division,  is  composed  of  four  monthly  meetings, 
eight  meetings  for  worship,  and  750  members.  And  that  of  the  Orthodox  Friends, 
of  two  monthly  meetings,  three  meetings  for  worship,  and  175  members.  About 
6000  members,  in  New  Jersey,  in  all." 

2d.  "  The  following  statement  of  the  number  of  members  in  the  Society  of  Friends 
previous  to  the  late  division,  and  also  of  the  two  portions  into  which  it  has  been 
senarated,  is  made  out  from  authentic  sources,  and  a  careful  examination  of  the 
state  of  the  respective  meetings. 

At  the  time  of  the  separation,  there  were  in  the  state  of  New  Jersey  four  quarterly 
meetings,  nineteen  monthly  meetings,  and  forty-six  meetings  for  divine  worship. 
Friends  now  hold  five  quarterly  meetings,  fourteen  monthly  meetings,  and  twenty- 
nine  meetings  for  divine  worship. 

The  quarterly  meetings  are  as  follow: — Burlington  quarterly  consisted,  before  the 
separation,  of  five  monthly  meetings,  and  eighteen  meetings  for  worship,  comprising 
two  thousand  one  hundred  and  twenty-five  members.  Since  the  separation,  it  has 
four  monthly  meetings,  twelve  meetings  for  worship,  and  one  thousand  one  hundred 
and  eighty-eight  members.  The  Hicksites,  in  this  quarter,  are  nine  hundred  and 
thirty-seven  in  number,  and  hold  four  monthly  meetings. 

Haddonfield  quarterly  meeting,  both  before  and  since  the  separation,  consisted 
of  five  monthly  meetings,  and  ten  meetings  for  worship,  embracing  one  thousand 
seven  hundred  and  eighty-eight  members,  of  whom  six  hundred  and  forty-four 
went  with  the  Hicksites,  and  forty-seven  remained  undivided,  leaving  one  thousand 
and  ninety-seven  Friends.  The  Hicksites,  in  this  quarter,  hold  four  monthly 
meetings. 

Salem  quarterly  meeting,  before  the  division,  had  five  monthly  meetings,  and  ten 
meetings  for  worship,  including  one  thousand  six  hundred  and  three  members. 
Since  the  separation.  Friends  hold  four  meetings  for  worship,  and  three  monthly 
meetings,  embracing  four  hundred  and  fifty-four  members.  The  Hicksites  have 
one  thousand  one  hundred  and  forty-five  members,  and  hold  five  monthly  meetings. 

Shrewsbury  and  Rahway  quarterly  meeting,  at  the  time  of  the  separation,  was 
composed  of  four  monthly  meetings,  eight  meetings  for  worship,  and  eight  hundred 
and  eighty-eight  members.  Friends  now  hold  two  monthly  meetings,  and  three 
meetings  for  worship,  including  two  hundred  and  thirty-three  members.  The 
Hicksites,  in  this  quarter,  are  six  hundred  and  fourteen  in  number,  and  hold  four 
monthly  meetings.  There  were  forty-one  members  who  did  not  side  with  either 
party." 


84  GENERAL  DESCRIPTION. 

The  whole  number  of  Friends  in  New  Jersey  is, 2  972 

Hicksites, 3,344 

Neutrals,        81 

Total, 6,404 

See  Foster's  Report,  vol.  II.  p.  p.  388  and  395. 

Of  the  forty-five  meeting  houses  in  which  meetings  of  Friends  were  held  previous 
to  the  separation,  there  are  now  five,  in  the  exclusive  possession  of  Friends — fifteen 
which  are  occupied  by  Friends  and  Hicksites,  jointly, — and  twenty-five  in  the  exclu- 
sive possession  of  the  Hicksites." 

RECAPITULATION. 

Thus  it  appears  that  the  Presbyterians  have  85  churches. 
Baptists,  -  -  -  61  do. 
Methodists,  -  -  64  ministers. 
Episcopalians,  -  33  churches. 
Dutch  Reformed,  36  do. 
Quakers,  -  -  -  67  meetings. 
Other  denominations,  conjectural,  10 

Total  number, 356 

In  this  summary,  we  have  given,  wc  believe  correctly,  the  number  of  churches  of 
each  denomination,  save  that  of  the  Methodist,  which  has  many  more  churches  than 
ministers;  but  we  have  not  been  able  to  ascertain  the  number  of  churches,  although 
we  have  taken  much  pains  for  that  purpose.  In  the  circuits,  there  are  commonly 
not  less  than  two  churches  or  congregations  to  a  minister ;  but  in  such  cases  the 
congregations  consist  of  few  members.  Many  of  the  churches  have  no  pastors. 
The  Quakers,  it  is  well  known,  have  none;  and  of  the  289  churches  which  remain 
in  the  list  after  deducting  their  meeting  houses,  we  consider  that  39  may  continue 
constantly  vacant.  We  have  then  250  churches  whose  maintenance  maybe  deemed 
a  steady  charge  upon  the  people. 

In  the  maintenance  of  the  churches,  we  include  all  the  expenditures  for  religious 
purposes,  comprehending  the  sums  conventionally  paid  to  the  pastors,  the  donations 
of  every  kind,  made  directly  to  them  or  for  their  use,  the  amount  expended  in  the 
erection  and  repair  of  churches,  and  in  aids  to  bible  missionary  and  tract  societies; 
and  we,  upon  consultation  with  distinguished  clergymen  of  various  denominations, 
set  down  as  an  average  expenditure  for  each  church,  the  sum  of  $480  per  annum, 
which,  multiplied  by  250  churches,  make  the  actual  charge  of  ,f  120,000,  upon  the 
state  for  all  the  expenses  of  religion,  and  which  we  consider  sufficiently  liberal  to 
cover  the  expenses  of  the  Society  of  Friends  for  the  like  purpose.  The  Quakers, 
have  no  salaried  clergy;  and  the  expenses  of  their  association  consist  of  the  very 
small  sums  requisite  to  keep  their  meeting  houses  and  grave  yards  inrepair,  and  the 
contributions  for  the  support  and  education  of  their  poor  members.  Demands  of  this 
kind  are  rare  and  occasional,  only;  and  the  interest  of  funds  vested  for  schools,  by 
Friends,  has  been  employed  in  the  education  of  the  poor  children  of  other  denomi- 
nations. 

In  addition  to  the  356  churches  of  all'denominations,  which  the  State  contains,  the 
inhabitants  have  exemplified  their  disposition  to  sustain  and  improve  their  moral 
condition,  by  the  establishment  of  bible  societies,  missionary  societies,  Sunday  school 
unions,  and  temperance  societies.  In  every  county  there  are  bible  societies,  in 
most,  considerable  sums  are  collected  for  the  missionary  cause,  and  almost  every 
thickly  settled  neighbourhood  has  its  Sunday  school.  Temperance  societies,  in 
many  districts,  have  effectually  bruised  the  head  of  the  worm  of  the  still. 

The  cultivation  of  literature  and  science  has,  until  of  late  years,  been  too  little 
regarded  ;  but  not  less,  than  in  the  adjacent  and  more  wealthy  states.  Yet  in  the 
higher  departments  the  "  College  of  New  Jersey,"  at  Princeton,  has  for  more  than 
^'^'it^y  years  maintained  a  reputation  unsurpassed  in  the  Union ;  Rutger's  College, 
at  New  Brunswick,  has,  for  several  years,  been  in  successful  operation  ;  academies 
have  been  established  in  most  of  the  county  towns  and  large  villages ;  and  common 
schools  are  every  where  seen  in  populous  districts.  The  "  School  Fund,"  which  has 
lately  been  established,  will  rapidly  increase,  and  will,  at  no  distant  day,  furnish 


LITERARY  INSTITUTIONS.  86 

means  to  teach  the  rudiments  of  science  to  the  whole  population.     We  proceed  to 
give  a  more  particular  notice  of  the  colleges  and  the  school  fund. 

The  "  College  of  New  Jersey"  was  first  incorporated  in  the  year  1746,  and  in 
1748  obtained,  through  the  aid  of  Governor  Belcher,  an  ample  and  liberal  charter 
from  George  II.,  which,  after  the  revolution,  was  confirmed  by  the  legislature  of  this 
State.  The  institution  was  located,  first,  at  Elizabethtown,  under  the  direction  of  the 
Rev.  Jonathan  Dickenson.  Upon  his  death,  in  1748,  it  was  removed  to  New- 
ark, and  the  Rev.  Aaron  Burr  became  its  president.  In  the  year  1756,  it  was  per- 
manently established  at  Princeton,  whither  president  Burr  removed  with  his  pupils, 
and  where  for  nearly  eighty  years  it  has  maintained  a  high  and  unvarying  repu- 
tation, as  a  seat  of  literature  and  science;  and,  with  occasional  diminution  of  num- 
bers, has  continued  to  command  a  large  share  of  public  confidence  and  patronage. 

The  present  number  of  under  graduates  (1833)  is  one  hundred  and  forty-four. 
The  faculty  consists  of  a  president,  seven  professors,  and  three  tutors. 

Provision  is  made  for  imparting  instruction  in  the  Greek,  Latin,  French,  Spanish, 
German,  Italian,  and  English  languages ;  in  mathematics,  (the  study  of  which  is 
pursued  to  an  extent,  not  excelled  by  any  college  in  the  country,)  in  natural  philoso- 
phy, in  chemistry,  and  the  various  branches  of  natural  history  ;  in  belles  lettres,  in 
mental  and  moral  philosophy,  in  logic,  political  economy,  natural  theology,  the  evi- 
dences of  Christianity,  and  the  exposition  of  the  holy  scriptures  ;  in  anatomy  and 
physiology,  in  architecture,  and  civil  engineering.  The  libraries  of  the  college,  and 
two  literary  societies  connected  with  it,  contain  about  twelve  thousand  volumes.  The 
college  has  a  very  valuable  philosophical  and  chemical  apparatus,  a  museum  of 
natural  history,  a  small  anatomical  museum,  and  a  mineralogical  cabinet. 

The  principal  edifice,  called  Nassau  Hall,  is  one  hundred  and  seventy-six  feet  long 
fifty  wide,  and  four  stories  high,  and  is  used  chiefly  for  the  lodging  of  students  : 
another  building,  erected  for  the  same  purpose  in  1833,  is  one  hundred  and  twelve 
feet  in  length,  and  four  stories  high.  There  are  two  other  buildings,  each  sixty-six  feet 
in  length,  by  thirty-six  in  breadth,  and  three  stories  high.  One  of  them  contains  the  li- 
brary and  recitation  rooms ;  the  other  the  refectory,  museum,  and  chemical  laboratory. 

There  are  also,  at  Princeton,  several  other  literary  institutions,  (see  Princeton,) 
among  which,  the  theological  seminary  claims  the  first  place. 

This  school  was  founded  by  the  General  Assembly  of  the  Presbyterian  Church  of 
the  United  States,  and  is  under  its  control  and  patronage.  The  plan  of  the  insti- 
tution was  formed  in  1811,  and  carried  into  effect  in  May,  1812,  by  the  appoint- 
ment of  trustees,  and  a  professor  of  didactic  and  polemical  theology.  The  latter 
was  inaugurated,  and  entered  upon  his  duties,  with  three  students  only,  on  the  12th 
August  following.  In  May,  of  1813,  a  professor  of  ecclesiastical  history  was 
named,  and  ten  years  afterwards,  the  plan  was  completed  by  the  nomination  of  a 
professor  of  oriental  and  biblical  literature. 

The  edifice  for  the  use  of  the  seminary,  commenced  in  1813  and  rendered  habit- 
able in  the  autumn  of  1817,  is  of  stone,  one  hundred  and  fifty  feet  long,  fifty  wide 
and  four  stories  high,  including  the  basement;  and  is  regarded  as  a  model  of  econo- 
mical, neat,  and  tasteful  architecture.  Besides  the  apartments  for  the  library  reci- 
tations, refectory,  and  the  steward,  there  are  accommodations  for  eighty  students. 

This  institution  is  conducted  on  very  liberal  principles  ;  for,  though  founded  and 
supported  by  the  Presbyterian  church,  and  primarily  intended  to  promote  the  train- 
ing of  a  pious  and  learned  ministry  for  that  church,  students  of  all  Christian  denomi- 
nations are  admitted  into  a  full  participation  of  its  benefits,  upon  equal  terms.  It  is 
wholly  unconnected  with  the  college,  but  enjoys,  by  contract,  the  free  use  of  the 
college  library. 

The  funds  of  the  institution,  though  considerable,  are  yet  inadequate  to  the  full 
support  of  its  officers.  The  endowment  of  four  professorships  has  been  commenced 
but  none  is  fully  completed.  Twenty-three  scholarships  have  been  founded,  by  as 
many  benevolent  individuals,  and  maintain  that  number  of  poor  and  pious  youth  in 
a  course  of  theological  study.  There  are,  here,  two  public  libraries;  one  called  after 
the  Rev.  Ashbel  Green,  D.  D.  L.  L.  D.,  one  of  the  most  ardent  and  liberal  of  its 
contributors  ;  and  the  other  presented  by  the  synod  of  the  Associate  Reformed  Church, 
and  named  the  "  Mason  Library,"  in  honour  of  the  Rev.  John  M.  Mason,  D.  D.  by 
whose  exertions,  chiefly,  it  was  collected.  The  former  contains  six,  and  the  latter 
four  thousand  volumes. 

The  course  of  study  is  extended  through  three  years.  The  first  is  devoted  to  the 
Hebrew  language,  exegetical  study  of  the  scriptures,  biblical  criticism,  biblical  anti- 


86  GENERAL  DESCRIPTION. 

quities,  introduction  to  the  study  of  the  scriptures,  mental  and  moral  science,  evi- 
dences of  natural  and  revealed  religion,  sacred  chronology,  and  biblical  history. 
The  second  to  the  continued  exegetical  study  of  the  Hebrew  and  Greek  scriptures, 
and  to  didactic  theology  and  ecclesiastical  history.  The  third  to  polemic  theology, 
church  government,  pastoral  theology,  composition  and  delivery  of  sermons.  The 
classes  are  distinguished,  numerically,  into  First,  Second  and  Third.  The  members 
of  the  first,  or  highest  class,  are  required  to  exhibit  original  compositions,  once  in 
two  weeks  ;  those  of  the  second  class,  once  in  three  weeks  ;  and  those  of  the  third 
class,  once  in  four  weeks. 

There  are  three  vacations  in  eacli  year.  The  first  of  si.^  weeks,  from  the  first 
Thursday  of  May  ;  the  second  of  six  weeks,  from  the  last  Wednesday  of  September; 
and  the  third  of  two  weeks,  in  the  month  of  Feb.,  at  the  discretion  of  the  professors. 

Board  may  be  obtained  at  various  prices,  from  ,fl  25  to  $1  75  per  week;  fire- 
wood from  $4  to  $6  per  annum;  washing,  $7;  each  student  pays  to  the  seminary 
$10  per  annum,  towards  the  general  expense  fund;  but  there  is  no  charge  for  tui- 
tion, use  of  library,  «&c.  The  number  of  students  on  the  catalogue  of  the  institution 
for  the  current  year  (1833)  is  132. 

Rutgers'  College,  located  at  New  Brunswick,  was  chartered  by  George  III.  in 

1770,  and  was  called  Queen's  College,  in  honour  of  his  consort.  The  present  name 
was  substituted  by  the  legislature  of  the  State,  in  1825,  at  request  of  the  trustees, 
in  honour  of  Col.  Henry  Rutgers,  of  New  York,  to  whom  the  institution  is  indebted 
for  liberal  pecuniary  benefactions.  The  charter  was  originally  granted  to  such  Pro- 
testants as  had  adopted  the  constitution  of  the  reformed  churches  in  the  Netherlands, 
as  revised  by  the  national  synod  of  Dordrecht,  in  the  years  1618  and  1619.  That 
synod,  composed  of  distinguished  delegates  from  almost  all  denominations  of  Protes- 
tant Europe,  formed  one  of  the  most  august  ecclesiastical  assemblies  of  modern 
times.  Their  doctrines  as  embodied  in  the  confession  of  faith  and  catechisms  of  the 
Reformed  Dutch  Church  in  America,  substantially  comports  with  the  39  articles  of 
the  church  of  England,  and  entirely  with  the  doctrines  of  the  Presbyterian  church 
in  the  United  States  ;  and  the  government  of  the  church  is  strictly  Presbyterian. 
This  denomination  of  Christians  is  established  chiefly  in  New  York,  New  Jersey, 
and  Pennsylvania.  In  the  city  of  New  York,  alone,  it  has  twelve  churches,  in 
which  divine  worship  has  long  been  exclusively  conducted  in  the  English  language. 

Dr.  Jacob  R.  Hardenburg,  an  American,  was  appointed  first  president  of  the  col- 
lege, in  1789  ;  he  was  distinguished  by  a  powerful  mind,  great  piety  and  industry, 
and  success  in  the  ministry.     He  died  in  1792. 

The  Theological  College  of  the  Reformed  Dutch  Church  is  established  here,  and 
intimately  blended  with  the  literary  institution.     At  a  meeting  in  New  York,  Oct. 

1771,  of  Coetus  and  Confercntie,  until  then,  contending  parties  in  the  church,  peace 
was  restored,  and  a  plan  laid  for  the  organization  of  this,  the  first  theological  school 
in  America.  Its  completion,  however,  was  delayed  by  the  revolutionary  war,  until 
1784,  when  the  Rev.  Dr.  John  H.  Livingston,  was  chosen  professor  of  didactic  and 
polemical  theology,  who  performed  the  duties  of  this  office,  in  New  York,  in  con- 
nexion with  his  pastoral  services.  In  1807,  by  a  covenant  between  the  trustees  and 
the  synod,  the  professorate  was  united  with  the  college;  of  which,  in  1810,  Dr. 
Livingston  was  chosen  president,  on  the  death  of  Dr.  Ira  Condict.  The  duties  of 
the  literary  institution  were  at  this  time  suspended,  for  want  of  funds.  Dr.  Li- 
vingston died,  20t]i  Januarj^  1825,  in  the  79th  year  of  his  age,  the  55th  of  his  mi- 
nistry, and  the  41st  of  his  professorial  labours. 

At  a  general  synod,  convened  at  Albany,  in  February,  1825,  the  Rev.  Philip 
Milledoler,  D.  D.,  was  chosen  professor  of  didactic  and  polemical  theology  ;  and  in 
the  September  following,  was  elected,  by  the  trustees,  president  of  the  college,  and 
professor  of  the  evidences  of  Christianity  and  moral  pliilosophy.  At  the  same  time 
a  plan  was  matured  for  reviving  the  literary  institution ;  by  which,  one  of  the  theo- 
logical professors  must  alwa3's  be  chosen  president  of  the  college,  and  each  of  such 
professors  must  hold  a  professorship  therein,  and  be  a  member  of  its  faculty. 

The  effect  of  this  amalgamation  of  theology  and  literature,  is  said  to  have  been 
highly  favourable  to  the  moral  character  of  tlie  institution,  and  not  to  have  imparted 
to  it  a  sectarian  influence. 

The  college  edifice,  of  dark  red  freestone,  is  a  handsome  spacious  building,  sur- 
mounted by  a  cupola.  It  is  reared  on  an  eminence  near  the  town,  a  site  of  great 
beauty,  presented  to  the  institution  by  the  honourable  James  Parker,  of  Amboy. 
The  views  from  thence,  embracing  great  variety  of  scenery,  of  mountain  and  valley, 


LITERARY  INSTITUTIONS.  87 

forest  and  river,  are  delightfully  picturesque,  and  the  country  is  as  healthy  as  it  is 
lovely.  The  institution  may  be  considered  in  a  flourishing  condition.  The  number 
of  students  in  September,  1833,  was  eighty,  with  the  prospect  of  much  increase 
during  the  session.  The  charge  for  board  and  tuition  is  about  f;12.5  per  annum. 
The  students  board  in  re.spectable  private  families,  under  the  supervision  of  the 
faculty,  where  their  habits,  morals,  and  manners  are  duly  regarded.  The  number  of 
students  in  theology  has  varied  from  sixteen  to  thirty.  There  are  three  libraries  ; 
that  of  the  college  is  large  and  valuable,  and  those  pertaining  to  the  Peithesopian 
and  Philoclean  Societies,  are  respectable.  The  cabinet  of  minerals  is  considerable, 
and  increasing  ;    and  the  philosophical  and  chemical  apparatus  extensive. 

The  faculty  (in  1833)  consists  of  the  Rev.  Philip  Milledoler,  D.  D.,  president, 
professor  of  moral  philosophy  and  didactic  and  polemical  theology  ;  the  Rev.  Jacob  J. 
Janeway,  D.  D.  vice  president  and  professor  of  rhetoric,  evidences  of  Christianity, 
political  economy,  &c.;  the  Rev.  James  S.  Cannon,  D.  D.,  professor  of  metaphysics 
and  piiilosophy  of  the  human  mind,  of  ecclesiastical  history,  church  government, 
and  pastoral  theology  ;  Theodore  Strong,  A.  A.  S.,  C.  A.  S.,  professor  of  mathematics 
and  natural  philosophy;  the  Rev.  Mezander  M'  Clelland,  D.  D.,  professor  of  oriental 
and  biblical  literature;  Leicis  Black,  M.  D.,  professor  of  chemistry  and  natural  his- 
tory ;  Joh7i  D.  Ogilby,  A.  M.,  professor  of  languages;  and  Frederic  Ogilby,  A.  B., 
assistant  instructer  of  languages. 

Tlie  grammar  school  attached  to  the  college,  and  under  the  immediate  inspection 
of  the  trustees  and  faculty,  is  committed  to  the  rectorship  of  the  Rev.  Cornelius 
D.  Wcsibrook,  D.  D.,  assisted  by  Isaac  A.  Blauvelt,  A.  M.,  an  alumnus  of  the  college. 

The  location  of  this  college  equidistant  from  Philadelphia  and  New  York,  the 
healthfulness  and  beauty  of  the  adjacent  country,  the  excellent  morals  which  prevail 
in  the  city  as  in  the  college,  the  high  character  and  capability  of  the  professors,  and 
the  cheapness  of  tuition  and  subsistence,  give  this  institution  strong  claims  to  the 
attention  of  the  public. 

The  first  step  towards  the  establishment  of  the  school  fund  of  this  Slate,  com- 
menced with  the  act  of  9th  February,  1816,  which  directed  the  treasurerto  in- 
vest in  the  public  six  per  cent,  stocks  of  the  United  States,  the  sum  of  $15,000, 
arising  from  the  payment  of  the  funded  debt,  and  from  the  dividends  on  the  stock 
held  by  the  State  in  the  Trenton  Bank ;  and  at  the  end  of  every  year,  to  invest  the 
interest  on  the  capital,  in  the  same  manner. 

On  the  12th  February  of  the  succeeding  year,  the  "  Act  to  create  a  fund  for  free 
schools"  was  passed,  setting  apart  the  stock  and  its  accumulations  vested  under  the 
act  of  1816  ;  the  dividends  on  the  stock  held  by  the  State,  in  the  Cumberland  Bank, 
and  in  the  Newark  Turnpike  Company,  the  proceeds  of  the  sale  of  a  house  and  lot, 
in  New  Brunswick,  the  property  of  the  State,  and  one-tenth  part  of  all  monies,  there- 
after raised  by  tax  for  State  use;  and  the  treasurer  was  instructed  to  vest  these  as 
they  came  to-his  hands,  in  the  public  stocks  of  the  United  States.  By  the  act  of  12th 
February,  1818,  the  governor,  vice-president  of  council,  speaker  of  assembly,  the 
attorney  general,  and  secretary  of  state,  for  the  time  being,  were  appointed  "  Trus- 
tees for  the  support  of  Free  Schools;"  and  the  treasurer  was  directed  to  transfer 
to  them  the  school  funds,  to  be  by  them  applied  in  the  mode  to  be  prescribed  by  the 
State,  reserving  to  the  legislature  the  authority  to  change  the  existing  fund,  and  to 
dissolve  the  trust  at  pleasure;  and  requiring  an  account  of  the  fund  to  be  annually 
laid  before  the  legislature.  This  act  made  the  following  additions  to  the  fund. — 
The  balance  of  the  old  six  per  cent,  stock,  due  12th  February,  1817,  with  the 
interest  and  reimbursement  thereof  since  9th  Feb.,  1816;  the  three  per  cent,  stock 
of  the  U.  States,  belonging  to  the  State  on  the  12th  February,  1817;  the  shares  of  the 
State  in  the  Trenton  and  Cumberland  Banks,  with  the  dividends  since  9th  February, 
1816;  all  monies  receivable  from  the  foregoing  items,  future  appropriations,  and 
such  gifts  and  grants,  bequests  and  devises,  as  should  be  made  for  the  purposes  con- 
templated by  the  act;  and  one-tenth  part  of  the  State  tax  for  the  year  1817.  The 
last  appropriation,  being,  specifically,  one-tenth  of  the  tax,  has  been  construed  as 
repealing  the  general  appropriation  on  the  tax  under  the  act  of  1817. 

The  fund  thus  augmented  and  transferred  to  the  trustees  amounted  to  $113,238  78, 
and  consisted  of  the  following  sums  : — 

1st.  Six  per  cent,  stock  U.  States,  purchased  under  the  law  of  1816,  $15,000  00 

2d.   Six  percent,  stock  United  States,  purchased  under  act  1817,  16,224   15 

3d.  Stock  in  Newark  Turnpike  Company,  ....  12,500  00 

4lh.  Three  per  cent,  stock  of  United  States,        ....  7,00912 


88  GENERAL  DESCRIPTION. 

5th.  Interest,  and  reimbursement,  of  the  principal  of  the  deferred  six 

per  cent,  stock  of  United  States,            -          .          .          .          .  7,810  73 

6th.   Twelve  hundred'shares  Trenton  Bank  stock,          -          -          -  36,000  00 

7th.  Forty  shares  in  the  Cumberland  Bank,          ....  2,000  00 

8th.   Interest  and  dividends  from  the  several  .stocks  since  9th  Feb.  1816,  10,429  66 

9th.  Cash  and  one-tenth  of  State  tax  for  1817,    ...         -  6,265  12 
Since  1818,  there  have  been  added  to  the  principal  of  tlie  fund  the   following 
items  by  legislative  appropriation  :  — 

1st.  Proceeds  of  sale  of  the  State  House  in  Jersey  City,         -         -  $4,907  64 

2d.  Twenty-two  shares  in  Sussex  Bank,       -          -          .          -          .  1000  00 

3d.  Donation  from  William  J.  Bell  &  Co.             ....  23  15 

4th.  Bonus  of  People's  Bank  at  Paterson,  reed.  26th  Sept.  1825,  4,000  00 

5th.  Bonus  from  Monmouth  Bank,  9th  June,  1825,      -          -          -  800  00 

6th.  Sale  of  part  of  a  lot  in  Trenton, 1,061  00 

7th.  Under  the  act  28th  December,  1824,  one-tenth  of  State  tax,  and 

tax  on  Monmouth  bank  for  the  year  1826,              -         -         -  2,200  00 

Same,  1827, 2,200  00 

Same,  1828, 3,200  00 

8th.  Under  the  act  5tli  March,  1828,  repealing  act  of  28th  December, 
1824,  and  in  lieu  of  one-tenth  of  the  State  tax,  giving  all  the  tax 
from  banking,  insurance  and  other  incorporated  companies,  which, 

in  the  year  1829,  amounted  to                -          .          .          .          .  11,709  58 
And  estimated  to  produce,  annually,  $10,000. 

$31,101  37 


Making  whole  amountof  appropriations  by  legislature,  in  1830,         $144,240  15 

In  the  management  of  the  fund,  great  advantage  has  arisen  from  the  act  of  18th 
Feb.  1829,  directing  the  investment  of  the  annual  income  in  advance,  by  which  the 
trustees  were  empowered,  to  invest  on  or  before  the  first  of  March,  annually,  an 
amount  equal  to  the  estimated  receipts  of  the  fund  during  the  year,  to  be  advanced 
by  the  State  treasurer,  and  to  be  replaced  by  him  as  the  monies  accruing  from  the 
fund  shall  be  received  ;  thus  enabling  the  trustees  to  invest  at  one  time  all  the  in- 
come of  the  year. 

The  sources  of  income  of  the  school  fund,  are  now,  the  dividends  on  the  various 
stock  which  the  trustees  hold,  and  which,  in  October  1832,  amounted  to  $228,611  75. 
And  the  annual  tax  of  half  per  cent,  upon  the  dividends  of  the  several  bank  and  in- 
surance companies  of  the  State,  which  amounts  annually  to  near  $11,000. 

The  first  expenditure  which  has  been  directed  out  of  the  fund,  was  by  the  "  act 
establishing  common  schools,"  passed  21st  February,  1829,  appropriating  annually 
$20,000  from  the  income  of  the  fund,  for  the  establishment  and  maintenance  of 
schools.  This  act  was  altered  and  amended  by  the  act  of  1st  March,  1830.  But  both 
acts  were  repealed  by  that  of  16th  February,  1831,  by  which  the  system  of  common 
schools  is  now  regulated.  That  act  appropriates  $20,000  annually,  from  the  in- 
come of  the  school  fund,  to  the  establishment  and  maintenance  of  such  schools;  and 
directs,  in  case  sucii  annual  income  shall  not  have  been  received  in  full  on  the  first 
Monday  of  April,  or  shall  be  insufficient  to  cover  the  appropriation,  the  trustees  to 
draw  from  the  State  treasury  for  the  deficiency ;  such  amount  to  be  replaced  from 
the  annual  receipts  of  the  school  fund.  The  act  further  provides,  that  the  trustees 
shall  apportion  the  sum,  so  appropriated,  among  the  several  counties,  in  the  ratio  of 
their  taxes  paid  for  the  support  of  government,  and  shall  file  a.  list  of  such  appoition- 
ment  with  the  treasurer,  that  he  may  notify  tiie  collectors  of  the  several  counties,  to 
draw  for  the  same ;  that  the  boards  of  chosen  freeholders,  of  the  respective  coun- 
ties, shall  at  their  annual  meetings,  apportion  among  the  several  townships,  the  mo- 
nies received  by  the  collectors,  in  the  ratio  of  the  county  tax  paid  by  the  several 
townships,  a  list  of  which  api)ortionments,  the  clerk  of  the  freeholders  is  required,  to 
file,  to  deliver  a  copy  thereof,  to  the  county  collector,  and  to  notify  the  collectors 
of  the  several  townships  of  the  amounts  so  apportioned,  suce  collectors  report  such 
amounts  to  the  inhabitants,  at  their  next  annual  town  meeting  ;  thatj'.may,  (and  they 
are  recommended  so  to  do,)  at  such  meetings,  raise,  by  tax  or  otherwise,  such  addi- 
tional sum  for  the  same  object,  as  they  may  deem  proper ;  and  may  authorize  the 
township  collector,  to  draw  on  the  county  collector,  for  the  amount  apportioned,  and 


LITERARY  INSTITUTIONS.  89 

may  (ipply  the  sum  received  from  the  State,  to  schooling  the  Indlgentpoor  of  tlie  town- 
ship, if  they  so  elect;  that  the  inhabitants  at  their  town  meetings,  annually,  shall 
choose,  as  other  town  officers  are  chosen,  three  or  more  persons,  who  shairconstitute 
the  sciiool  committee,  and  whose  duty  is  to  recognise  and  ascertain  the  number  of 
common  schools  within  their  respective  townships ;  that  the  patrons,  supporters,  or 
proprietors  of  the  several  common  schools  in  the  respective  townships,  be  authorized  to 
organize  such  schools,  by  tlie  appointment  of  a  board  of  trustees,  in  such  form,  and 
consisting  of  such  number,  as  they  may  deem  proper  ;  and  any  board  of  trustees  so  or- 
ganized shall  transmit  to  the  school  committee,  of  the  proper  township,  a  certilicate  of 
its  organization,  and  sliall  thereon  be  recognised  by  the  committee  as  entitled  to  an  ap- 
portionment of  the  monies  assigned  to  such  township  from  the  school  fund.  And 
such  trustees  are  required  to  render  to  the  school  committees,  on  or  before  the  first 
Monday  of  April,  annually,  a  statement  of  the  average  number  of  scholars  resident 
in  the  township,  taught  in  such  school  during  each  quarter  of  the  preceding  year, 
and  where  from  convenience,  scholars  from  an  adjoining  township  attend  such 
school,  to  report  their  number  &.c.  to  the  school  committee  of  such  adjoining  town- 
ship; to  visit  and  inspect  the  affairs  of  their  respective  schools,  to  apply  the  mo- 
nies received,  at  discretion,  for  their  benefit,  and  at  the  end  of  every  year,  to  exhibit 
to  the  school  committee,  a  correct  account  of  the  expenditure  of  such  monies;  that 
the  school  committees,  at  or  before  the  end  of  their  term  of  service,  shall  apportion 
the  whole  of  the  monies  assigned  to  their  respective  townships,  and  raised  therein, 
amonc  such  common  schools,  in  the  ratio  of  the  number  of  scholars  reported  to 
them,  respectively,  during  the  preceding  year  ;  or  where  any  township  may  elect  to 
appropriate  such  funds  exclusively  to  the  education  of  the  poor,  to  apportion  the 
same  among  the  several  schools,  in  proportion  to  the  number  of  poor  children  taught; 
and  shall  draw  in  favour  of  the  boards  of  trustees  respectively,  for  the  amount 
of  their  several  dividends,  on  the  town  collector;  and  shall  on  or  before  the  first 
Wednesday  of  May,  yearly,  transmit  to  the  clerk  of  the  board  of  chosen  freeholders 
of  their  respective  counties,  a  written  statement,  embracing  the  number  of  common 
schools  duly  organized  within  tlieir  respective  townships,  the  number  of  scholars 
taught  therein,  the  amount  of  the  monies  received  by  them  from  the  township  col- 
lector, and  raised  by  the  township,  and  the  manner  in  which  the  same  has  been  ap- 
plied;  that  such  clerk  shall  condense  such  statements  into  a  report,  in  writing,  and 
transmit  the  same  to  the  trustees  of  the  school  fund,  to  be  laid  before  the  legislature, 
in  a  condensed  form.     No  compensation  is  allowed  under  this  act. 

It  will  be  observed,  that  in  framing  this  system,  no  attempt  has  been  made  to  co- 
erce the  respective  townships  into  raising  monies,  in  addition  to  their  allotted  share 
of  the  sum  appropriated  from  the  school  fund ;  but,  in  accordance  with  the  spirit  of 
the  government  of  the  State,  which  considers  the  townships  as  integral  corporations, 
vphose  inhabitants  are  competent  to  judge  of  their  wants,  and  possess  the  means  to 
supply  them,  the  legislature  has,  we  think,  wisely  left  with  each  township,  the  li- 
berty to  tax  itself  for  the  purposes  of  education,  as  to  it  may  seem  meet ;  whilst 
it  has  promptly  offered  all  the  aid  which  it  has  to  bestow.  It  is  possible,  that  learn- 
ing may  advance  less  rapidly,  than  if  urged  by  a  forced  culture ;  but  we  are  not  sure, 
that  the  happiness  of  the  people  will  be  less  promoted.  We  would  not  be  under- 
stood to  mean  that  literature  is  not  a  source  of  happiness;  but  it  is  not  the  only  one. 
He  who  is  compelled  to  a  diet  which  is  unacceptable  to  his  appetite,  will  not  boast 
of  his  enjoyment;  and  we  have  no  difficulty  in  determining,  which  is  the  most  hos- 
pitable host,  he  who  forces  manna  upon  the  revolting  stomach  of  his  guest,  or  he, 
who,  placing  the  dish  before  him,  permits  him  to  eat  at  pleasure,  whilst  he  expa- 
tiates upon  its  agreeable  and  nourishing  properties.  None,  properly  instructed, 
would  reject  the  joys  of  paradise;  but,  were  paradise  a  prison,  we  should  long  to 
leap  its  crystal  walls.  Emulation,  we  think,  will  soon  be  awakened  among  the 
townships  of  each  county,  and  among  the  counties,  upon  this  all-important  subject; 
and  although  the  sum  of  $20,000  is  a  small  one  to  distribute  among  a  population  of 
330,000  souls,  it  will  have  one  excellent  effect;  it  will  turn,  periodically,  the  at- 
tention of  the  people  to  the  means  of  mental  improvement,  will  set  them  to  com- 
pare their  condition  with  that  of  their  neighbours,  and  when  inferior,  to  improve  it. 
For  it  may  be  taken  as  a  truism,  that  when  the  people  are  at  liberty  to  consider  and 
improve  their  condition,  they  will,  when  dissatisfied,  amend  it. 

Among  the  provisions  for  enlightening  the  public  mind,  we  may  justly  include 
those  for  publishing  the  laws,  not  only  of  the  State,  but  also  of  the  general  govern- 

M 


90 


GENERAL  DESCRIPTION. 


ment.  The  act  of  7th  June,  1820,  directs  :  1st,  That  the  secretary  of  state  ehall 
cause  the  laws  of  the  State  to  be  published  immediately  after  the  passing  thereof, 
in  one  of  the  public  newspapers,  of  the  city  of  Trenton  ;  and  that  they  shall  also  be 
published  in  a  pamphlet  form,  together  with  the  votes  and  proceedings  of  assembly, 
the  journals  of  council,  and  minutes  of  joint  meetings,  and  delivered  by  the  printer 
within  sixty  days  from  the  rising  of  the  legislature,  to  the  State  treasurer,  who  shall 
distribute  them  in  the  following  manner,  at  the  expense  of  the  State,  viz  : — to  him- 
self, two  copies  ;  to  the  governor,  for  himself,  three  copies,  and  also  to  be  forwarded 
by  him,  and  presented  to  the  secretary  of%tate  of  the  United  States,  four  copies  ;  to 
the  executive  of  each  state,  and  territory  of  the  United  States,  for  the  use  of  the 
executives  and  legislatures,  three  copies ;  to  each  of  the  senators,  and  representa- 
tives of  this  State,  in  congress,  one  copy;  to  the  president  of  the  American  Anti- 
quarian Society,  one  copy  ;  to  the  justices  of  the  Supreme  Court,  the  attorney  ge- 
neral, secretary  of  state,  clerk  of  council,  assembly,  Courts  of  Chancery  and  Su- 
preme Court,  each  one  copy  ;  to  the  clerk  of  the  council,  for  the  use  of  council 
and  assembly,  sixty  copies;  and  the  remainder  among  the  several  counties  in  the 
ratio  they  contribute  to  the  support  of  the  government,  directed  to  the  county 
collector.  The  county  collector,  retaining  a  copy  for  himself,  transmits,  at  the  ex- 
pense of  the  county,  one  set  of  the  laws  and  proceedings,  to  each  of  the  following 
officers: — the  judges  and  clerk  of  the  Common  Pleas,  the  justices  of  the  peace,  the 
magistrates  of  corporate  towns,  the  sheriff,  surrogate,  clerk  of  the  board  of  chosen 
freeholders,  and  the  representatives  of  the  county  in  the  legislature,  and  each  incor- 
porated library  company  ;  and  divides  the  remainder  among  the  several  townships 
of  the  county,  transmitting  equal  proportions  to  the  clerk  of  each  township,  who, 
retaining  one  copy  for  the  use  of  the  township,  causes  the  residue  to  be  distributed 
amonor  the  officers  of  the  township,  giving  preference  in  the  following  order  : — to 
the  assessor,  collector,  chosen  freeholders,  and  overseers  of  the  poor,  each  one  set. 

The  laws  of  the  United  States,  apportioned  to  this  State  by  Congress,  are  distributed 
by  the  treasurer,  at  the  expense  of  the  State  ;  to  himself,  to  the  governor,  attorney 
general,  justices  of  Supreme  Court,  secretary  of  state,  members  of  the  legislature, 
each  one  set ;  to  the  clerk  of  council,  and  the  clerk  of  the  assembly,  four  sets  ;  to  the 
librarians  of  Princeton  college,  and  to  the  two  library  societies  in  the  college,  each 
one  set ;  and  the  remainder,  among  the  counties  in  proportion  to  their  quota  of  State 
taxes,  to  be  transmitted  to  the  collectors,  and  by  them  distributed  to  the  clerk  and 
judges  of  the  court  of  Common  Pleas,  each  one  set,  and  to  every  public  library  one 
set;  and  the  residue,  as  may  be  directed  by  the  board  of  chosen  freeholders. 

Reports  of  the  decisions  of  the  Supreme  and  Chancery  Courts  are  annually  pre- 
pared by  officers  appointed  by  the  legislature  for  a  term  of  five  years,  who  re- 
ceive a  compensation  of  $200  per  annum.  Such  reports  are  printed,  and  distri- 
buted, annually,  with  the  pamphlet  laws. 

Lastly,  and  certainly  not  least,  among  the  agents  of  moral  improvement,  we  must 
rank  the  periodical  journals  of  the  State.  The  commonwealtii  partakes  largely  in 
the  benefits  flowing  from  the  press,  in  the  cities  of  Philadelphia  and  New  York,  and 
we  therefore  might  suppose  would  not  extensively  encourage  newspapers  within  her 
own  boundaries ;  yet  she  has  not  less  than  thirty-one  weekly  papers,  engaged  in 
sowing  broadcast  the  germs  of  literature  and  science.  Of  these  useful  auxiliaries 
we  annex  the  following  table. 


NEWSPAPERS. 

Bergen  County  Courier, 
Sussex  Register, 
N.  J.  Herald, 
Belvidere  Apollo, 
Warren  Journal, 
Palladium  of  Liberty, 
Jersey  man. 
Railway  Advocate, 
Fredonian, 
Times, 

Sentinel  of  Freedom, 
Daily  Advertiser, 
Newark  Monitor, 
Do.     Eagle, 


Hall, 

Grant  Fitch, 
Franklin  Ferguson, 
Fitch  &  Co. 
John  R.  Eyres, 
Robbins, 
Thomas  Green, 
Randolph  and  Carman, 

George  Bush  &Co. 

S.  L.  B.  Baldwin, 
Bartlett  and  Crowell, 


WHERE  PCBLISHED. 

Jersey  City,  Bergen  Co. 
Newton,  Sussex  Co. 

Do.         do. 
Belvidere,  Warren  Co. 

Do.  do. 

Morristown,  Morrii  Co. 

Do.  do. 

Rahway,  Middlesex. 
New  Brunswick,  do. 

Do.  do. 

Newark,  Essex. 

Do.         do. 

Do.         do. 

Do.         do. 


LITERARY  INSTITUTIONS. 


91 


Princeton  Courier, 
American  System, 
Somerset  Messenger, 
State  Gazette, 
National  Union, 
Emporium, 
Hunterdon  Gazette, 
Monmouth  Enquirer, 
Burlington  Herald, 
Mount  Holly  Mirror, 
Camden  Mail, 
National  Republican, 
Village  Herald, 
Salem  Statesman, 
Do.  Messenger, 
Washington  Whig, 
Bridgeton  Observer, 


Baker  and  Connolly, 
J.  Robinson  &  Co. 
Gore  and  Allison, 
George  Sherman, 

E.  B.  Adams, 
Joseph  Justine, 
Chas.   George, 
John  J.  BartlesoH, 
Joseph  Pugh, 
Nathan  Palmer, 
Sickler  and  Ham, 
Josiah  Harrison, 
Joseph  Sailor, 

H.  H.  Elwell, 
Elijah  Brooks, 
Nelson  and  Powers, 

F.  Pierson, 


Princeton,  Somerset. 

Do.  do. 

Somerville,    do. 
Trenton,  Hunterdon. 

Do.  do. 

Do.  do. 

Flemington,  do. 
Freehold,  Monmouth, 
Mount  Holly,  Burlington. 

Do.  do. 

Camden,  Gloucester. 

Do.  do. 

Woodbury,    do. 
Salem,  Salem. 

Do.         do. 
Bridgeton,  Cumberland. 

Do.  do. 


GAZETTEER   OF  NFIW  JERSEY. 


ACQ 

Absecum,  post  town  of  Galloway 
t-ship,  Gloucester  cc,  50  miles  S.  E. 
from  Woodbury,  95  from  Trenton, 
and  105  from  W.  C,  upon  Absecum 
creek,  about  two  miles  above  Abse- 
cum bay,  contains  a  tavern,  store, 
and  8  or  10  dwellings,  surrounded 
by  sand,  and  pine  forest. 

Absecum  Creek  rises  by  several 
branches,  on  the  line  between  Gallo- 
way and  Egg  Harbour  t-ship,  Glou- 
cester CO.,  and  flows  S.  E.,  by  a 
course  of  8  or  9  miles,  into  Abse- 
cum bay.  It  gives  motion  to  several 
saw  mills. 

Absecum  Bay,  a  salt  marsh  lake, 
Gloucester  co.,  on  the  line  of  Egg 
Harbour  and  Galloway  t-ship,  cir- 
cular in  form,  and  about  2  miles  in 
diameter,  communicating  with  Reed's 
bay,  and  by  a  broad  channel,  called 
Absecum  Inlet,  4  miles  in  length,  with 
the  ocean. 

Absecum  Beach,  on  the  Atlantic 
Ocean;  extends,  eastwardly,  from 
Great  Egg  Harboin-  Inlet,  about  9 
miles  to  Absecum  Inlet ;  broken,  how- 
ever, by  a  narrow  inlet,  near  mid- 
way between  its  extremities. 

Ackerman's  R^in,  small  stream,  2 
miles  long,  flowing  to  the  Passaic 
River,  about  3  miles  below  Pater- 
son,  from  Saddle  River  t-ship,  Ber- 
gen CO. 

Acquackanonck,  t-ship,  Essex  co., 
bounded  on  the  N.  W.,  N.  E.  and 
E.  by  the  Passaic  river,  wliich  forms 
a  semi-ellipsis,  N.  by  Paterson  t-ship, 
and  S.  by  Rloomficld  and  Caldwell 
t-ships ;  centrally  distant,  N.  from 
Newark,  10  miles;  greatest  length, 
E.  and  W.  7,  breadth  N.  and  S.'  Gi 
miles;  area  about  14,000  acres. 
Mountainous  on  the  W.,  rolling  on  the 
E. ;  soil  red  shale,  and  where  well 
cultivated,  productive.  Acquackan- 
onck, Little  Falls,  and   Weasel   are 


ALA 

villages,  of  the  t-ship ;  the  two  first, 
post  towns.  Acquackanonck,  on  the 
Passaic  river,  distant  5  miles  S.  E. 
of  Paterson,  is  at  the  head  of  tide 
water,  and  consequently  the  outport 
of  Paterson.  Pop.  in  1830,  about 
1,300.  In  1832,  the  t-ship  contained 
300  taxables,  125  householders,  47 
single  men,  7  merchants,  6  grist 
mills,  2  cotton  factories,  5  saw  mills, 
1  paper  mill,  13  tan  vats,  one  print- 
ing and  bleaching  establishment,  1 
woollen  factory,  345  horses  and 
mules,  and  766  neat  cattle  above  3 
years  of  age ;  and  it  paid  state  tax, 
$230  62  cents;  county,  $607  37  c. ; 
poor,  $500;  and  road,  $700.  Aquack- 
anonck  town  is  a  p-t,  8  miles  N.  E. 
of  Newark,  224  from  W.  C,  58  from 
Ti-enton,  10  from  New  York,  to  which 
there  is  a  turnpike  and  rail  road.  It 
contains  3  taverns,  6  stores,  about 
80  dwellings,  and  a  Dutch  Reformed 
church;  has  six  sloops  trading  whh 
New  York.  A  small  stream,  which 
maj?^  be  termed  the  Fourth  river,  runs 
near  the  town,  and  gives  motion  to  se- 
veral mills.  Blatchley's  mineral 
spring  lies  about  1^  miles  W.  of  the 
town.  This  is  the  depot  of  lumber  for 
the  neighbourhood. 

Alamuchc,  p-t.  of  Independence 
t-ship,  Warren  co.,  on  the  eastern  part 
of  tlie  t-ship ;  by  the  post  route  228 
miles  N.  E.  of'W.  C,  and  65  from 
Trenton,  and  17  from  Belvidere  the 
C.  T.;  vseated  on  a  small  tributary  of 
Request  creek,  and  near  a  lake  of  the 
same  name,  contains  a  grist  and  saw 
mill,  a  grain  distillery,  a  store,  tavern, 
and  12  or  1.5  dwellings.  It  is  sur- 
rounded by  a  limestone  soil  of  excel- 
lent quality,  well  cultivated. 

Alamuchc  Lake  is  one  of  the  many 
mountain  ponds  whicli  characterize 
this  country,  and  which  are,  in  many 
cases,  reservoirs  formed  in  limestone 


ALL 


93 


ALL 


yock.  This  is  about  a  mile  in  diame- 
ter, and  sends  forth  a  tributaiy  to  the 
Pequcst  creek. 

Alamuche  Mountain  is  one  of  the 
chain  of  hills  which  bounds  the  valley 
of  the  Musconetcong  creek  in  War- 
ren county. 

Alberson's  Brook,  a  tributary  of 
Spruce  Run,  a  fork  of  the  south 
branch  of  the  Raritan  river,  rises  at 
the  south  foot  of  the  Musconetcong 
mountain,  and  flows  easterly  by  a 
course  of  7  or  8  miles  to  its  reci- 
pient. 

Alexandria,  p-t.  of  Alexandria 
t-ship,  Hunterdon  co.,  on  the  bank  of 
the  Delaware  river,  at  the  junction  of 
Nischisakawick  creek  with  that 
stream,  11  miles  W.  of  Flemington, 
35  N.  of  Trenton,  189  from  W.  C; 
contains  a  tavern,  store,  grist  mill, 
and  8  or  10  dwellings,  a  Presbyte- 
rian and  an  Episcopalian  church. 

Alexandria  t-ship,  Hunterdon  co., 
bounded  on  the  N.  E.  by  Bethlehem 
t-ship,  N.  W.  by  the  Musconetcong 
creek,  which  separates  it  from  War- 
ren CO.,  and  S.  W.  by  the  river  Dela- 
ware; centrally  distant,  N.  E.  from 
Flemington,  12  miles ;  greatest  length, 
E.  and  W.,  12  miles ;  breadth,  N.  and 
S.,  9  miles ;  area  33,000  acres.  Sur- 
face on  the  N.,  mountainous,  the 
Musconetcong  mountain  running  N. 
W.  across  the  t-ship.  Soil,  on  the  S. 
E.,  red  shale ;  at  the  foot  of  the  moun- 
tain, grey  limestone;  and  on  the 
mountain,  clay,  sand  and  loam.  It  is 
drained,  S.  W.  by  the  Nischisakawick, 
the  Hakehokake,  and  other  small 
mill  streams.  Alexandria,  Milford, 
Mount  Pleasant,  and  Pittstown  are 
p-towns  of  the  t-ship.  Pop.,  in  1830, 
3,042.  In  1832,  the  t-ship  contained 
10  saw  mills,  7  grist  mills,  4  oil 
mills,  4  ferries  and  toll  bridges,  6 
distilleries,  8  stores,  861  horses,  1287 
neat  cattle  above  the  age  of  3  years ; 
and  it  paid  poor  tax,  $1000;  road 
tax,  $800 ;  and  state  and  county  tax, 
$1413  48  cents. 

Allentown,  p-t.  of  Upper  Freehold 
t-ship,  Monmouth  co.,  near  the  west- 
ern line  of  the  county,  between  Doc- 
tor cre-ek  and  Indian  run,  on  the  road 


from  Bordentown  to  Freehold,  8  miles 
from  the  former  and  18  from  the  lat- 
ter, 177  from  W.  C,  and  11  from 
Trenton;  contains  from  75  to  80 
dwellings;  1  Presbyterian  church, 
with  cupola  and  bell,  handsomely  si- 
tuated on  the  hill  on  the  west;  an 
academy,  2  schools,  1  Methodist 
Church,  grist  mill,  saw  mill,  and  tilt 
mill,  on  Doctor  creek,  and  saw  mill 
on  Indian  run;  below  which,  at  a 
short  distance  west  of  the  town,  is  a 
cotton  manufactory.  This  is  a  com- 
pact pleasant  village,  with  some  very 
good  frame  and  brick  houses ;  but  the 
lands  around  are  sandy,  and  not  of 
the  best  quality.  A  considerable 
business  is  done  in  the  town. 

Alexsocken  Creek,  a  small  miU 
stream  of  Amwell  t-ship,  Hunterdon 
CO.,  which  flows  westerly  into  the 
Delaware  river,  by  a  course  of  5  or 
6  miles,  about  a  mile  above  Lam- 
bertville. 

Alloways  Creek,  Salem  co.,  rises 
in  the  N.  W.  angle  of  Pittsgrove 
t-ship,  and  flows  by  a  S.  W.  course 
of  more  than  20  miles,  through  Up- 
per and  Lower  Alloways,  and  Elsin- 
borough  t-ships,  to  the  Delaware  ri- 
ver, below  Reedy  island.  It  is  na- 
vigable above  Allowaystown,  in  Up- 
per Alloways  t-ship,  a  distance  of 
about  twelve  miles  from  the  mouth, 
for  wood  shallops ;  along  its  margin 
for  about  10  miles,  are  some  excellent 
banked  meadows. 

Allowaystown,  p-t.  of  Upper  Al- 
loways t-ship,  Salem  co.,  about  7 
miles  E.  of  Salem,  177  N.  E.  from 
W.  C,  and  71  S.  from  Trenton;  con- 
tains from  70  to  80  dwellings,  2  ta- 
verns, 4  or  5  stores,  1  Methodist, 
and  1  Baptist  church.  The  Messrs. 
Reeves,  have  here  2  very  powerful 
saw  mills,  engaged  principally  in 
cutting  ship  timber,  and  a  valuable 
grist  mill,  on  the  Alloways  creek. 
They  employ  from  75  to  100  horses 
in  drawing  timber  &c.,  to  their  works. 

Alloways  Creek,  Upper,  t-ship, 
Salem  co.,  bounded  N.  E.  by  Pitts- 
grove  t-ship,  S.  E.  by  Deerfield, 
Hopewell,  and  Stow  creek  t-ships, 
Cumberland  co. ;  S.  W.  by  Lower 


ALL 


94 


AND 


Alloways  creek  t-ship,  and  N.  W. 
by   Elsinborough    and    Mannington 
t-ships ;  centrally  distant,  S.  E.  from 
Salem   7    miles.       Greatest    length 
E.  and  W.  10^,  breadth  iV.  and  Sl  9 
miles.     Area,   about    34,000   acres; 
of  which  more  than  10,000  are  unim- 
proved.    Soil  upon  the  N.  E.,  stiff 
clay  and  loam;  on  the  S.  E.  sand 
and  gravelly  loam,  with  rolling  sur- 
face.    The     forest    known    as    the 
"  Barrens,"    runs    here,    producing 
much  white  oak  and  pine  wood  for 
market,  which  finds  its  way  to  Phi- 
ladelphia, by  Alloways  creek.     By 
the   census   of  1830,    the   township 
contained  2136  inhabitants,  and  by 
the  assessor's  abstract  of  1832,  415 
taxables,     5    grist     mills,     10    saw 
mills,   2   carding    machines,    1    ful- 
ling mill,  2  distilleries,   416   horses 
and    mules,    and   854    neat    cattle, 
upwards    of    3    years    old;    and    it 
paid  t-ship  tax,  $400;   county  tax, 
$834  10;  State  tax,  $218  74.     The 
t-ship  is  drained  by  Alloways  creek, 
which  runs  centrally  through  it,  by  a 
S.  W.  course,  and  by  Stow  creek, 
which   forms   part   of  the   southern 
boundary.    Allowaystown  and  Quin- 
ton's  Bridge,  are  villages  and  post- 
towns  of  the  t-ship.     Guineatown  is 
a  name  given  to  a  few  negro  huts,  on 
the  northern  boundary.     Friesburg, 
lies  near  the  south  line. 

Alloways  Creek,  Lower,  t-ship, 
Salem  co.,  bounded  N.  by  Elsinbo- 
rough, Salem  and  Upper  Alloways 
creek  t-ships;  on  the  E.  by  Upper 
Alloways  creek  t-ship;  on  the  S.  by 
Stow  creek,  which  divides  it  from 
Stow  creek  and  Greenwich  t-ships, 
of  Cumberland  co.,  on  the  W.  by 
the  river  Delaware ;  centrally  distant, 
S.  from  Salem,  9  miles;  greatest 
length  N.  and  S.  12  miles;  breadth 
E.  and  W.  9  miles ;  area,  about 
30,000  acres;  surface  level;  soil  on 
the  W.  for  more  than  half  the  t-ship, 
marsh  meadow,  much  of  which  is 
embanked;  and  on  the  E.  a  deep 
clay  and  loam  well  cultivated.  It  is 
drained  by  Alloways  creek  on  the 
N.,  and  Stow  creek  on  the  S.,  and 
by   Hope    creek,   Deep   creek,   and 


Muddy  creek,  small  streams  which 
flow  into  the  Delaware,  from  the 
marsh  between  them.  Pop.  of  the 
t-ship  by  census  of  1830,  1222.  By 
the  assessor's  abstract  of  1832,  it  con- 
tained 260  taxables,  3  stores,  2  grist 
mills,  2  distilleries,  255  horses  and 
mules,  and  881  neat  cattle  above  3 
years  old.  It  has  3  schools,  1  Metho- 
dist, and  1  Friend's  meeting  house. 

Amboy.    See  South  Amboy,  Perth 
Amboy. 

Amwell  t-ship,  Hunterdon  co., 
bounded  N.  by  Lebanon  t-ship,  N. 
E.  by  Readington  t-ship,  E.  by  Hills- 
borough t-ship,  of  Somerset  |Co.,  S. 
E.  by  Hopewell  t-ship,  and  S.  W.  by 
the  river  Delaware,  and  N.  W.  by 
Ringwood  t-ship.  Greatest  length 
N.  and  S.  16;  breadth  E.  and  W. 
15  miles;  area,  77,000  acres;  sur- 
face hilly  on  the  N.  W.  and  S.  E. ; 
on  the  first,  there  being  a  clay  ridge 
well  timbered  and  productive,  and  on 
the  latter,  a  chain  of  trap  hills,  rough, 
broken,  and  barren.  The  interven- 
ing space  is  undulating  valley,  of  red 
shale,  which,  where  covered  with  suf- 
ficient soil,  is  grateful  for  the  care 
bestowed  upon  it,  producing  particu- 
larly fine  crops  of  grass.  The  t-ship 
is  drained  on  the  N.  E.  by  the  south 
branch  of  the  Raritan,  on  the  N.  W. 
by  the  Laokatong  and  Wickheche- 
coke  creeks;  S.  W.  by  the  Alex- 
socken  and  Smith's  creeks,  on  the 
S.  by  Stony  brook,  flowing  easterly 
to  the  Raritan  river.  Pop.  in  1830, 
7385;  in  1832,  the  t-ship  contained 

2  Presbyterian  churches,  4  stores,  8 
fisheries,  15  sawmills,  21  grist  mills, 

3  oil  mills,  2  ferries  and  toll  bridges, 
88  tan  vats,  12  distilleries,  4  carding 
machines,  2  fulling  mills;  and  it 
paid  poor  tax,  $1200;  road  tax, 
$2500  ;  State  and  county  tax, 
$3722  62.  Flemington,  Scrgeants- 
ville,  Ringoes,  Prallsville,  Lamberts- 
ville,  are  p-ts.  of  the  t-ship. 

Anderson,  p-t.  of  Mansfield  t-ship, 
Warren  co.,  on  the  turnpike  road 
leading  from  Philipsburg  to  Schoo- 
ley's  mountain,  and  between  the  Mor- 
ris canal  and  Musconetcong  creek, 
within  a  mile  of  cither;  distant  by  the 


ASS 


95 


BAB 


post  route  from  W.  C.  205,  from 
Trenton  49,  and  from  Belviderc,  the 
CO.  town,  E.  11  miles;  16  miles  from 
Easton,  and  25  from  Morristown; 
contains  2  stores  and  15  dwellings; 
situate  i  in  a  fertile  limestone  vall«y. 
Lands  valued  at  $50  the  acre. 

Andover  p-t.,  Newton  t-ship,  Sus- 
sex CO.,  on  the  south  angle  of  the 
t-ship  on  the  Newton  turnpike  road, 
distant  by  the  post-route  Irom  W.  C. 
228,  from  Trenton  65,  and  from 
Newton  5  miles. 

Andover  Forge,  Byram  t-ship,  Sus- 
sex CO.,  on  the  N.  bank  of  the  Mus- 
conetcong  river,  at  the  junction  of 
Lubber  run  with  that  stream,  and 
within  2  miles  of  the  Morris  canal,  is 
situate  in  a  very  narrow  valley,  and 
has  around  it  a  store,  saw  mill,  and 
some  6  or  8  dwellings. 

Anthony,  hamlet  on  Schooley's 
mountain,  Lebanon  t-ship,  Hunterdon 
CO.,  18  miles  N.  E.  of  Flemington,  on 
Spruce  run ;  contains  a  saw  mill,  and 
some  half  dozen  dwellings. 

Arneystown,  p-t.  of  Hanover  t-ship, 
Burlington  co.,  near  the  eastern  line; 
13  miles  N.  E.  of  Mount  Holly,  175 
from  W.  C,  11  from  Trenton  S.  E., 
and  8  E.  from  Bordentown ;  contains 
a  store,  tavern,  15  dwellings,  and  a 
large  meeting  house  pertaining  to 
"  Friends,"  surrounded  by  a  country 
of  fertile  loam. 

Arthw^s  Kill.  Sec  Staten  Island 
Sound. 

Arties'  Brook,  tributary  of  the 
north  branch  of  the  Raritan  river, 
Bedminster  t-ship,  Somerset  co.,  unites 
with  its  recipient  after  a  S.  course  of 
five  miles. 

Ashiiry,  p-t.  of  Mansfield  t-ship, 
Warren  co.,  in  the  S.  W.  angle  of 
the  t-ship  near  the  Musconetcong 
creek,  by  post-route  199  miles  from 
W.  C,  and  40  from  Trenton,  11 
miles  S.  E.  from  Belvidere;  lying  in 
a  deep  and  narrow  valley  on  a  soil 
of  rich  limestone,  contains  a  Me- 
thodist church,  2  giist  mills,  1  saw 
mill,  an  oil  mill,  a  woollen  factory,  1 
tavern,  3  stores,  and  about  thirty 
dwellings. 

Assiscunk  Creek,  Burlington  co., 


rises  on  the  line  between  Mansfield 
and  Springfield  t-ships,  and  flows 
westward  about  14  miles,  forming, 
for  the  greater  part  of  that  distance, 
the  boundary  between  the  t-ships, 
uniting  with  the  Delaware  river,  be- 
tween the  city  of  Burlington  and  the 
point  of  Burlington  island.  It  has  one 
or  two  mills  upon  it. 

Atqnatqiia  Creek,  branch  of  the 
Atsion  river,  rising  on,  and  forming 
part  of  the  S.  W.  boundary  of  Bur- 
lington CO.  It  may  be  deemed  the 
main  stem  of  the  river  under  another 
name. 

Atsion,  p-t.  and  furnace,  on  the 
Atsion  river,  partly  in  Galloway 
t-ship,  Gloucester  co.,  and  partly  in 
Washington  t-ship,  Burlington,  co., 
9  miles  above  the  head  of  navigation, 
12  miles  from  Medford,  17  from 
Mount  Holly,  on  the  road  leading  to 
Tuckerton,  and  57  from  Trenton. 
Besides  the  furnace,  there  are  here,  a 
forge,  grist  mill,  and  three  saw  mills. 
The  furnace  makes  from  800  to  900 
tons  of  castings,  and  the  forge  from 
150  to  200  tons  of  bar  iron  annually. 
This  estate,  belonging  to  Samuel 
Richards,  Esq.,  embraces  what  was 
formerly  called  Hampton  furnace  and 
forge,  and  West's  mill,  and  contains 
about  60,000  acres  of  land.  There 
are  about  100  men  employed  here, 
and  between  6  and  700  persons  de- 
pending for  subsistence  upon  the 
works. 

Atsion  River,  main  stem  of  Little 
Egg  Harbour  river,  forming  in  part, 
the  boundary  between  Gloucester  and 
Burlington  cos.  It  bears  this  name 
for  about  14  miles  above  Pleasant 
Mills,  and  is  formed  by  the  union 
of  the  Atquatqua  and  Tuscomusco 
creeks.  Atsion  furnace  is  on  the 
north  side  of  the  river,  in  Burling- 
ton CO. 

Augusta,  p-t.  of  Frankford  t-ship, 
Sussex  CO.,  distant  by  post-route  from 
W.  C.  233,  from  Trenton  75,  and 
from  Newton  7  miles,  contains  7  or 
8  dwellings  and  a  Presbyterian 
church. 

Bahcock^s  Creek,  Hamilton  t-ship, 
Gloucester  co.,  rises  by  4  branches. 


BAR 


96 


BAT 


viz:  North,  East,  Main,  and  Jack 
Pudding,  which,  uniting  near  May's 
landing,  flow  westerly  into  the  Great 
Egg  Harbour  river  at  that  village. 

Back  Creek,  Fairfield  t-ship,  Cum- 
berland CO.,  flows  about  6  miles  into 
Nautuxet  cove,  Delaware  bay. 

Back  Water,  branch  of  Maurice 
river,  Millville  t-shi]),  Cumberland 
CO.,  has  a  westerly  course  to  its  re- 
cipient, of  about  7  miles. 

Bacon  Creek,  a  tributary  of  Pe- 
quest  creek.  Independence  t-ship, 
Warren  co.,  having  a  westerly  course 
of  2  or  3  miles. 

Bacon's  Neck,  a  strip  of  rich  land, 
in  Greenwich  t-ship,  Cumberland  co., 
between  Cohan  sey  and  Store  creeks. 

Back  Neck,  a  strip  of  land  of  Fair- 
field t-ship,  Cumberland  co.,  compre- 
hended by  the  bend  of  Cohansey 
creek  and  Cohansey  cove. 

Bambo  Creek,  small  tributary  of 
the  Lamington  river,  rising  in  Ches- 
ter t-shi]),  Morris  co.,  and  flowing  by 
a  southerly  course  of  about  4  miles,  to 
its  recipient  in  Bedminster  t-ship,  So- 
merset CO. 

Baptisttown,  Middletown  t-ship, 
Hunterdon  co.     See  Holindel. 

Baptisttown,  p-t.  Ringwood  t-ship, 
Hunterdon  co.,  9  miles  W.  of  Flem- 
ington,  33  N.  of  Trenton,  and  187 
from  W.  C,  contains  a  tavern,  a  store, 
8  or  10  dwellings,  and  a  Baptist 
church.  There  '  is  a  Presbyterian 
church  within  a  mile  of  the  town. 
The  surrounding  country  is  level, 
with  soil  of  red  shale,  of  good  quali- 
ty, and  carefully  cultivated. 

Bargaintoivn,  Egg  Harbour  t-ship, 
Gloucester  co.,  p-t.,  on  Cedar  Swamp 
creek,  4  miles  from  Great  Egg  Har- 
bour bay,  45  S.  E.  from  Woodbury, 
90  from  Trenton,  and  200  by  post- 
route  from  W.  C,  contains  2  taverns, 
1  store, a  gristmill,  Methodist  church, 
and  about  30  dwellings. 

Barnegat  Bay,  Monmouth  co., 
extends  N.  from  Barnegat  Inlet  to 
Mctctecunk  river,  the  distance  of  20 
miles,  varying  in  breadth  from  1  to 
4  miles.  It  is  separated  from  the 
ocean  by  Island  Beach  and  Squani 
Beach,  narrow  strips  of  land  no  where 


exceeding  a  mile  in  width.  It  receives 
the  waters  of  Metetecunk  river.  Kettle 
creek,  Toms'  river.  Cedar  creek,  and 
Forked  river.  The  inlet  from  the 
ocean  is  over  a  mile  wide.  By  act  of 
assembly,  21  Feb.  1833,  authority 
was  given  to  a  company,  by  a  canal, 
to  connect  the  head  of  this  bay  with 
Manasquan  Inlet,  by  which  much 
time  and  space  will  be  saved  to  ves- 
sels bound  thence  to  New  York.  The 
capital  proposed  for  this  undertaking 
is  $5000. 

Barnegat,  p-t.  of  Stafford  t-ship, 
Monmouth  co.,  near  Barnegat  Inlet, 
36  miles  S.  from  Freehold,  78  S.  E. 
from  Trenton,  and  202  N.  E.  from 
W.  C,  contains  about  50  dwellings, 
3  taverns,  4  stores,  ozi  a  sandy  soil, 
surrounded  by  pine  forest. 

Barneshoroiigh,  village,  of  Green- 
wich t-ship,  Gloucester  co.,  6  miles 
S.  W.  from  Woodbury,  contains  a 
store,  tavern,  and  12  or  15  dwellings. 
It  lies  on  the  edge  of  the  pines. 

Barrentown,  Freehold  t-ship,  Mon- 
mouth CO.,  on  the  road  from  Free- 
hold to  Middletown,  4  miles  from  the 
one,  and  10  from  the  other,  contains 
some  6  or  7  dwellings,  in  a  poor  sandy 
country. 

Baskingridge,  p-t.  of  Bernard 
t-ship,  Somerset  co.,  11  miles  N.  E. 
of  Somerville,  213  from  W.  C,  and 
47  from  Trenton,  beautifully  situ- 
ated in  a  high,  rich,  well  cultivated, 
and  healthy  country ;  contains  a  Pres- 
byterian church,  an  academy  for 
young  gentlemen,  in  much  repute, 
formerly  under  the  care  of  Drs. 
Brownlee  and  Findlay.  The  resi- 
dence and  estate  of  General  Lord 
Sterling  were  near  this  town. 

Bass  River  Hotel,  p-o..  Little  Egg 
Harbour  t-ship,  Burlington  co.,  183 
miles  N.  E.  from  W.  C.,  and  71  S. 
E.  from  Trenton. 

Batsto  River,  Washington  t-ship, 
Burlington  co.,  a  large  branch  of 
Little  Egg  Harbour  river,  which  rises 
in  Northampton  t-ship,  and  flows  by  a 
southerly  course  of  16  miles,  to  the 
7\.tsion  river,  below  Pleasant  Mills ; 
the  united  streams  form  the  Little  Egg 
Harbour  river.      Batsto  Furnace  is 


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on  the  former  within  2  miles  of  their 
junction,  and  near  the  head  of  the 
stream,  are  Hampton  Furnace  and 
Forge,  now  in  ruins. 

Batsto  Furnace  is  about  8  miles 
above  Gloucester  Furnace,  about  30 
miles  S.  E.  from  Woodbury,  and  one 
from  Pleasant  Mills.  There  are  made 
here  850  tons  of  iron,  chiefly  castings, 
giving  employment  to  60  or  70  men, 
and  maintaining  altogether  near  400 
persons.  There  are  here  also,  a  grist 
and  saw  mill,  and  from  50  to  60,000 
acres  of  land  appurtenant  to  the 
works. 

Bear  Fort  Mountain,  near  the  W. 
boundary  of  Pompton  t-ship,  Bergen 
CO.  It  is  broken  through  by  Wood- 
ruff's Gap,  from  which  runs  a  branch 
of  Belcher's  creek,  and  by  which 
passes  the  Ringwood  and  Long  Pond 
turnpike  road.  The  whole  length  of 
the  range  of  hills  in  this  t-ship  is  about 
11  miles. 

Bear  Brook,  western  branch  of 
Pequest  creek,  rises  in  Hunt's  Pond, 
Green  t-ship,  Sussex  co.,  and  flows 
S.  W.,  through  the  S.  E.  angle  of 
Hard  wick  t-ship,  Warren  co.,  and 
joins  the  main  stream,  in  the  Great 
Meadows,  Independence  t-ship,  hav- 
ing a  course  of  about  10  miles. 

Bear  Swamp,  a  noted  swamp  of 
Downe  t-ship,  Cumberland  co.,  near 
Nantuxet  or  Newport,  through  which 
flows  the  Oronoken  creek.  The 
timber  upon  it  is  chiefly  oak  and 
poplar. 

Bear  Stvamp,  Burlington  co.,  near 
the  west  boundary  of  Northampton 
t-ship,  about  2  miles  in  length  by  1 
in  breadth. 

Beasley''s  Point,  Upper  t-ship, 
Cape  May  co.,  on  Great  Egg  Harbour 
Bay.  There  are  here,  upon  a  neck 
of  land,  between  the  salt  marshes,  of 
about  1  mile  wide,  2  taverns,  and  se- 
veral farm  houses,  where  visiters  to 
the  shore  may  find  agreeable  accom- 
modations. 

Beatty''s  Town,  on  the  N.  E.  angle 
of  Mansfield  t-ship,  Warren  co.,  on 
the  bank  of  the  Musconetcong  creek, 
and  at  the  west  foot  of  Schooley's 
Mountain,  within  2  miles  of  the  mine- 


ral spring,  and  16  E.  of  Belvidere. 
The  Morris  Canal  is  distant  2  miles 
from  it  on  the  north.  The  village 
contains  1  store,  1  tavern,  a  grist  and 
saw  mill,  a  school,  and  from  15  to  20 
dwellings.  The  land  around  it  is 
limestone,  of  excellent  quality,  and 
valued,  in  large  farms,  at  50  dollars 
the  acre. 

Beaver  Brook,  tributary  of  the 
Rockaway  river,  Pequannock  t-ship, 
Morris  county,  flows  by  a  S.  W. 
course  of  8  miles  through  a  hilly 
country,  giving  motion  to  several 
forges. 

Beaver  Brook,  Warren  co.,  rises 
by  two  branches,  one  in  Hardwick 
t-ship,  from  Glover's  Pond,  the  other 
in  Knowlton  t-ship,  from  Rice's  Pond, 
which  unite  in  Oxford  t-ship,  near  to, 
and  south,  from  the  village  of  Hope, 
and  thence  join  the  Pequest  creek, 
about  3  miles  from  its  mouth,  having 
a  course  of  about  14  miles. 

Beaver  Run,  Galloway  t-ship, 
Gloucester  co.,  a  tributary  of  Nacote 
creek,  flowing  to  its  recipient  below 
Gravelly  Landing. 

Beaver  Dam  Run,  a  tributary  of 
the  south  branch  of  Rancocus  creek, 
which  flows  to  its  recipient,  by  a  north 
course  of  about  4  miles,  at  Vincent- 
town. 

Beaver  Branch,  of  Wading  river, 
rises  in  Little  Egg  Harbour  t-ship, 
and  flows  westerly  by  a  course  of 
about  6  miles,  to  its  recipient,  about  a 
mile  below  Bodine's  bridge  and  mill. 

Beden^s  Brook,  a  mill  stream,  rises 
in  the  Nashanic  mountain,  Hopewell 
t-ship,  Hunterdon  co.,  and  flows  E. 
about  8  miles,  through  Montgomery 
t-ship,  Somerset  co.,  to  the  Millstone 
river,  receiving  several  tributaries  by 
the  way. 

Bedminster  Township,  Somerset 
CO.,  bounded  N.  by  Washington, 
Chester,  and  Mendhain  t-ships,  Mor- 
ris CO. ;  E.  by  the  north  branch  of  the 
Raritan,  diWding  it  from  Bernard 
t-ship;  S.  by  Bridgewater  t-ship,  from 
which  it  is  divided  by  Chamber's 
brook  and  Lamington  river;  and  W. 
by  Lamington  river,  forming  the 
boundary  between  it  and  Tewksbury 


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and  Readington  t-.ships,  Hunterdon 
CO. ;  Centrally  distant,  N.  W.  from 
Somerville,  8  rniles ;  greatest  length, 
N.  and  S.,  8  miles;  breadth,  E.  and 
W.,  4^  miles;  area,  19,300  acres; 
surface,  hilly;  soil,  lime,  clay,  and 
red  shale;  generally  well  cultivated 
and  fertile.  Pepack,  Little  Cross 
Roads,  Pluckemin,  Lamington,  and 
Cross  Roads,  are  villages;  the  three 
first,  p-ts.  of  the  t-ship.  Pepack  and 
Artie's  brooks  are  tributaries  of  the 
N.  branch,  flowing  through  the  t-ship. 
Pop.  in  1830, 1453.  In  1832,  the  t-ship 
contained  about  300  taxables,  60 
householders,  whose  ratables  did  not 
exceed  $30,  40  single  men,  8  mer- 
chants, 6  saw  mills,  6  grist  mills,  19 
tan  vats,  3  distilleries,  499  horses  and 
mules,  and  818  neat  cattle,  3  years 
old  and  upwards ;  and  paid  state  tax, 
$242  48;  county  tax,  626  30. 
There  is  a  Dutch  Reformed  church  in 
the  t-ship. 

Belcher  Creek  rises  near  the  cen- 
tre of  Pompton  t-ship,  Bergen  co.,  and 
flows  northerly  about  7  miles,  to  min- 
gle its  waters  with  those  of  Long 
Pond,  or  Greenwood  lake. 

Belle  Mount,  a  circular  hill  in  the 
N.  W.  angle  of  Hopewell  t-ship,  Hun- 
terdon CO.,  on  the  shoi'e  of  the  Dela- 
ware river,  between  which  and  an 
oval  hill  on  the  south,  flows  Smith's 
creek. 

Belvidere,  p-t.,  and  seat  of  justice 
of  Warren  co.,  situate  on  the  river 
Delaware,  in  Oxford  t-ship,  at  the 
junction  of  the  Pequest  creek,  with 
that  stream;  hy  the  post  road,  210 
miles  from  W.  C.,  and  54  from  Tren- 
ton, 69  from  Philadelphia,  13  from 
Easton,  70  from  New  York,  and  1 9 
fi*om  Schooley's  mountain  springs. 
The  town  is  built  on  an  alluvial  flat, 
based  on  limestone,  and  extends  for 
about  half  a  mile,  on  both  sides  of 
the  ci-cek,  over  which  there  arc  2 
bridges  for  carriages,  and  1  for  foot 
passengers.  The  town,  v.'hich  rapidly 
increases,  contains  a  spacious  court 
house,  of  brick,  with  oflices  attached, 
and  a  prison  in  the  basement  story  ; 
the  doors  of  which,  to  the  honour  of 
the  county,  are  commonly  unclosed, 
and  its  chambers  tenantless,  save  by 


the  idle  warder ;  a  very  large  and  neat 
Presbyterian  church,  a  Methodist 
church,  an  academy,  in  which  the 
classics  are  taught ;  a  common  school, 
2  grist  mills,  2  saw  mills,  a  clover 
mill,  6  stoi-es,  3  taverns,  a  turning 
lathe,  driven  by  water,  and  an  exten- 
sive tannery;  a  bank,  chartered  in 
1829,  with  a  capital  of  $50,000,  but 
which  may  be  extended;  a  county 
bible  society,  a  county  Sunday  school 
union,  auxiliary  to  the  great  charity 
established  at  Philadelphia ;  tract  and 
temperance  societies ;  2  resident 
clergymen,  3  lawyers,  and  2  physi- 
cians ;  2  weekly  journals,  viz :  The 
Apollo,  edited  by  Franklin  Ferguson ; 
and  the  Warren  Journal,  by  James  J. 
Browne;  and  above  80  dwellings, 
most  of  which  are  neat  and  commo- 
dious, and  many  of  brick  and  stone; 
among  which,  the  residence  of  Dr. 
Green  deserves  particular  notice,  as 
well  from  its  size  and  finish  as  from 
its  beautiful  and  commanding  situa- 
tion. A  very  extensive  business  is 
done  here,  in  general  merchandise,  in 
flour  and  lumber,  the  saw  mills  being 
abundantly  supplied  with  timber  from 
the  Delaware.  The  Pequest  creek 
having  a  large  volume  of  water,  and 
a  rapid  fall,  aflbrds  very  advantageous 
mill  sites.  Within  144  chains  from 
the  mouth  of  the  creek  the  available 
fall  is  49  feet  64-100,  equal  to  768 
horse  power,  the  whole  of  which  is 
the  property  of  Garret  D.  Wall,  Esq., 
who  ofters  mill  seats  for  sale  here  on 
advantageous  terms.  But  in  addition 
to  this  great  power  derived  from  the 
creek,  the  Delaware  river,  within  2 
miles  of  the  town,  offers  a  still  greater, 
where  the  whole  volume  of  that  stream 
may  be  employed.  A  company  has 
been  incorporated,  with  a  capital  of 
$20,000,  for  erecting  a  bridge  across 
the  river  at  or  near  this  place,  for 
which  thj-ee  sites  have  been  proposed. 
1st.  At  the  Foul  Rift,  where  the  chan- 
nel is  170  yards  wide.  2d.  The 
mouth  of  the  Pequest,  where  it  is  205 
yards.  3d.  At  the  Deep  Eddy,  above 
the  creek,  where  the  channel  is  divid- 
ed by  Butz's  island,  and  the  stream, 
on  the  Jersey  side,  is  127  yards,  the 
island  86  yards,  and  the  remaining  y 


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water  23  yards.  The  proposed  rail 
road  through  New  Jersey,  from  ]3]iza- 
bethtowii,  is  designed  to  cross  the 
Delaware  here,  and  to  connect  with 
tlie  Delaware  and  Susquehanna  rail 
road. 

Belleville,  p-t.  of  Bloomfield  t-ship, 
Essex  CO.,  beautifully  situated  on  the 
I'ight  bank  of  the  Raritan  river,  3^ 
miles  N.  E.  from  Newark,  218  from 
W.  C,  52  from  Trenton,  and  9  from 
New  York.  The  margin  of  the  river, 
here,  has  width  sufficient  lor  a  road 
or  street,  and  for  dwellings  with  spa- 
cious lots  on  both  its  sides,  from  which 
the  gently  sloping  hill,  clad  in  rich 
verdure,  has  a  very  pleasant  appear- 
ance. Including  North  Belleville  the 
town  is  considered  as  extending  3 
miles  along  the  river,  and  in  that  dis- 
tance contains  a  handsome  Dutch  Re- 
formed church,  having  a  very  large 
congregation,  1  Methodist  and  1  Epis- 
copalian church,  2  large  schools  for 
boys,  a  school  for  girls,  under  the  su- 
perintendence of  a  lady,  a  boarding 
school  for  males  and  females,  under 
the  care  of  the  Rev.  Mr.  Lathrop ;  2 
public  houses,  one  a  very  large  and 
well  finished  hotel,  kept  by  Mr.  Chand- 
ler, where  many  summer  boarders 
may  be  accommodated,  in  this  de- 
lightful retreat,  from  the  bustle  and 
noise  of  the  great  neighbouring  city  ; 
6  stores,  and  about  200  dwellings. 
Two  streams,  which  flow  into  the  Pas- 
saic, at  about  3  miles  distance  from 
each  other,  and  which,  within  2  miles 
of  their  course  have,  respectively,  a 
fall  much  over  an  hundred  feet,  render 
this  place  as  interesting  for  its  manu- 
factures as  for  its  beauty.  There  are 
here  1  brass  rolling  mill  and  button 
manufactory,  belonging  to  Messrs. 
Stevens,  Thomas,  and  Fuller,  occa- 
sionally engaged  in  copper  coinage 
for  Brazil ;  the  copper  founderies  and 
rolling  mills  of  Messrs.  Isaacs,  and 
of  Hendricks  and  brothers ;  the  calico 
print  works  of  Mr.  Andrew  Gray,  the 
silk  printing  establishment  of  Messrs. 
Duncan  and  Cunningham  ;  the  Brit- 
tania  metal  factory  of  the  Messrs. 
Lee ;  the  lamp  factory  of  Stephens 
and  Dougherty,  and  the  grist  mill  of 


Mr.  Kindsland.  These  works  are 
estimated  to  produce,  annually,  manu- 
factured articles  worth  two  millions 
oi"  dollars.  Two  thousand  tons  of 
merchandise  are  supposed  to  be  trans- 
ported to  and  from  the  wharves  of 
Belleville  annually. 

Belleville,  p-o.,  Sussex  co.,  241 
miles  N.  E.  from  W.  C,  and  75  from 
Trejiton. 

Ben  Davis'  Point,  W.  Cape  of 
Nantuxet  cove,  in  the  Delaware  bay, 
and  in  Fairfield  t-ship,  Cumberland  co. 

Bergen  Countij,  was  established 
with  its  present  boundai'ies,  by  the 
act  of  21  January,  1709-10,  which 
directed  "  That  on  the  eastern  divi- 
sion, the  county  shall  begin  at  Con- 
stable's Hook,  and  so  run  up  along  the 
bay  and  Hudson  river,  to  the  parti- 
tion point  betvv^een  N.  Jersey  and  the 
province  of  N.  York,  and  along  that 
line  between  the  provinces,  and  the 
division  line  of  the  eastern  and  west- 
ern division  of  this  province,  to  Pe- 
quanock  river;  thence  by  such  river 
and  the  Passaic  river,  to  the  Sound  ; 
thence  by  the  Sound  to  Constable's 
Hook,  where  it  began."  Bounded 
N.  E.  by  Orange  and  Rockland  co., 
N.  Y.;  E.  by  N.  Y.  bay  and  North 
river ;  S.  by  the  strait,  which  con- 
nects N.  Y.  bay  with  Newark  bay, 
S.  W.  by  Essex  and  Morris  co.,  and 
N.  W.  by  Sussex  co.  It  is  shaped 
like  an  '1 .  Greatest  width  N.  W. 
and  S.  E.  32  miles ;  greatest  breadth 
N.  E.  and  S.  W.  28  miles.  Area 
267,500  acres,  or  about  418  square 
miles. 

S.  E.  of  the  Ramapo  mountain,  the 
county  consists  of  the  old  red  sandstone 
formation,  which  ap]iears  under  the 
form  of  red  shale,  and  of  massive  stone, 
well  adapted  to  buildings;  large  quar- 
ries of  which,  have  been  worked  on 
the  Passaic  near  Belleville,  and  at 
other  places.  This  formation  is  in 
places,  covered  with  trap  rock,  which 
in  the  Closter  mountain,  assumes  a 
columnar  form,  in  the  palisades,  400 
feet  high,  on  the  North  river;  and  the 
same  form  is  visible  in  the  continua- 
tion of  the  First  and  Second  mountains 
across  the  Passaic  at  Paterson  and 


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Little  Falls.  ]n  the  Ramapo  moun- 
tain, and  upon  the  N.  VV.  ofit,  the 
primitive  lljrmation  prevails,  and  the 
large  township  of  Pompton  is  broken 
into  ridges  and  knolls,  of  considerable 
elevation.  Limestone  is  found  in  the 
valleys,  here,  and  magnetic  iron  ore 
in  the  hills.  The  great  vein  of  such 
ore,  which  is  first  discoverable  in  the 
White  Hills  of  New  Hampshire,  may 
be  traced  through  this  county. 

The  surface  of  the  country  W.  of 
the  Saddle  river,  is  hilly,  with  broad 
and  fertile  valleys.  The  left  bank  of 
that  river,  is  also  high  ground,  and  a 
very  fine  valley  lies  between  it  and 
the  Clostcr  mountain,  which  is  drain- 
ed by  the  Hackcnsack  river.  The 
southern  part  of  the  valley  is  low,  and 
admits  the  tide  to  the  town  of  Hack- 
cnsack, 20  miles  from  the  sound.  In 
this  distance,  there  is  a  body  of  salt 
marsh  and  valuable  cedar  swamp. 
The  northern  part  of  the  valley  and 
its  banks,  on  the  Saddle  river,  the 
Passaic  and  the  Hudson,  are  divided 
into  small  well  cultivated  farms,  whose 
neat,  cleanly,  and  cheerful  appearance, 
declare  the  thrift  and  content  of  their 
owners.  There  are  few  spots  in  New 
Jersey  presenting  more  pleasing  at- 
tractions than  this  country  above  the 
Hackensack,  and  on  the  highlands  on 
each  side  of  the  river.  The  houses, 
generally,  built  in  the  ancient  Dutch 
cottage  form,  of  one  full  story,  with 
its  projecting  pent  houses,  and  dormi- 
tories witliin  the  slopes  of  the  roof, 
are  sometimes  large,  always  painted 
white,  and  surrounded  with  verdant 
lawns,  shrubbery,  and  well  cultivated 
gardens.  And  we  may  here  remark, 
that  the  taste  for  horticiil'.urc  and  or- 
namental slirubberies,  appears  more 
general  in  the  central  and  northern 
parts  of  New  Jersey,  than  in  the 
southern  parts,  or  in  the  state  of 
Pennsylvania. 

Extensive  deposits  of  copper  are 
found  on  the  banks  of  the  Passaic,  in 
Lodi  t-sliip,  about  1  mile  S.  K.  of 
Belleville. 

The  county  is  well  watered,  having, 
beside  the  rivers  on  its  boundaries, 
Ring  wood,     Ramapo,     and     Saddle 


rivers ;  all  of  which,  rising  in  New 
York,  flow  S.  to  the  Passaic;  each 
having  considerable  tributaries,  which 
though  sliort,  are  by  their  rapid  falls 
made  available  lor  hydraulic  purposes. 
Ringwood  river  receives  a  consider- 
able accesion  to  its  waters,  from  Long 
pond  or  Greenwood  lake,  in  a  high 
and  narrow  valley  between  a  ridge 
of  the  Wawayanda  mountains  and 
Sterling  mountain.  The  lake  is  near- 
ly 5  miles  long,  but  only  about  a  mile 
of  its  lensth  is  within  the  state  of  New 
Jersey.  It  pours  forth  its  tribute 
through  Long  Pond  river. 

Hohokus  Brook  is  a  rapid  stream 
of  Franklin  t-ship,  which,  after  hav- 
ing, in  a  course  of  9  miles,  given 
motion  to  many  mills,  unites  with  the 
Saddle  river.  The  Hackensack,  also 
rising  in  New  York,  has  an  indepen- 
dent course  to  Newark  bay,  and  re- 
ceives several  tributaries  from  either 
hand. 

In  this  county,  the  first  settlements 
of  the  state  by  Europeans  were  made. 
The  Hollanders  were  here  the  pio- 
neers of  civilization,  aided  probably 
by  some  Danes  or  Norwegians,  who 
adopted  the  name  of  Bergen  from  the 
capitol  of  Norway.  Their  descend- 
ants occupy  the  lands  of  their  ances- 
tors, and  retain  much  of  their  primi- 
tive habits  and  virtues,  their  industry, 
cleanliness,  and  love  of  flowers;  for 
the  latter  is  a  taste  so  pure  and  de- 
lightful, that  we  dare  to  rank  it  among 
the  virtues.  New  York  is  much  in- 
debted to  the  Dutch  gardeners  for  her 
supplies  of  flowers  and  vegetables. 

After  the  country  was  reduced  un- 
der the  English  rule,  in  1764,  Eng- 
lish settlers  came  in  considerable  num- 
bers from  Long  Island  and  Barbadoes. 
They  were  not  so  numerous,  how- 
ever, as  immediately  to  lose  their 
character  of  strangers,  and  they  re- 
sided chiefly  in  the  ^'■Emrlisk  Neigh- 
boiirJi oofi ,'"'  and  at  New  Barbadoes. 

In  1830,  the  population  of  the  coun- 
ty was  22,412,  divided  as  follows: 
white  males  10,299,  white  females 
9634,  free  coloured  males  1061,  fe- 
males 834,  male  slaves  306,  female 
slaves   280.     Of  these,   there  were 


BER 


101 


BER 


aliens  213;  deaf  and  dumb  whites  10, 
blacks  3;  blind,  whites  12,  blacks  5. 

The  provisions  for  moral  instruc- 
tion are  the  religious  societies,  con- 
sisting of  the  German  Reformed, 
Episcopalian,  Presbyterian,  Baptist, 
and  Methodist ;  a  county  bible  socie- 
ty, Sunday  schools,  and  temperance 
societies ;  academies  in  the  larger  vil- 
lages, and  common  schools  in  every 
populous  vicinity. 

The  chief  towns  are  Jersey  City, 
Hoboken,  Bergen,  Hackensack,  the 
seat  of  justice,  Closter,  New  Milford, 
New  Prospect,  Godwinsville,  New 
Manchester,  Ryerson's,  Ramapo, 
Boardville,  Ringwood,  Stralenberg, 
Old  Bridge,  New  Bridge,  New  Dur- 
ham, English  Neighbourhood,  Com- 
munipaw,  and  Pamrepaw. 

In  1832,  the  county  contained 
5796  taxables,  1262  householders, 
whose  rateables  did  not  exceed  30  dol- 
lars, 533  single  men,  75  merchants,  7 
fisheries,  84  run  of  stones  for  grind- 
ing grain,  16  cotton  factories,  5  wool- 
len factories,  10  carding  machines,  4 
furnaces  and  16  forges,  93  saw  mills, 
3  paper  mills,  4  fulling  mills,  127  tan 
vats,  13  distilleries,  1  flint  glass,  and 
1  china  manufactory,  both  extensive ; 
1  printing,  dyeing  and  bleaching  es- 
tablishment, and  4025  horses  and 
mules,  and  10,188  neat  cattle  above 
3  years  of  age ;  and  it  paid  state  tax 
$2631  43,  county  tax  $5000,  poor 
tax  $2500,  school  tax  $100,  road 
tax  $6000. 

The  county  is  extensively  agricul- 
tural, raising  a  large  surplus  of  grain 
and  esculent  vegetables  for  its  ma- 
nufacturing population,  and  for  the 
New  York  market. 

The  improved  means  for  trans- 
porting its  produce  to  market,  are 
beside  the  ordinary  country  roads, 
nine  turnpikes  and  two  rail-roads,  ex- 
clusive of  that  made  by  Mr.  Stephens 
along  the  North  river.  The  turn- 
pikes are,  two  from  Jersey  City  to 
Newark,  one  from  Hoboken  to  Pa- 
terson,  one  from  Hoboken  to  Hack- 
ensack, one  from  Hackensack  to 
Paterson,  one  from  New  Prospect 
to  the  Ramapo  works,  in  the  State  of 


New  York,  the  Ringwood  and  Long 
Pond  road,  the  Newark  and  Pomp- 
ton,  and  the  Paterson  and  Flamburg. 
These  have  been  made,  and  others 
have  been  authorized  by  law.  A 
rail-road  has  been  completed  from 
Jersey  City  to  Paterson,  and  another 
is  now  being  made  from  the  Hudson 
river  through  Newark,  Elizabeth- 
town,  Rahway  and  Woodbridge,  to 
New  Brunswick. 

The  courts  of  the  county  are  holden 
at  Hackensack;  the  common  pleas, 
orphans'  and  general  quarter  ses- 
sions, on  the  following  Tuesdays,  viz. 
4th  January,  4th  March,  2d  August, 
4th  October;  and  the  circuit  courts, 
on  the  Tuesdays  of  4th  March  and 
4th  October. 

Bergen  sends  1  member  to  the  le- 
gislative council,  and  3  to  the  assem- 
bly. 

The  following  notice  of  the  coun- 
try embraced  by  this  county,  taken 
from  Smith's  History  of  New  Jersey, 
will  be  interesting  to  its  present  inha- 
bitants. "  Near  the  mouth  of  the 
bay,  upon  the  side  of  Overprook 
creek,  adjacent  to  Hackensack  river, 
several  of  the  rich  valleys  were  then, 
(1680,)  settled  by  the  Dutch;  and 
near  Snake  hill  was  a  fine  planta- 
tion, owned  by  Pinhorne  and  Eickbe, 
for  half  of  which,  Pinhorne  is  said  to 
have  paid  £500.  There  were  other 
settlements  upon  Hackensack  river, 
and  on  a  creek  near  it,  Sarah  Kiex*- 
stcd,  of  New  York,  had  a  tract  given 
her  by  an  old  Indian  sachem,  for 
services  in  interpreting  between  the 
Indians  and  Dutch,  and  on  which 
several  families  were  settled;  John 
Berrie  had  a  large  plantation,  2  or  3 
miles  above,  where  he  then  lived, 
and  had  considerable  improvements; 
as  had  also  near  him,  his  son-in-law, 
Smith,  and  one  Baker,  from  Barba- 
does.  On  the  west  side  of  the  creek, 
opposite  to  Berrie,  were  other  plan- 
tations; but  none  more  northerly. 
There  was  a  considerable  settlement 
upon  Bergen  point,  then  called  Con- 
stable Hook,  and  first  improved  by 
Edsall,  in  NicoU's  time.  Other  small 
plantations  were  improved  along  Ber- 


BER 


102 


BER 


gen  neck,  to  the  cast,  between  the 
point  and  a  large  village  of  20  fii- 
milics  ( Commwdpaw).  Further  along 
lived  16  or  18  families,  and  opposite 
New  York  about  40  families  were 
seated.  Southward  from  tliis,  a  k\v 
families  settled  together,  at  a  place 
called  Duke's  farm;  and  further  up 
the  country  was  a  place  called  Ho- 
buck,  formerly  owned  by  a  Dutch 
merchant,  who,  in  the  Indian  wars 
with  the  Dutch,  had  his  wife,  chil- 
dren and  servants  murdered  by  the 
Indians,  and  his  house  and  stock  de- 
stroyed by  them ;  but  it  was  now  set- 
tled again,  and  a  mill  erected  there. 
Along  the  river  side  to  the  N.  were 
lands  settled  by  William  Lawrence, 
Samuel  Edsall,  and  Capt.  Beinfield; 
and  at  Haversham,  near  the  High- 
lands, governor  Carteret  had  taken  up 
two  large  tracts;  one  for  himself,  the 
other  for  Andrew  Campy ne,  and  Co., 


which  were  now  but  little  improved. 
Tlie  j)lantations  on  both  sides  of  the 
neck,  to  its  utmost  extent,  as  also 
those  at  Hackensack,  were  under  the 
jurisdiction  of  Bcrgentown,  situate 
about  the  middle  of  the  neck ;  where 
was  a  court  held  by  selectmen  or 
overseers,  consisting  of  4  or  more 
in  number,  as  the  people  thought 
best,  chose  annually  to  try  small 
causes,  as  had  been  the  practice  in 
all  the  rest  of  the  towns  at  first;  2 
courts  of  sessions  were  held  here 
yearly,  from  which,  if  the  cause  ex- 
ceeded £20,  the  party  might  appeal 
to  the  governor,  council,  and  court  of 
deputies  or  assembly." 

"  Bergen,  a  compact  town  which 
had  been  fortified  against  the  Indians, 
contained  about  70  families;  its  in- 
habitants were  chiefly  Dutch,  some  of 
whom  had  been  settled  there  upwards 
of  40  years." 


STATISTICAL  TABLE  OF  BERGEN  COUNTY 

,d 

Population. 

Townships,  &lc. 

ri 

Surface. 

1810 

1820 

1830 

Barbadoes,  New, 

7 

4 

11,500 

level, 

2835 

2592 

1693 

Bergen, 

13 

4 

20,000 

part  hilly. 

2690 

3137 

4651 

Franklin, 

10 

9 

45,000 

hilly,  rolling, 

2839 

2968 

3449 

Hackensack, 

9 

n 

24,000 

hill  and  valley, 

1918 

2076 

2200 

Harrington, 

9^ 

7 

34,000 

do.          do. 

2087 

2296 

2581 

Lodi, 

10 

5 

22,000 

flat, 

1356 

Pompton, 

14 

12 

70,000 

mountainous. 

2060 

2818 

3085 

Saddle  River, 

10 

8 

41,000 
267,500 

do. 

2174 

2291 

3397 

16,603 

18,178 

22,412 

Bergen,  village,  of  Bergen  t-ship, 
Bergen  co.,  about  16  miles  S.  of 
Hackensack,  and  .3  west  of  Jersey 
city,  upon  the  summit  of  Bergen 
ridge,  and  equiflistant  between  the 
turnpike  roads  leading  to  Newark, 
contains  a  Dutch  Reformed  church, 
and  some  twenty  or  thirty  houses. 
This  town  was  scittled  about  161G, 
])robably  by  Danes,  who  accomjja- 
nied  \\\v.  Hollanders. 

Bergen  t-ship,  Bergen  co.,  is 
boundc^d  N.  by  Hackensack  t-ship, 
I*',  by  Hudson  river  and  New  York 
bay,  S.  by  the  .strait  r.iiled  Kill  Van 
Kuhl,  W.  by  the  Hackensack  river 


and  Newark  bay;  greatest  length 
N.  and  S.  13,  breadth  4  miles;  area, 
20,000  acres.  Surface  hilly  on  the 
N.  E.,  on  the  W.  and  S.  level.  Soil, 
red  shale  and  marsh.  A  large  body 
of  the  latter,  with  Cedar  swamp,  lies 
on  the  Hackensack  river,  extending 
from  the  head  of  Newark  bay,  through 
the  t-ship.  The  t-ship  is  intersected 
by  several  turnpike  roads  running  in 
various  directions.  New  Durham, 
Weehawk,  Hoboken,  Jersey  City, 
Bergen,  ('ommuni])aw,  and  Pamre- 
paw,  are  towns  of  the  t-ship.  Tfeere 
are  post-oflices  at  Jfsrsey  City  and 
Hoboken.    Pojiulation  in  1830, 4651. 


BER 


103 


BIL 


In  1832,  there  were  in  the  t-ship  1 167 
taxables,  366  householders,  whose 
ratable  estate  does  not  exceed  30 
dollars,  191  single  men,  22  mer- 
chants, 2  grist  mills,  1  saw  mill,  3 
ferries,  1  toll  bridge,  10  tan  vats,  1 
grain  distillery,  1  glass  and  1  china 
manufactory,  and  1  woollen  manu- 
factory, 446  horses  and  mules,  and 
1287  neat  cattle  above  the  age  of 
three  years.  The  t-ship  paid  state 
tax,  $422  74;  county,  $613  36;  poor, 
$800;  road,  $1500. 

Berkely.  (See  Sandtown.) 
Berkshire  Valley,  the  S.  W.  part 
of  Longwood  valley,  Jefferson  t-ship, 
Morris  co.,  W.  of  Greenpond  moun- 
tain, 12  miles  N.  W.  from  Morris- 
town,  237  from  W.  C,  and  71  from 
Trenton.  A  wild  and  rocky  spot, 
through  which  runs  a  branch  of  the 
Rockaway  river,  giving  motion  to  se- 
veral forges,  &c.  There  is  also  a 
post-office  and  a  Presbyterian  church 
liere. 

Bernard  t-ship,  Somerset  co., 
bounded  N.  by  Mendham  t-ship, 
Morris  co.;  E.  by  the  Passaic  river, 
dividing  it  from  Morris  t-ship,  of  the 
said  county;  S.  E.  by  Warren  t-ship, 
S.  W.  by  Bridgewater  t-ship,  and  W. 
by  Bedminster  t-ship*.  Centrally, 
distant  N.  E.  from  Somerville,  7 
miles ;  greatest  length,  N.  and  S.  9 ; 
breadth,  E.  and  W.  7  miles;  area, 
25,000  acres;  surface  hilly,  and  in 
great  part  mountainous ;  soil  on  hills, 
clay  and  loom;  in  the  valleys,  lime- 
stone ;  well  cultivated  by  wealthy  far- 
mers. The  north  branch  of  the  Ra- 
ritan  flows  on  the  western  boundary, 
and  receives  from  the  t-ship  Mine 
brook  and  smaller  tributaries.  Dead 
run  flows  to  the  Passaic,  on  the  S.  E. 
line.  Baskingridge,  Liberty  Corner, 
Logtovvn  and  Vealtown,  are  villages 
of  the  t-ship ;  the  two  first  post-towns. 
Population  in  1830,  2062.  In  1833, 
the  t-ship  contained  about  400  taxa- 
bles, 68  householders,  whoso  ratable 
estate  did  not  exceed  30  dollars,  34 
single  men,  5  stores,  8  saw  mills,  3 
grist  mills,  1  fulling  mill,  5  distille- 
ries, 461  horses  and  mules,  and  1105 
neat  cattle  3  years  old  and  upwards. 


and  paid  state  tax,  $306  70 ;  county 
tax,  $695  50. 

Berry''s  Creek,  a  marsh  creek  of 
Lodi  t-ship,  Bergen  co.,  has  a  south- 
erly course  of  about  4  miles. 

Bethany  Hole  Run,  small  tributary 
of  Hains'  creek,  Evesham  t-ship,  Bur- 
lington CO.,  flows  by  a  course  of 
about  3  miles  into  the  dam  of  Taun- 
ton furnace. 

Bethel,  mount  and  church,  Mans- 
field t-ship,  Warren  co.,  12  miles  E. 
of  the  town  of  Belvidcre. 

Bethlehem  t-ship,  Hunterdon  co., 
bounded  N.  W.  by  the  Musconetcong 
river,  which  divides  it  from  Wari*en 
CO.,  N.  E.  by  Lebanon  t-ship,  S.  E. 
by  Ringwood,  and  S.  W.  by  Alexan- 
dria. Centrally  distant  N.  W.  from 
Flemington,  13  miles ;  greatest  length 
E.  and  W.  9  miles,  breadth  N.  and 
S.  9  miles ;  area  25,000  acres ;  sur- 
face mountainous  on  the  north,  else- 
where hilly ;  soil,  clay,  red  shale,  and 
loam,  with  a  vein  of  hmestone  on  the 
cast  foot  of  the  Musconetcong  moun- 
tain; drained  chiefly  by  Alberson's 
brook,  a  tributaiy  of  Spruce  run,  and 
some  small  tributaries  of  Musconet- 
cong creek.  Charleston,  Bloomsbury, 
Hickory,  Pattenburg,  are  villages  of 
the  t-ship — Vansyckles  and  Perry- 
ville,  post-towns.  Population  in  1830, 
2032.  In  1832,  the  t-ship  contained 
a  Presbyterian  church,  3  stores,  3 
saw  mills,  5  grist  mills,  1  oil  mill,  25 
tan  vats,  5  distilleries,  480  horses  and 
mules,  and  820  neat  cattle  above  the 
age  of  3  years;  and  paid  poor  tax, 
$900;  road  tax,  $700;  county  and 
state  tax,  $791  68. 

Bevens,  p-o.,  of  Sussex  co.,  named 
after  the  postmaster,  James  C.  Be- 
vens, 241  miles  N.  E.  from  W.  C, 
and  83  from  Trenton. 

Billingsport,  more  properly  writ- 
ten Byllingsport,  named  after  Edward 
Bylling,  a  merchant  of  England,  the 
purchaser  of  Lord  Berkeley's  undi- 
vided moiety  of  the  province.  It  lies 
upon  the  river  Delaware  below  the 
mouth  of  Mantua  creek,  and  12  miles 
below  Camden,  and  was  rendered  fa- 
mous by  the  fort  erected  here  during 
the  revolutionary  war,  for  defence  of 


BLA 


104 


BLO 


the  channel  of  tlic  river,  remauis  of 
which  are  still  visible.  It  contains  a 
tavern  and  ferry,  and  some  half  dozen 
dwellings. 

Birmingham,  small  hamlet  of 
Trenton  t-shi]),  Hunterdon  co.  5  miles 
N.  W.  from  the  city  of  Trenton,  con- 
tains a  tavern  and  some  half  dozen 
dwellings. 

Birmingham,  formerly  called  New 
Mills,  village,  on  the  north  branch  of 
the  Rancocus  creek,  Northampton 
t-ship,  Burlington  co.,  4  miles  S.  E. 
of  I\Iount  Holly,  contains  a  cotton 
manufactory,  a  grist  mill,  saw  mill, 
fulling  mill,  a  cupola  furnace,  and 
from  15  to  20  dwellings.  Shreve's 
calico  printing  works  are  within  two 
miles  of  the  village,  upon  the  same 
stream. 

Black  Creek,  Vernon  t-ship,  Sus- 
sex CO.,  rises  on  the  S.  E.  foot  of  the 
Pochuck  mountain,  flows  northward- 
ly, about  5  miles  to  the  Warwick 
creek. 

Blackwoodtown,  village  of  Glou- 
cester CO.,  uj)on  the  main  branch  of 
Big  Timber  creek,  near  the  head  of 
navigation ;  8  or  9  miles  from  its 
mouth,  5  miles  S.  E.  of  Woodbury, 
and  11  miles  from  Camden;  contains 
1  Presbyterian  and  large  Methodist 
church,  an  extensive  woollen  manu- 
factory chiefly  employed  on  kcrsey- 
nctte,  telonging  to  Newkirk  and  Co., 
3  stores,  1  tavern,  and  about  50 
dwellings;  a  2  horse  stage  plies  daily 
between  this  town  and  Camden. 

Black's  Creek,  S.  W.  boundary  of 
Chcsterheld  t-ship,  rising  by  several 
branches  in  Hanover  t-ship,  flowing 
W.  and  N.  W.  about  8  miles  to  the 
river  Delaware,  below  Bordentown. 
The  Amboy  rail-road  crosses  its 
mouth  over  a  wooden  bridge.  Ba- 
con's run  is  a  branch  oC  the  stream, 
and  part  of  the  aforesaid  boundary ; 
the  creek  drives  several  mills. 

Black  Horse.     (Sec  Columbus.) 

Black  Run,  tributary  of  the  S. 
branch  of  Toms'  river,  Dover  t-ship, 
Monmouth  co. 

Black  Brook,  tributary  of  tlic  Pas- 
saic river,  rises  ;U  the  N.  E.  base  of 
Long  hill,   Chatham  t-ship,    Morris 


CO.,  flows  westerly  along  the  hill,  by 
a  course  of  7  or  8  miles  to  its  reci- 
pient in  I\Iorris  t-ship. 

Blackleifs  Mineral  Spring,  Ae- 
quackanonk  t-ship,  Essex  co.,  10 
miles  N.  W.  from  New  York,  4  S. 
E.  from  Paterson;  formerly  much 
frequented  as  a  useful  chalybeate. 

Blackicood  Meadow  Brook,  a 
small  tributary  of  the  Passaic  river, 
flowing  W.  to  its  recipient  in  the  N. 
W.  angle  of  Livingston  t-ship,  Essex 

CO. 

Black  River,  is  the  name  given  to 
the  Lamington  river,  above  Potter's 
Falls.  It  rises  by  2  small  branches, 
on  the  borders  of  Roxbury  and  Ran- 
dolph t-ships,  flows  under  this  name 
a  S.  W.  course  of  about  16  miles,  to 
the  falls  at  the  point  of  junction,  be- 
tween Hunterdon,  Somerset  and  Mor- 
ris CO.,  draining  a  valley  of  conside- 
rable extent,  and  in  parts  very  fertile. 

Black  River,  or  Cooper''s  Mills, 
is  also  the  name  of  a  small  village 
on  the  above  stream,  situate  in  Ches- 
ter t-ship,  Morris  co.,  on  the  turnpike 
road  leading  from  Morristown  to 
Easton,  14  miles  N.  W.  from  the  for- 
mer; contains  1  grist  mill,  2  saw 
mills,  a  store,  and  6  or  8  dwellings ; 
it  is  a  place  of  considerable  business ; 
the  country  around  it  is  hilly,  and 
not  very  fertile. 

Blackwells,  hamlet  of  Hillsbo- 
rough t-ship,  Somei'sct  co.,  on  the 
left  bank  of  the  Millstone  river,- 62 
miles  S.  of  Somerville,  pleasantly  si- 
tuated, in  a  fertile  country  ;  contains 
a  large  grist  mill,  fulling  mill,  store, 
and  several  dwellings ;  a  bridge 
crosses  the  Millstone  river  here. 

Black  Point,  at  the  confluence  of 
the  Shrewsbury  and  Nevisink  rivers, 
Shrewsbury  t-ship,  Monmouth  co. 

Blazing  Star  Ferry,  over  Staten 
Island  Soimd,  on  the  road  from 
Woodbury  to  Staten  Island,  about  7 
miles  N.  E.  from  Amboy ;  the  post- 
route  to  New  York,  formerly  lay  by 
this  ferry. 

Bloomfnld  1-shi]),  Fssex  county, 
bounded  N.  by  Acquackanonck  t-sp, 
li.  by  the  Passaic  river,  which  di- 
vides it  from  Bergen  co.,  E.  by  New- 


BLO 


105 


BLU 


ark  t-ship,  S.  and  S.  W.  by  Orange, 
and  W.  by  Caldwell.  Centrally  dis- 
tant N.  from  Newark,  6  miles ; 
greatest  length  5,  breadth  4^  miles ; 
area,  14,000  acres;  surface  hilly; 
mountainous  on  the  west;  on  the 
eastern  boundary,  the  ground  rises 
gradually  from  the  river,  and  offers 
beautiful  sites  for  country  seats, 
many  of  which  are  thus  occupied.  It 
is  drained  by  two  streams  which  rise 
near  the  foot  of  the  mountain,  and 
flow  by  tortuous  courses  to  the  river, 
known  as  the  Second  and  Third  ri- 
vers. The  first  has  a  length  scarce 
exceeding  6  miles,  and  the  last, 
which  forms  a  semi-ellipsis,  and  rises 
in  the  notch  in  Acquackanonck  t-ship, 
may  be  double  that  length.  These 
streams  are  the  source  of  the  wealth 
of  the  t-ship,  and  have  converted  it 
almost  wholly  into  a  manufacturing- 
village.  The  soil  is  based  on  red 
sandstone,  in  which  are  exhaustless 
quarries  of  fine  building  stone,  vast 
quantities  of  which  have  been  sent  to 
New  York,  and  other  places.  The 
villages  of  the  t-ship  are  Belleville, 
Bloomfield,  Spring  Garden,  and 
Speertown.  At  the  two  first  are 
post-offices.  Pop.  in  1830,  4309;  in 
1832,  the  t-ship  contained  500  taxa- 
bles,  206  householders,  whose  ratable 
estate  did  not  exceed  $30 ;  82  single 
men,  17  merchants,  6  grist  mills,  2 
cotton  manufactories,  5  saw  mills,  4 
rolling  mills  for  copper,  3  paper  mills, 
1  paint  factory,  2  calico  printing  and 
bleaching  works,  1  very  extensive; 
40  tan  vats,  3  woollen  factories,  and 
several  very  extensive  shoe  factories ; 
387  horses  and  mules,  and  862  neat 
cattle  above  three  years  old.  And 
the  t-ship  paid  state  tax  S754  50; 
county  $238  37;  poor  $1200;  and 
road  $1200.  The  annual  value  of 
manufactured  products,  probably  ex- 
ceed 2^  millions  of  dollars. 

Bloomfield,  p-t.  of  the  above  t-ship, 
3^  miles  N.  of  Newark,  extending 
for  near  3  miles  in  a  N.  W.  direc- 
tion, and  including  what  was  former- 
ly known  as  West  Bloomfield.  The 
chief  part  of  the  town  lies  upon  the 
old  road,  but  part  of  it  on  the  turn- 
O 


pike;  it  contains  about  1600  inhabi- 
tants, above  250  dwellings,  2  hotels, 
an  academy,  boarding  school,  4  large 
common  schools,  12  stores,  1  Pres- 
byterian church,  2  Methodist  church- 
es ;  a  very  extensive  trade  is  carried 
on  here  in  tanning,  currying,  and 
shoemaking,  and  the  following  manu- 
factories are  considei'ed  as  annexed 
to  the  town:  2  woollen  factories,  1 
mahogany  saw  mill,  1  cotton  mill,  1 
rolling  mill,  1  calico  printing  work, 
2  saw  mills  for  ordinary  work,  1 
paper  mill,  and  1  grist  mill. 

Bloomingdalc,  village  on  the  Pe- 
quannock  creek,  Pompton  t-ship,  Ber- 
gen CO.,  20  miles  N.  W.  from  Hack- 
ensack,  upon  the  Paterson  and  Ham- 
burg turnpike  road ;  contains  1  forge, 
a  saw  mill,  grist  mill,  machine  fac- 
tory, bark  mill,  1  tavern,  2  stores, 
and  some  8  or  10  dwellings;  the 
country  around  it  is  mountainous  and 
barren. 

Bloomshury,  p-t.  of  Greenwich 
t-ship,  Warren  co.,  on  the  turnpike 
road  from  Somerville  to  Philipsburg, 
and  on  both  sides  of  the  Musconet- 
cong  creek,  part  of  the  town  being  in 
Hunterdon  co. ;  by  the  post-route 
198  miles  from  W.  C,  49  from  Tren- 
ton, and  14  S.  from  Belvidere,  18 
miles  N.  W.  from  Flemington;  con- 
tains 1  grist  mill,  1  oil  mill,  a  cotton 
manufactory,  2  taverns,  1  store,  and 
from  30  to  40  dwellings;  the  soil  of 
the  valley  around  it  is  rich  limestone. 

Bloomshury,  village  of  Notting- 
ham t-ship,  Burlington  co.,  a  suburb 
of  the  city  of  Trenton,  below  the  As- 
sunpink  creek,  and  at  the  head  of 
the  sloop  navigation  of  the  river. 
The  bridge  across  the  Delaware  runs 
from  the  centre  of  the  village  ;  there 
are  here  a  Presbyterian  meeting, 
several  taverns  and  stores,  steam-boat 
landings  and  wharves,  with  about  150 
dwellings  and  900  inhabitants.  The 
race-way  of  the  Trenton  water  power 
company,  will  pass  through  the  vil- 
lage.    (See  Trenton.) 

Bine  Ball,  village  of  Howell  t-ship, 
Monmouth  co.,  4  miles  S.  from  Free- 
hold ;  contains  a  tavern  and  store,  10 
or  12  dwellings,  1  Presbyterian  and 


BUR 


106 


BOR 


1  Methoelist  church.  The  soil  here 
ha6  been  so  greatly  improved  by 
marl,  that  lands  which  15  years 
since  would  not  bring  S|20  the  acre, 
now  command  $oO. 

Blue  Anchor,  tavern  and  hamlet 
of  Gloucester  t-ship,  Gloucester  co., 
in  the  heart  of  the  pine  forest,  about 
25  miles  S.  E.  from  Camden. 

Boonton,  manufacturing  village  of 
Hanover  t-ship,  Morris  co.,  on  the  N 
side  of  Rockaway  river,  9  miles  N.  of 
Morristown,  situate  on  the  side  of  a 
high  hill,  at  the  entrance  ofa  dark,  nar- 
row, rocky  valley ;  contains  the  works 
of  the  East  Jersey  Iron  Manufactur- 
ing Company,  consisting  of  an  exten- 
sive rolling  mill,  a  blast  furnace  and 
foundery,  3  stores,  and  about  40  dwell- 
ings, a  school  house  and  a  handsome 
church.  In  forcing  the  Trowbridge 
mountain  here,  the  stream  has  form- 
ed a  rapid  and  a  picturesque  cascade 
of  about  30  feet  fall,  and  this  circum- 
stance has  made  the  site  a  very  ad- 
vantageous one  for  hydraulic  works. 
The  Morris  canal  ascends  from  the 
valley  by  an  inclined  plane  800  feet 
long,  having  a  lift  of  80  feet,  which 
is  passed  over  in  from  12  to  15  mi- 
nutes. Pop.  between  300  and  400, 
principally  English  j  the  village  was 
founded  in  1828,  and  is  one  of  the 
most  romantic  spots  in  the  state. 

Bonhiunfown,  Woodbridge  t-ship, 
Middlesex  co.,  5  miles  N.  E.  from 
New  Brunswick,  on  the  turnpike  road 
leading  thence  to  Woodbridge,  from 
which  it  is  distant  G  miles;  contains 
10  or  12  dwellings,  2  taverns,  1  store 
and  school  house;  surrounded  by  a 
gravelly  .and  poor  soil. 

Boardville,  on  Ringwood  river, 
and  on  the  Ringwood  and  Longwood 
turnpike;  road  in  Pomi)ton  t-ship,  Ber- 
gen CO.,  21  miles  N.  W.  from  Hack- 
ensack;  contains  a  Dutch  Reformed 
church,  a  forge,  distillery,  a  school 
house,  and  several  farm  houses.  The 
narrow  valley  in  whicii  it  lies  is  rich 
and  well  cultivated. 

Bordcntown,  borough  and  p-t.,  of 
Chesterfield  t-ship,  Burlington  co.,  si- 
tuate on  the  bank  of  the  Delaware 
river,  nl  the  junction  of  tiie  Cross- 


wick's  creek  with  that  stream,  11 
miles  N.  W.  from  Mount  Holly,  170 
N.  E.  from  W.  C,  30  from  Phila- 
delphia, 10  from  Burlington,  and  7 
S.  E.  from  Trenton;  contains  about 
1000  inhabitants,  200  dwellings,  a 
Quaker  meeting  house,  a  Baptist  and 
a  Methodist  church,  5  stores  and  5 
taverns,  and  is  surrounded  by  a  fer- 
tile and  well  cultivated  country  of 
sandy  loam.  The  Camden  and  Am- 
boy  rail-road  passes  through  the 
town,  by  a  viaduct  beneath  its  prin- 
cipal streets ;  and  stages  run  from  the 
town,  daily,  to  Trenton,  Princeton, 
New  Brunswick,  Long  Branch,  New 
Egypt,  Mount  Holly,  &c.  &c.,  and 
4  steam-boats,  to  Bristol,  Burlington, 
and  Philadelphia. 

This  town  was  founded  by  Mr.  Jo- 
seph Borden,  an  early  settler  here, 
and  a  distinguished  citizen  of  the 
state,  and  has  borne  his  name  for 
nearly  a  century.  It  was  incorpo- 
rated 9th  December,  1825.  Its  site 
is  perhaps  the  most  beautiful  on  the 
Delaware,  and  the  village  is  alike  re- 
markable for  its  healthiness  and  clean- 
liness, and  the  neatness  of  its  dwell- 
ings. Built  upon  a  plain  65  feet 
above  the  surface  of  the  river,  and 
from  which  there  is  a  descent  upon 
three  sides,  its  streets,  speedily  drain- 
ed after  the  rain,  are  dry ;  and  lined 
by  umbrageous  trees,  furnish  always 
an  agreeable  promenade  during  the 
summer  season.  From  the  brow  of 
the  hill,  there  is  a  delightful  view  of 
the  majestic  Delaware,  pursuing  for 
miles  its  tranquil  course  through  the 
rich  country  which  it  laves.  The 
beauty  of  this  scene  is  greatest  in  the 
autunm,  when  the  thousand  varied 
and  brilliant  tints  of  the  forest  trees 
are  contrasted  with  the  deep  a/Aire  of 
the  sky,  and  the  limpid  blue  of  the 
mirror  like  waters.  The  attractions 
of  the  scene  determined  Joseph  Buo- 
naparte, C'ount  (le  Surveilliers,  in  his 
choicf!  ofa  residence  in  this  country  ; 
and  this  distinguished  exile,  who  has 
tilled  two  thrones,  and  has  preten- 
sions based  on  popular  suffrage  to  a 
third,  has  dwelt  here  many  years  in 
philosophic   retirement.     He   has   in 


BOT 


107 


BRI 


the  vicinity  about  1500  acres  of  land, 
part  of  which  possessed  natural  beau- 
ty, which  his  ta^te  and  wealth  have 
been  employed  to  embellish.  At  the 
expense  of  some  hundred  thousand 
dollars,  he  has  converted  a  wild  and 
impoverished  tract,  into  a  park  of  sur- 
passing beauty,  blending  the  charms 
of  woodland  and  plantation  scenery, 
with  a  delightful  water  prospect.  The 
present  buildings,  plain  but  commo- 
dious, are  on  the  site  of  the  offices  of 
his  original  and  more  splendid  man- 
sion, which  was  destroyed  by  fire, 
together  with  some  rare  pictures  from 
the  pencils  of  the  first  masters,  whose 
merit  made  them  invaluable.  With 
characteristic  liberality,  the  Count 
has  opened  his  grounds  to  the  public, 
but  we  regret  to  perceive,  that  he  has 
been  ungratefully  repaid,  by  the  de- 
facement of  his  ornamental  struc- 
tures, and  mutilation  of  his  statues. 

Bordentown  is  much  resorted  to  by 
the  citizens  of  Philadelphia  during  the 
hot  months,  who  find  excellent  enter- 
tainment in  the  large  commodious 
public  houses,  and  in  private  and 
more  retired  mansions.  Few  places 
near  the  city  are  more  desii-able  as  a 
summer  residence,  which  is  now  ren- 
dered uncommonly  convenient  to  ci- 
tizens by  the  almost  hourly  means  of 
communicating  with  Philadelphia  and 
New  York.  The  benefit  of  these  ad- 
vantageous circumstances  to  the  town, 
becomes  apparent  in  its  increase,  ma- 
ny new  houses  having  been  built  in 
1832  and  1833.  The  outlet  lock  of 
the  Delaware  and  Raritan  canal  is  in 
front  of  the  town,  which  will  in  all 
probability  become  a  depot,  for  much 
produce  of  the  surrounding  country 
destined  for  the  New  York  or  Phila- 
delphia market.  Under  these  pros- 
pects the  value  of  property  here,  we 
are  told,  has  risen  50  per  cent,  within 
two  years. 

BorderCs  Run,  an  arm  of  the  S. 
branch  of  Toms'  river,  Upper  Free- 
hold t-ship,  Monmouth  co.,  flows  E. 
about  7  miles  through  the  S.  E.  an- 
gle of  the  t-ship. 

Bottle  Hill,  p-t.,  Chatham  t-ship, 
Morris  co.,  on  the  turnpike  road  from 


Elizabethtownto  Morristown,  13  miles 
from  the  one,  and  4^  from  the  other ; 
223  N.  E.  from  W.  C.  and  57  from 
Trenton;  contains  a  tavern,  three 
stores,  a  Presbyterian  church,  an 
academy,  and  above  40  dwellings, 
genei'ally  very  neat ;  the  surrounding 
country  gently  undulating,  and  well 
cultivated. 

Bound  Brook,  p-t.,  of  Bridgewater 
t-ship,  Somerset  co.,  on  the  S.  W. 
boundary  of  the  county,  at  the  con- 
fluence of  the  Green  Brook  with  the 
Raritan  river.  A  part  of  the  village 
is  in  Piscataway  t-ship,  of  the  adjoin- 
ing county  of  Middlesex,  on  the  turn- 
pike road  from  New  Brunswick  to 
Somerville,  7  miles  from  the  one,  and 
4  from  the  other.  The  town,  in- 
cluding Middle  Brook,  extends  a  mile 
from  Green  Brook  to  Middle  Brook, 
and  contains  a  large  and  neat  Pres- 
byterian church,  an  academy,  3  ta- 
verns, 4  stores,  a  large  grist  mill, 
&c.,  and  about  50  dwellings.  There 
is  a  bridge  over  the  river  here.  The 
surrounding  country  is  fertile.  The 
Delaware  and  Raritan  canal  runs 
near  the  town. 

Bound  Brook,  small  stream  rising 
in  Newark  t-ship,  and  running  S.  E. 
through  the  marsh,  into  Newark  bay, 
forming  the  boundary  between  Eliza- 
beth and  Newark  t-ships. 

Bound  Brook.  (See  Green  Brook.) 

Boicentmvn,  Hopewell  t-ship,  Cum- 
berland CO.,  a  small  hamlet,  of 
some  half  dozen  houses,  midway 
on  the  road  from  Bridgetown  to 
Road's  town,  about  2|  miles  from 
each. 

Branchville,  p-t.,  of  Frankford 
t-ship,  Sussex  co.,  on  the  Morris 
turnpike  road,  by  the  mail  route,  235 
miles  from  Washington  city,  77  from 
Trenton,  7  from  Newton,  and  2  from 
Augusta.  There  are  several  mills 
here  upon  a  branch  of  the  Paulins- 
kill,  within  the  space  of  two  miles. 

Bread  and  Cheese  Run,  tributary 
of  the  south  branch  of  Rancocus 
creek,  Northampton  t-ship,  Burling- 
ton CO.,  unites  with  that  stream  8  or 
10  miles  below  its  source. 

Brigantine  Inlet,    Old,   formerly 


BRI 


108 


BRI 


through  Bngantine  Beacli,  on  the 
Atlantic,  now  closed. 

Brlgantine  Beach,  on  the  Atlantic 
ocean,  Galloway  t-ship,  Gloucester 
CO.,  extends  from  Quarter's  Inlet, 
eastwardly,  to  Old  Brigantine  Inlet, 
about  6  miles,  by  about  a  half  a  mile 
in  width.  Several  salt  works  have 
been  established  here. 

Brick.shoroiigh,  village,  of  Maurice 
t-ship,  (J  umber  land  co.,  upon  the  left 
bank  ol"  Maurice  river,  12  miles  I'rom 
its  mouth,  within  2  of  I'ort  Elizabeth, 
and  14  of  Bridgcton,  contains  from  12 
to  15  dwellings.  It  lies  at  the  conflu- 
ence of  Muskee  run,  with  the  river. 

Bridgeport,  small  hamlet  of  Wash- 
ington t-ship,  Burlington  co.,  upon 
the  left  bank  of  Wading  river,  29 
miles  S.  E.  from  Mount  Holly,  and 
5  from  the  confluence  of  Wading  with 
the  Little  Egg  Harbour  river,  contains 
a  tavern,  store,  and  some  4  or  5  dwell- 
ings, in  sandy,  pine  country.  The 
river  is  navigable  above  the  town. 

Bridgcton,  p-t.  and  seat  of  justice 
of  Cumberland  co.,  upon  the  Cohan- 
sey  creek,  20  miles  from  its  mouth, 
175  N.  E.  from  W.  C,  and  sixty  S. 
of  Trenton.  The  town  is  built  on 
both  sides  of  the  creek,  over  which  is 
a  wooden  drawbridge,  from  whence 
it  has  its  name.  It  formerly  bore  that 
of  Cohansey.  It  contains  a  court- 
house of  brick,  in  the  centre  of  a 
street,  upon  the  W.  bank  of  the  creek, 
a  prison  of  stone,  and  public  oflices, 
on  the  E.,  a  Presbyterian,  a  Baptist, 
and  a  Methodist  church ;  a  bank  with 
an  authorized  capital  of  $200,000,  of 
which  $50,000  have  been  paid  in ;  a 
public  library,  a  Masonic  lodge,  an 
academy,  a  woollen  manufactory,  a 
grist  mill,  an  extensive  rolling  mill, 
foundery,  and  nail  factory.  It  ex- 
ports lumber,  flour,  grain,  nails,  and 
iron  castings.  Thirty  schooners  and 
sloops,  of  from  50  to  80  tons  bur- 
then, sail  from  the  port,  which  is  one 
of  entry  and  delivery.  The  collection 
district  of  Bri<igeton  comprehends  the 
counties  of  Gloucester,  Salem,  Cum- 
berland, and  Cape  May;  excepting 
such  parts  of  Gloucester  and  Cape 
May,  as  arc  included  in  the  district 


of  Egg  Harbour.  The  collector  re- 
sides at  Bridgeton. — 250  licenses  is- 
sued from  his  office  in  the  year  1832. 
The  country  around  is  a  sandy  loam, 
rich  and  productive  in  wheat,  corn, 
and  rye.  The  most  remarkable 
object,  here,  is  the  iron  works  of 
Messrs.  Reeves  and  Whitaker,  which 
occupy  a  number  of  stone  buildings 
on  the  W.  side  of  the  creek,  above 
the  bridge,  and  are  driven  by  a  water 
power  of  15  feet  head  and  fall.  They 
were  originally  built  in  1815,  but  were 
consumed  by  fire  in  1822,  and  rebuilt 
and  enlarged  in  the  same  year.  The 
rolling  mill  is  capable  of  manufactur- 
ing into  hoop  and  round  iron,  from 
blooms,  25,000  tons  per  annum.  The 
nail  factory  contains  29  nail  machines, 
competent  to  make  1500  tons  of  nails 
annually ;  and  the  foundery  will  make 
250  tons  of  castings,  from  a  cupola 
furnace,  with  anthracite  coal.  These 
works  give  employment  to  12.5  men 
and  boys,  who  receive  their  wages, 
monthly,  in  cash,  to  the  amount  of 
$30,000  per  annum;  and  yield  the 
means  of  support  to  nearly  500  per- 
sons. Two  vessels  are  constantly 
employed  in  bringing,  coal  to  the 
works  from  Richmond,  and  one  in 
the  intercourse  with  the  city  of  Phila- 
delphia. There  are  some  very  good 
houses  in  the  town,  which  has  quite 
an  air  of  business. 

Bridgeville,  small  hamlet  of  Ox- 
ford t-ship,  Warren  co.,  4  miles  E. 
of  Belvidere,  the  county  town. 

Bridgewater  t-ship,  Somerset  co., 
bounded  N.  by  Bedminster  and  Ber- 
nard t-ships,  N.  E.  by  Warren  t-ship, 
S.  E.  by  Greenbrook,  dividing  it 
from  Piscataway  t-ship,  Middlesex 
CO.,  S.  by  the  Raritan  river,  separat- 
ing it  from  Franklin  and  Hillsborough 
t-sliips,  ;md  S.  W.  by  Readington 
t-ship,  Hunterdon  co.  Greatest  length 
N.  E.  and  S.  W.  13  miles;  breadth^E. 
and  W.  11  miles;  area,  about  35,000 
acres;  surface,  on  the  N.  E.,  moun- 
tainous, elsewhere  level,  or  gently  un- 
dulating; soil,  generally,  red  shale, 
and  well  cultivated  in  grain  and  grass. 
The  N.  branch  of  the  Raritan  unites 
witli  the  Lamington  river,  on  the  N. 


BRU 


109 


BRU 


boundary,  and  flows  thence,  S.  to  meet 
the  S.  branch,  about  4  miles  W.  from 
Somerville;  the  latter  river  receives 
from  the  W.,  Holland  and  Campbell's 
Brooks ;  Middle  Brook  crosses  the  E. 
part  of  the  t-ship  to  the  main  branch 
of  the  Raritan,  about  5  miles  E.  of 
Somerville.  Somerville,  the  county 
town.  North  Branch,  Bound  Brook, 
and  Middle  Brook,  are  villages,  the 
three  first  named,  post-towns.  Popu- 
in  1830,  3549.  In  1832  the  t-ship 
contained  about  700  taxables,  152 
householders,  whose  ratable  estate 
did  not  exceed  30  dollars,  93  single 
men,  17  stores,  5  saw  mills,  and  3 
grist  mills,  3  fulling  mills,  29  tan  vats, 
4  distilleries  for  cider,  6  carding  ma- 
chines, 858  horses  and  mules,  and 
1570  neat  cattle,  3  years  old  and  up- 
wards ;  and  paid  state  tax,  $464  96  ; 
county,  81145  32. 

Broadway,  village,  of  Mansfield 
t-ship,  near  the  S.  W.  boundary  line, 
Warren  co.,  on  the  turnpike  road 
from  Phihpsburg  to  Schooley's  moun- 
tain, about  10  miles  from  the  former, 
and  14  from  the  latter,  contains  a 
store  and  tavern,  2  grist  mills,  1  saw 
mill,  and  10  or  12  dweUings.  It  lies 
in  the  valley  of  the  Pohatcong  creek, 
upon  a  soil  of  fertile  limestone. 

Broad  Oyster  Creek,  Downe  t-ship, 
Cumberland  co.,  flows  from  Orano- 
ken  creek,  through  the  salt  marsh, 
into  the  Delaware  bay. 

Brooklyn,  hamlet,  of  Piscataway 
t-ship,  Middlesex  co.,  on  Dismal 
Brook,  6  miles  N.  E.  from  New 
Brunswick,  contains  a  grist  mill,  saw 
mill,  and  some  8  or  10  dwellings. 

BrowrCs  Point,  on  the  Raritan  bay, 
at  the  mouth  of  Middletown  creek, 
Middletown  t-ship,  Monmouth  co.,  5 
miles  S.  E.  from  Perth  Amboy,  14 
miles  N.  E.  from  Freehold.  There 
are  here,  a  good  landing,  2  taverns, 
3  stores,  and  12  or  15  dwellings;  sur- 
rounding country,  flat  and  sandy,  but 
made  productive  by  marl. 

Brunswick,  North,  t-ship,  of  Mid- 
dlesex CO.,  bounded  N.  by  the  river 
Raritan,  E.  by  South  Amboy  t-ship, 
S.  by  South  Brunswick,  and  W.  by 
Franklin  t-ship,  Somerset  co.  Great- 


est length  E.  and  W.  9  miles ;  breadth 
N.  and  S.  7  miles;  area,  23,000 
acres,  of  which  5000  are  unimproved ; 
surface  level ;  soil  red  shale  and  sandy 
loam,  drained  on  the  N.  by  the  Rari- 
tan, N.  E.  by  South  river,  centrally 
by  Lawrence's  Brook,  and  N.  W.  by 
Six  Mile  run  and  its  branches.  The 
Princeton  and  Brunswick,  and  the 
Trenton  and  Brunswick  turnpike 
roads  run  alons;  and  throuch  the 
t-ship;  the  first  on  the  W.  boundary 
of  the  t-ship  and  county.  New  Bruns- 
wick, the  seat  of  justice  of  the  county, 
Washington,  Six  Mile  Run,  and  Old 
Bridge,  are  villages,  and  the  three  first, 
post-towns  of  the  t-ship.  Population 
in  1830,  5274.  In  1832  the  t-ship 
contained  about  1050  taxables,  whose 
ratable  estates  did  not  exceed  30  dol- 
lars, 111  single  men,  47  stores,  1  saw 
mill,  4  run  of  stones  for  grain,  1 
plaster  mill,  3  carding  machines  and 
fulling  mills,  90  tan  vats,  4  distilleries 
for  cider,  593  horses  and  mules,  and 
831  neat  cattle,  above  the  age  of  3 
years ;  and  it  paid  state  tax,  $456  84 ; 
county,  i561  76 ;  road,  $200 ;  poor, 
$1250. 

Brunswick,  South,  t-ship,  of  Mid- 
dlesex CO.,  bounded  on  the  N.  E.  by 
North  Brunswick,  E.  by  South  Am- 
boy, S.  by  East  and  West  Windsor, 
and  W.  and  N.  W.  by  Franklin  t-ship, 
Somerset  co.  Centrally  distant  from 
New  Brunswick  S.  W.  12  miles; 
greatest  length  N.  and  S.  10  ;  breadth 
E.  and  W.  7  miles ;  area,  about  36,000 
acres ;  surface,  generally,  level,  with 
some  hills  on  the  west ;  soil  sandy 
loam  and  red  shale;  in  places  ex- 
tremely well  cultivated  and  produc- 
tive; drained  N.  E.  by  Lawrence's 
Brook,  S.  W.  by  Millstone  river  and 
its  tributaries.  Cranberry  Brook, 
Devil's  Brook,  Heathcoat's  Brook. 
Kingston,  and  Cranberry,  are  post- 
towns,  lying  partly  in  the  t-ship ;  and 
Plainsborough  Cross  Roads  and  Ma- 
plestown  are  hamlets  of  the  t-ship. 
Population  2557,  in  1830.  In  1832 
the  t-ship  contained  527  taxables, 
whose  ratables  did  not  exceed  30  dol- 
lars; 32  single  men,  10  merchants,  7 
saw  mills,  8  run  of  stones  for  grist,  5 


BUR 


110 


BUR 


tan  vats,  10  distilleries  for  cider,  755 
horses  and  mules,  and  1275  neat  cat- 
tle; and  it  paid  state  tax,  $438  79; 
county,  $539  49 ;  poor,  $700. 

Buck  Pond,  Pompton  t-ship,  Ber- 
gen CO.,  near  Bear  Fort  mountain, 
covers  about  150  acres,  and  sends  a 
small  tributary  to  the  Pequannock 
creek. 

Buckshutem,  hamlet,  near  the  con- 
fluence of  Buckshutem  creek  with 
Maurice  river,  Milleville  t-ship,  Cum- 
berland CO.,  3  miles  from  Port  Eliza- 
beth; contains  8  or  10  dwellings,  a 
grist  and  saw  mill,  and  store. 

Buckshutem  Creek,  tributary  of 
Maurice  river,  Cumberland  co.,  rises 
by  2  branches,  one  on  the  line  between 
Milleville  and  Fairfield  t-ships;  the 
other  on  the  line  between  Fairfield 
and  Downe  t-ships,  and  the  main 
stream  divides  Milleville  from  Downe. 
It  is  a  fine  mill  stream. 

Buddstoum,  hamlet,  Northampton 
t-ship,  Burlington  co.,  on  Stop  the 
Jade  creek,  a  tributary  of  the  south 
branch  of  the  Rancocus ;  contains  a 
tavern,  store,  and  saw  mill,  on  the 
edge  of  the  pines. 

Budd's  Pond,  small  lake  of  Rox- 
bury  t-ship,  Morris  co.,  on  the  sum- 
mit of  Schooley's  mountain,  17  miles 
N.  W.  of  Morristown,  and  7  from  the 
mineral  spring,  from  which  the  visiters 
resort  hither,  for  amusement,  in  boat- 
ing and  fishinw. 

BulVs  Creek,  small  tributary  of 
Little  Egg  Harbour  river.  Sooy's 
mill  is  near  its  mouth. 

BulVs  Island,  in  the  Delaware 
river,  23  miles  above  Trenton,  near 
Saxtonville.  The  feeder  of  the  Dela- 
ware and  Raritan  cana!  communi- 
cates with  tin;  Delaware  here. 

Burlington  County :  the  first  I'ecog- 
nition  we  find  of  the  bounds  of  this  co. 
is  in  the  act  of  Assembly,  1(J94,  but  its 
limits  were  more  definitely  settled  by 
the  act  21st  Jan.  1710,  declaring,  that 
the  line  of  partition  between  Burling- 
ton and  Gloucester  counties  begins 
at  the  mouth  of  Pensauken,  otherwise, 
Cropwell  creek ;  thence  up  the  same 
to  the  fork ;  thence  along  the  southern- 
most branch  thereof,  sometimes  called 


'  Cole  Branch,  until  it  comes  to  the 
head  thereof;  thence  by  a  straight 
line  to  the  southernmost  branch  of 
Little  Egg  Harbour  river;  thence 
down  the  said  branch  and  river,  to 
the  mouth  thereof;  thence  to  the  next 
inlet,  on  the  S.  side  of  Little  Egg 
Harbour's  most  southerly  inlet  ; 
thence  along  the  sea  coast,  to  the  line 
of  partition  between  East  and  West 
Jersey ;  thence  on  such  line,  by 
Maidenhead  and  Hopewell,  to  the 
northernmost  bounds  of  Amwell  t-ship; 
thence  to  the  i-iver  Delaware,  and  by 
the  river,  to  the  first  mentioned  sta- 
tion. This  surface  has  been  reduced 
by  the  act  which  established  Hunter- 
don county,  March,  1714,  making  the 
Assunpink  creek  the  N.  boundary  of 
the  county.  It  is  now  bounded  N.  by 
Hunterdon  co.,  E.  by  Monmouth  co., 
S.  E.  by  the  Atlantic  ocean,  S.  VV.  by 
Gloucester  co.,  and  N.  W.  by  the 
Delaware  river.  Central  latitude, 
39°  50' ;  longitude  E.  from  W.  C, 
2°  18';  greatest  length,  N.  W.  and 
S.  E.  54;  breadth,  E.  and  W.,  31 
miles;  area,  553,000  acres,  or  near 
833  square  miles. 

Except  immediately  on  the  border 
of  the  Assunpink  creek,  where  some 
primitive  rock  appears,  the  whole  of 
this  county  is  alluvial,  composed  of 
sand,  gravel,  loam  and  clay,  various- 
ly blended.  It  would  seem  that  the 
diluvian  of  the  mountainous  country 
above  has  been  spread  by  the  Dela- 
ware river,  over  the  northwestern 
border  of  the  county,  for  some  12  or 
14  miles  from  the  present  bank,  form- 
ing with  the  aggregations  from  the 
sea  a  very  fertile  loam,  which, 
manured  with  stable  dung,  ashes,  or 
marl,  produces  abundant  crops  of 
rye,  corn,  oats,  beans,  peas,  grass,  and 
potatoes.  Strips  of  sand  occur  in 
this  loamy  belt,  and  sometimes 
masses  of  stiff  clay,  which  were  pro- 
bably once  washed  by  the  tides  of  the 
ocean.  East  of  the  belt  of  loam,  is  a 
mass  of  sand  overlaying  clay,  and  ex- 
tending, for  near  40  miles,  to  the 
marshes,  which  border  the  sea  shore. 
In  this  sandy  district,  there  are  occa- 
sionally   spots  where  the   clay,  ap- 


BUR 


111 


BUR 


preaching  the  surface,  mingles  with 
the  sand,  and  forms  tolerable  soil, 
producing  oak;  and  in  low  grounds, 
where  marl  is  near  the  surface,  some 
natural  meadow,  easily  brought  to  pro- 
duce the  reclaimed  grasses.  But  the 
great  wealth  of  this  portion  of  the 
county  is  the  pine  timber,  with  which 
it  is  covered,  and  which  is  cut  into 
valuable  lumber,  or  fed  to  the  fur- 
nace of  the  iron  foundery  or  steam- 
boat. Bog  ore  is  found  in  many 
places;  marl  generally  through  the 
western  part  of  the  county,  and  possi- 
bly may  be  turned  up  every  where, 
by  digging  sufficiently  deep.  In  the 
marl  pits,  animal  rcliques,  such  as 
shells,  bones,  and  also  petrified  vege- 
tables, are  frequent.  But  the  most 
extraordinary  relic,  yet  discovered  in 
these  deposits,  is  a  piece  of  wrought 
copper  bolt,  about  an  inch  square,  and 
two  inches  long,  bearing  the  marks  of 
tools,  taken  about  10  years  since, 
from  a  marl  pit,  10  feet  below  the  sur- 
face, and  within  a  short  distance  of 
Mount  Holly,  on  the  farm  of  Mr. 
Thomas  Howell.  Of  the  time  when, 
and  the  means  by  which  such  a  de- 
posit was  made,  it  is  scarce  possible  to 
form  a  plausible  conjecture. 

The  waters  of  the  county  flow, 
either  N.  W.  to  the  Delaware  river, 
or  S.  W.  to  the  Atlantic  ocean.  The 
former  consist  of  the  Ass\mpink, 
Crosswick's,  Black's,  Craft's,  Assis- 
cunk,  Rancocus,  and  Pensauken 
creeks,  and  their  tributaries ;  the  lat- 
ter of  the  Wading  and  Mullica  rivers, 
and  their  branches.  The  dividing 
ridge  between  these  streams  runs 
nearly  parallel  with  the  Delaware, 
and  at  about  20  miles  distant  from  it. 
The  streams  are  generally  crooked, 
and  sluggish  ;  and  the  larger  are  na- 
vigable for  10  or  15  miles  from  their 
mouths.     In  Springfield  t-ship,  on  the 


farm  of  Mr.  James  Shreve,  is  a  well, 
whose  water  petrifies  wood.  Blocks 
of  hickory,  cut  into  the  form  of  hones, 
have  been  converted  into  stone,  in 
5  years,  by  immersion  therein. 

The  chief  villages,  and  post-towns 
of  the  county  are,  Arneytown,  Atsion, 
Bass  River  Hotel,  Bordentown,  Bur- 
lington, Columbus,  Crosswicks,  Eves- 
ham, Jacksonville,  Jobstown,  Julius- 
town,  Medford,  Moorcstown,  Mount 
Holly,  the  seat  of  justice,  Pemberton, 
Recklcsstown,  Tuckerton,  Vincenton, 
Wrightstown,  &c.  &c. 

The  county  contained,  by  the  re- 
port of  the  assessors  of  1832, 123,.524 
acres  of  unimproved  land,  which 
might,  with  propriety,  be  nearly 
doubled;  14,210  neat  cattle,  6055 
horses  over  the  age  of  three  years,  19 
stud  horses,  3256  householders,  with 
taxable  property  not  exceeding  $30  in 
value;  1095  single  men,  86  mer- 
chants, 16  fisheries,  48  saw  mills,  91 
grist  mills,  4  furnaces,  3  forges,  2  pa- 
per mills,  one  extensive,  and  of  the 
most  approved  construction ;  1  calico 
printing  factory,  7  fulling  mills,  4 
cotton  factories,  1  plaster  mill,  350 
tan  vats,  11  carding  machines,  35  dis- 
tilleries for  cider,  29  coaches  and 
chariots,  6  phaetons  and  chaises,  8 
four  horse  and  19  two  horse  stages, 
392  dearborns,  977  covered  wagons, 
206  chairs  and  curricles,  and  paid 
state  tax,  $4607  12 ;  county  tax, 
$15,000  ;  and  township  tax,  $13,450. 

The  population  of  the  county,  in 
1830,  was  31,705;  of  whom  14,710 
were  white  males;  15,033  white  fe- 
males ;  free  coloured  males,  869  ;  free 
coloured  females,  901  ;  male  slaves, 
77  ;  female  slaves,  115  ;  174  aliens  ; 
12  white,  deaf  and  dumb;  7  white,  and 
3  blacks,  blind.  The  county  sends  5 
members  to  the  Assembly,  and  one  to 
the  Council. 


BUR  112  BUR 

STATISTICAL  TABLE  OF  BURLINGTON  COUNTY. 


j= 

J3 

Population. 

Townships,  &c. 

fco 

B 

1) 

Area. 

Surface 

0^ 

pa 

generally  level. 

1810 

1820 

1830 

Burlington, 
Chester, 

7 

7 

9,702 

2419 

2758 

2670 

7 

6 

22,000 

1839 

2253 

2333 

Chesterfield, 

8 

6 

16,000 

1839 

2087 

2386 

Egg  Harbour,  Little, 

20 

10 

76,800 

913 

1102 

1490 

Hanover, 

16 

13 

44,000 

2536 

2642 

2859 

Mansfield, 

10 

6i 

21,000 

1810 

1957 

2083 

Evesham, 

15 

10 

67,000 

3445 

3977 

4239 

Northampton, 

33 

18 

135,000 

4171 

4833 

5516 

Nottingham, 

10 

7 

25,000 

2615 

3633 

3900 

Springfield, 

10 

6 

18,000 

1500 

1568 

1534 

Washington, 

20 

19 

112,000 

1273 

1225 

1315 

Willingboro', 

6 

4 

7,500 

787 

782 

553,002 

24,360 

28,822 

31,107 

Burlington  t-ship,  Burlington  co., 
bounded  N.  E.  by  Mansfield  and 
Springfield  t-ships,  S.  E.  by  North- 
ampton, S.  W.  by  Willingboro',  and 
N.  W.  by  the  River  Delaware.  Cen- 
trally distant  N.  W.  from  Mount 
Holly,  6  miles ;  length  N.  and  S.  7  ; 
breadth  E.  and  W.  7  miles;  area, 
9702  acres;  surface,  level;  soil, 
sandy  loam,  very  well  cultivated,  and 
abundantly  productive,  in  grass,  corn, 
wheat,  and  garden  vegetables,  and 
fruits ;  drained  by  the  Assiscunk  creek 
on  the  north,  and  a  branch  of  the 
Rancocus  on  the  south.  Burlington 
city  is  in  the  t-ship.  Population  in 
1830,  2070.  In  1832  the  t-ship  con- 
tained, including  the  city,  575  taxa- 
bles,  145  single  men,  6  stores,  2  fish- 
eries, 2  grist  mills,  1  ferry,  34  tan 
vats,  1  distillery  for  cider,  14  coaches 
and  chariots,  2  two  horse  stages,  27 
dearborns,  57  covered  wagons,  9 
chairs  and  curricles,  and  30  gigs  and 
sulkies ;  and  it  paid  state  tax,  $373  45; 
county  tax,  $1292  16 ;  and  t-.ship  tax, 
$1000. 

Burlington  Island,  in  the  river 
Delaware,  above  the  city  of  Burling- 
ton, and  opposite  the  town  of  Bristol, 
originally  termed  Matenicunk,  and 
also  Chygoes  island.  (Sec  Burling- 
ton City.) 

Burlington  Collection  District 
comprehends  that  part  of  West  Jer- 


sey lying  on  the  eastward  and  north- 
ward of  Gloucester,  and  all  the  wa- 
ters thereof  within  the  jurisdiction  of 
the  state.  Burlington  city  is  the  port 
of  enti'y,  and  Lamberton  a  port  of 
delivery  only ;  the  collector  resides  at 
the  latter. 

Burlington  City,  of  Burlington 
t-ship,  Burlington  co.,  20  miles  N.  E. 
from  Philadelphia,  158  from  W.  C, 
and  12  S.  W.  from  Trenton,  upon  the 
river  Delaware,  and  opposite  to  the 
town  of  Bristol;  contains  about  300 
dwellings,  and  1800  inhabitants;  one 
Episcopal,  1  Baptist,  and  2  Methodist 
churches,  one  of  which  are  for  co- 
loured people,  and  1  Friend's  meet- 
ing house;  1  large  and  commodious 
boarding  school  for  girls,  beautifully 
situate  on  the  river  bank,  and  1  large 
boarding  school  for  boys ;  the  former 
under  the  direction  of  S.  R.  Gum- 
mere,  and  the  latter  of  Jolm  Gum- 
mere  ;  a  free  school  maintained  chief- 
ly from  the  rents  of  Matenicunk  or 
Chygoes  island,  lying  near  the  town, 
and  which  was  given  to  it  for  that 
purpose  by  the  proprietaries,  by  act 
of  Assembly,  28th  September,  1682. 
This  island  contains  about  300  acres, 
and  yields  a  rent  of  about  $1000  an- 
nually. There  arc  here  also  a  board- 
ing school  endowed  by  the  "Scx;iety 
of  Friends ;"  five  common  schools  for 
white,  and  one  for  coloured  children. 


BUR 


113 


BYR 


The  town  is  laid  out  upon  9  streets 
running  N.  and  S.,  and  4  E.  and  W. 
The  lots  are  generally  deep,  admit- 
ting of  spacious  gardens,  in  which 
much  and  excellent  fruit  is  produced, 
among  which  grapes  of  various  kinds 
are  common.  Upon  the  main  street, 
the  houses  are  closely  built,  but  in 
other  parts  of  the  town  they  are  wide 
asunder,  and  surrounded  by  gardens, 
orchards,  and  grass  lots.  Many  of 
the  buildings  are  very  neat  and  com- 
modious, and  occupied  as  country 
seats  by  citizens  of  Philadelphia — 
those  on  the  river  bank,  below  the 
town,  are  beautifully  situated,  with  a 
fine  verdant  velvet  sward  to  the  wa- 
ter's edge,  giving  them  a  perpetual  air 
of  freshness  and  coolness,  most  desi- 
rable in  the  summer  months.  There 
are  here,  also,  a  public  library,  seve- 
ral fire  companies,  a  beneficial  so- 
ciety, a  distinguished  nursery  of  fruit 
trees,  7  considerable  stores,  5  taverns, 
3  practising  attorneys,  3  physicians, 
and  extensive  manufactories  of  shoes, 
employing  near  300  hands.  Bur- 
lington was  laid  out  as  a  town  in  the 
year  1677,  by  the  first  purchasers 
from  Lord  Berkeley,  and  was  incor- 
porated by  the  proprietary  govern- 
ment, including  the  island  only,  in 
1693,  and  subsequently  by  Governor 
Cosby.  The  present  incorporation 
is  by  act  of  the  state  legislature,  21st 
December,  1784,  constituting  the 
town  and  port  of  Burlington,  of  the 
length  of  3  miles  on  the  Delaware, 
and  such  jmrt  of  the  river  and  islands 
opposite  thereto,  within  the  jurisdic- 
tion of  the  state,  and  extending  fx-om 
the  river  at  right  angles  one  mile  into 
the  county,  '■'■ilie  city  of  Burlington;'''' 
and  authorizing  its  government,  bv  a 
mayor,  recorder,  and  3  aldermen,  an- 
nually elective,  with  power  to  hold  a 
commercial  court  monthly.  Prior  to 
May,  1676,  the  site  of  this  town  was 
holden  by  4  Dutch  families,  one  of 
whom  kept  a  public  house  for  the  en- 
tertainment of  travellers  passing  to 
and  from  the  settlements  on  the  west 
shores  of  the  Delaware,  and  New 
York.  The  river  here  is  about  a 
mile  wide,  the  harbour  pretty  good. 


but  the  town  has  no  commerce.  A 
great  portion  of  the  city  is  isolated  by 
a  creek,  over  which  there  are  several 
bridges;  the  tide  has  been  stopped 
out,  and  the  marshes,  which  it  for- 
merly covered,  are  good  meadows. 
The  town  is  deemed  healthy.  Four 
steam-boats  pass  this  town,  to  and 
from  Philadelphia,  daily. 

Burnt  Cabin  Brook,  principal 
branch  of  the  Rockaway  river,  rises 
in  Greenpond,  in  the  valley  between 
Greenpond  mountain  and  Copperas 
mountain.  It  has  a  S.  W.  course  of 
about  8  miles,  before  it  unites  with  the 
main  stream. 

Burnt  Meadow  Brook,  small  tri- 
butary of  Ringwood  river,  Pompton 
t-ship,  Bergen  co.,  into  which  it  flows 
eastwardly  by  a  course  of  about  6 
miles. 

Bustleton,  hamlet,  of  Mansfield 
t-ship,  Burlington  co.,  7  miles  N.  W. 
from  Mount  Holly,  and  4  from  Bur- 
lington city;  contains  a  Friends' 
meeting  house,  and  some  half  dozen 
farm  houses,  surrounded  by  a  well  cul- 
tivated country  of  fertile  sandy  loam. 

Butcher''s  Forge,  on  Metetecunk 
river,  on  the  line  between  Howell  and 
Dover  t-ships,  Monmouth  co.,  at  the 
head  of  navigation,  18  miles  S.  E. 
fi'om  Freehold.  There  are  here  a 
forge,  a  grist  mill,  a  tavern,  2  stores, 
and  15  or  20  dwellings.  The  mill 
pond  is  the  largest  in  the  state,  having 
a  length  of  nearly  3  miles,  by  nearly 
half  a  mile  in  breadth.  Wood  from 
the  surrounding  forest  is  boated  on  it 
to  the  furnace. 

Byram  t-ship,  Sussex  co.,  bounded 
N.  W.  by  Newton  t-ship ;  E.  by  Har- 
diston  t-ship,  and  by  Jefierson  t-ship, 
Morris  co.;  S.  by  Roxbury  t-ship,  of 
the  same  eo.,  and  W.  by  Green  t-ship, 
of  Sussex  CO.  Centrally  distant  S. 
E.  from  Newton  8  miles;  greatest 
length  N.  and  S.  10  miles,  breadth 
E.  and  W.  8  miles;  area,  21,760; 
surface  mountainous,  the  t-ship  being 
wholly  covered  by  the  South  mountain. 
The  t-ship  is  drained  chiefly  by  Lub- 
ber run,  which  receives  the  waters 
of  Lion  pond,  Hopatcong  lake  upon 
the  E.,  and  by  Musconetcong  river, 


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114 


CAM 


which  courses  the  whole  of  the  south- 
era  boundary.  It  is  crossed  N.  W. 
by  the  Morris  and  Newton  turnpike 
road.  By  the  census  of  1830  it  con- 
tained 958  inhabitants;  and  in  1832 
187  taxables,  5  stores,  5  saw  mills, 
10  forge  fires,  6  tan  vats,  1  distillery, 
123  horses  and  mules,  and  497  neat 
cattle,  over  the  age  of  3  years. 
Andover,  Lockwood,  Columbia,  and 
Stanhope,  are  the  names  of  the  forges 
within  the  t-ship;  Brooklyn  forgo  lies 
on  the  S.  E.  boundary.  The  Morris 
canal  touches  the  south  boundary  of; 
the  t-ship  at  Stanhope.  The  t-ship  is 
noted  for  its  iron  and  other  minerals. 
Cabbagetown,  hamlet,  of  Upper 
Freehold  t-ship,  Monmouth  co.,  on 
the  line  between  that  county  and  Mid- 
dlesex, 17  miles  from  Freehold,  and 
12  from  Trenton,  contains  some  half 
dozen  dwellings,  a  wheelwright,  smith 
and  joiner's  shop. 

Calais,  Randolph  t-ship,  Morris 
CO.,  on  the  road  from  Morristown  to 
Stanhope  forge,  6  miles  N.  W.  from 
the  former ;  contains  a  Presbyterian 
church,  store,  tavern,  and  12  or  15 
dwellings. 

Caldwell  t-ship,  Essex  co.,  bound- 
ed on  the  W.  and  N.  by  the  Passaic 
river,  which  separates  it  from  Hano- 
ver t-ship,  Morris  co.,  E.  by  Acquack- 
anonck  and  Bloomfield  t-ships,  S.  by 
Orange  and  Livingston  t-ships.  Cen- 
trally distant  N.  E.  from  Newark  10 
miles;  greatest  length  E.  and  \V.  7; 
breadth^N.  and  S.  6;  area,  1G,500 
acres;  surface  mountainous  on  the 
E.,  elsewlicre  rolling,  except  in  the 
valley  of  the  river;  drained,  or  rather 
watered,  by  Deep  and  Green  brooks; 
soil  red  shale  and  aikivion;  towns, 
Caldwell,  Fairfield,  and  Franklin; 
the  first  a  post-town;  population  in 
1830,  2001.  Jn  1832  th.'  t-ship  con- 
tained 325  taxables,  30  single  men, 
8  merchants,  3  grist  mills,  1  cotton 
manufactory,  3  saw  mills,  12  tan  vats, 
1  woollen  factory,  325  horses  and 
mules,  and  1001  neat  cattle,  over 
the  age  of  3  years :  and  it  paid  state 
tax,  $201  06;  county,  $520  0(5; 
poor,  $600;  road,  $1327. 

Caldwell,  p-t.  of  preceding  t-ship. 


Essex  CO.,  10  miles  N.  E.  from  New- 
ark, 225  from  W.  C,  and  59  from 
Trenton,  contains  a  tavern,  3  stores, 
a  grist  and  saw  mill  on  Pine  Brook, 
about  30  dwellings,  and  2  Presbyte- 
rian churches.  The  country  around 
it  is  deep  clay  loam. 

Camden,  city  and  t-ship,  of  Glou- 
cester CO.,  on  the  river  Delaware,  op- 
posite to  the  city  of  Philadelphia,  and 
port  of  entry  and  delivery  of  Bridge- 
ton  collection  district,  8  miles  N.  W. 
from  Woodbury,  137  N.  E.  from  W. 
C,  and  31  S.  from  Trenton.  The 
site  upon  which  it  stands,  was  taken 
up  between  the  years  1681  and  1685, 
in  several  parcels,  by  Messrs.  Cooper, 
Runyon  and  Morris.  The  city  was 
incorporated  by  acts  13  Feb.  and  1 
March,  1828,  and  9  Feb.  1831 ;  and 
as  a  t-ship  by  act  Nov.  28, 1831.  Its 
bounds  by  these  acts  are  as  follow: 
Beginning  at  the  Pennsylvania  line 
in  the  Delaware,  opposite  the  mouth 
of  a  small  run  of  water  below  Kaighn- 
ton,  and  running  E.  to  the  mouth  of 
said  run ;  thence  by  the  same,  cross- 
ing the  public  road  to  Woodbury, 
from  the  Camden  academy;  thence 
N.  by  the  E.  side  of  said  road,  to  the 
road  from  Kaighnton  to  Cooper's  creek 
bridge ;  thence  by  the  E.  side  of  the 
last  mentioned  road,  and  the  S.  side 
of  the  causey  and  bridge,  to  the  mid- 
dle of  Cooper's  creek ;  thence  by  the 
middle  of  the  creek  to  the  Delaware ; 
thence  due  N.  to  the  middle  of  the 
channel,  between  Potty's  island  and 
the  Jersey  shore;  thence  down  the 
channel  to  the  nearest  point  on  the 
line  between  the  states  of  Peimsylva- 
nia  and  New  Jersey ;  thence  by  said 
line  to  the  place  of  beginning.  The 
district  has  a  length  of  2^:  miles  on 
the  river,  by  about  \\  in  breadth  to 
the  bridge  over  Cooper's  creek.  But  a 
small  jiortion  only,  of  this  area,  is 
built  upon:  tlie  greatest  portion  is 
employed  in  tillage,  chiefly  of  fruit 
and  early  vegetables,  for  the  Phila- 
delphia market,  to  which  the  soil  is 
admirably  adapted;  and  a  consider- 
able \M\Yi  is  still  in  woods,  yielding 
shade  and  recreation  to  the  inhabit- 
ants of  the  great  city,  in  the  hot  sea- 


CAM 


115 


CAM 


son.  The  district  is  divided  into  3 
distinct  villages,  separated  by  vacant 
grounds  from  half  a  mile  to  nearly 
a  mile  in  extent.  That,  opposite  to 
the  Northern  Liberties,  is  known  as 
Cooper's  Point,  at  which  there  is  %n 
extensive  ferry  establishment,  tavern, 
store,  livery  stable,  and  a  dozen  dwell- 
ings. The  lower  village,  nearly  op- 
posite to  the  Navy  Yard,  is  called 
Kaighnton  or  Kaighn's  Point,  fi-om 
the  family  of  that  name,  which  settled 
on  it  in  1696,  and  whose  descend- 
ants, still  residents  on,  and  owners  of 
the  greater  part  of  the  adjoining  pro- 
perty, laid  out  town  lots  here,  and 
established  the  ferry  to  Pliiladelphia 
in  1809.  It  contains  35  dwellings,  a 
store,  school  house,  2  taverns,  a  tan- 
nery, an  extensive  smithery  and 
manufactory  of  steel  springs  for  car- 
riages. The  central  and  largest  part 
of  the  city  was  originally  called  Cam- 
den, about  the  year  1772,  when  first 
divided  into  town  lots,  by  the  then 
proprietor,  Jacob  Cooper,  and  is  near- 
ly equidistant  between  the  two  Points, 
and  opposite  to  the  central  part  of  Phi- 
ladelphia. The  land  at  Cooper's  Point, 
and  extensive  adjacent  tracts,  were 
taken  up  in  1687,  by  William  Cooper, 
one  of  the  first  and  distinguished  emi- 
grants to  the  province,  after  the  sale 
by  Lord  Berkeley  to  Byllinge;  the 
whole  of  which  is,  at  this  time,  not 
only  possessed  by  his  descendants, 
but  actually,  by  descendants  bearing 
the  name  of  Cooper;  no  portion  of  it, 
at  any  time,  having,  in  the  space  of 
146  years,  been  aliened  by  the  family. 
At  the  period  of  incorporation, 
1828,  the  population  of  the  district 
was  1143;  in  1830  it  had  increased 
to  1987,  and  now,  Sept.  1833,  by 
a  census  made  for  this  work,  amounts 
to  2341  ;  of  whom  417  are  heads  of 
families,  or  housekeepers,  1237  males, 
1104  females,  78  widows,  and  105 
people  of  colour.  It  contains  364 
dwelling  houses,  and  60  other  build- 
ings used  for  manufactories,  stores, 
and  schools,  a  Baptist,  a  Methodist, 
and  a  Quaker  meeting  house,  a  court- 
house, or  town  hall,  where  the  city 
sessions  are  holden,  quarterly,  by  the 


mayor,  recorder,  and  aldermen,  for 
the  trial  of  minor  offences,  and  a  pri- 
son connected  therewith ;  an  academy, 
at  which  are  taught  the  rudiments  of 
a  common  English  education ;  "  the 
State  Bank  at  Camden,"  with  a  capi- 
tal of  8300,000  dollars ;  a  turpentine, 
a  patent  leather,  and  a  tinware  manu- 
factory ;  2  tanneries,  a  steam  saw  mill 
and  steam  grist  mill,  2  saddlers  and 
harnessmakers,  other  than  those  con- 
nected with  the  coachmakers;  6  coach - 
makers,  whose  business  exceeds  in 
value  $60,000,  annually,  and  whose 
work,  much  of  which  is  exported,  is 
remarkable  at  once,  for  cheapness, 
lightness,  strength,  and  beauty  of 
finish ;  8  smitheries,  connected  with 
2  of  which  are  manufactories  of  steel 
springs;  a  white  or  silver  smith,  a 
clock  and  watchmaker's  shop,  a  comb 
manufactory,  a  trunk  manufactory, 
2  bakeries,  2  cooper's  shops,  2  drug- 
gist's shops,  12  stores,  5  lumber  yards, 

5  livery  stables,  9  taverns,  including 
the  ferry  houses,  2  cabinetmaker's 
shops,  2  tailor's  shops,  11  master 
carpenters,  4  master  stone  and  brick 
masons,  2  paintci's  and  glaziers,  a  gold 
and  silver  plater,  2  printing  offices, 
fi'om  each  of  which  a  weekly  news- 
paper is  issued,  and  3  physicians  and 

6  lawyers. 

There  are  here  also  several  hand- 
some public  gardens,  much  frequent- 
ed by  the  Philadelphians,  who  have 
ready  access  to  them  by  the  steam 
ferry  boats  constantly  passing  the 
river.  Of  these  useful  vessels,  there 
are'  at  present  eight  belonging  to  the 
five  ferry  establishments,  including 
those  at  Cooper's  and  Kaighn's  Points; 
employing  a  capital  of  660,000,  ex- 
clusive of  the  real  estate,  such  as 
wharves,  ferrv  houses,  &c.  valued 
at  $100,000.  The  gross  income  from 
which,  is  estimated  at  not  less  than 
$80,000  per  annum.  The  boats  adapt- 
ed for  carriages  and  passeng^ers  cross, 
in  from  5  to  15  minutes,  according 
to  the  state  of  the  tide;  and  are  im- 
pelled by  steam  engines  of  from  15  to 
20  horse  power. 

The  ship  channel  is  on  the  Philadel- 
phia  side  of  the  river.     The  water  on 


CAP 


116 


CAP 


the  New  Jersey  side  is  too  shoal  for 
vessels  of  tlie  largest  size  to  ascend 
higher  than  Kaighn's  Point,  where  it 
is  sufficiently  deep  for  those  of  any 
tonnage.  Brigs  and  schooners  of  150 
tons  come  to  the  central  parts  of  Cam- 
den at  high  tide,  and  unload  at  the 
wharves.  Efforts  are  making  to  con- 
vert this  into  a  port  of  entry,  and  to 
annex  it  to  the  Philadelphia  collection 
district. 

CampbclVs  Brook  rises  at  the  foot 
of  the  mountain  in  Rcadington  t-sliip, 
Hunterdon  co.,  and  flows  by  a  S.  E. 
course  of  about  7  miles  to  the  south 
branch  of  the  Raritan  river,  in 
Bridgewater  t-ship,  Somerset  co. 

Camptown,  Orange  t-ship,  Essex 
CO.,  3-i  miles  S.  W.  from  Newark, 
contains  within  a  circle  of  a  mile  and 
a  half  in  diameter,  75  dwellings,  a 
free  church  of  stone,  of  three  sto- 
ries, the  first  used  as  an  academy,  the 
second  as  a  chui-ch,  open  to  all  de- 
nominations of  Christians,  and  the 
third  a  masonic  lodge ;  a  Presbyteri- 
an church,  1  tavern,  3  stores,  1  saw 
mill,  and  1  grist  mill,  upon  Eliza- 
beth river.  The  lands  here  vary  in 
value,  according  to  quality,  from  50 
to  $1 00  the  acre.  The  name  is  derived 
from  the  circumstance  that  the  Ame- 
rican army  had  a  camp  in  the  vici- 
nity during  the  revolution. 

Canoe  Brook,  small  tributary  of 
the  Passaic  river,  Livingston  and 
Springfield  t-ships,  Essex  co.,  has  a 
westerly  course  of  three  miles. 

Cape  May  County,  by  the  act  of 
Assembly,  21st  of  January,  1710,  be- 
gins at  the  mouth  of  a  small  creek, 
on  the  west  side  of  Stipson's  island, 
called  Jecak's  creek,  and  continues 
thence  by  the  said  creek,  as  high  as 
the  tide  flowcth;  thence,  along  the 
bounds  (of  what  was  then  Salem 
county,  now  Cumberland,)  to  the 
southernmost  main  branch  of  Great 
Egg  Harbour  river ;  thence  down  the 
said  river  to  the  sea;  thence  along 
the  sea  coast  to  Delaware  bay,  and  so 
up  the  said  bay  to  the  place  of  begin- 
ning. It  is,  therefore,  bounded  on 
the  north  by  Cumterland  county,  E. 
and  S.  by  the  Atlantic  ocean,  aiid  VV. 


by  Delaware  bay.  Its  greatest  length, 
N.  E.  and  S.  W.  is  30  miles;  great- 
est breadth  E.  and  W.,  15  miles; 
form  semi-oval:  area  252  square 
miles,  or  about  161,000  acres.  Cen- 
tral lat.  39°  10';  long.  2°  T  E.  from 
VV.  c. 

This  county  is  wholly  of  alluvial 
formation.  Upon  the  coast,  from 
the  mouth  of  Great  Egg  Harbour 
bay,  and  for  some  miles  on  the  De- 
laware bay,  above  the  capes,  is  a 
sand  beach :  on  the  east,  this  beach, 
from  a  half  mile  to  two  miles  in  width, 
is  covered  with  grass  which  affords 
pasture  for  neat  cattle  and  sheep.  It 
is  broken  by  several  inlets,  by  which 
the  sea  penetrates  the  marshes,  and 
forms  lagunes  or  salt  water  lakes, 
in  several  places,  two  miles  in  diame- 
ter, connected  by  various  channels. 
The  marsh  has  an  average  width  of 
about  four  miles;  a  similar  marsh 
extends  along  the  N.  W.  part  of  the 
county,  on  the  bay,  widening  as  it 
advances  northward.  The  Tucka- 
hoe  river,  on  the  north,  divides  this 
from  Gloucester  co.,  receiving  from 
Cape  May  co.  Cedar  Swamp  creek, 
which  interlocks  with  Dennis'  creek, 
the  latter  emptying  into  the  Dela- 
ware bay.  Both  streams  flow  through 
an  extensive  cedar  swamp,  stretch- 
ing for  17  miles  across  the  county. 
Several  other,  but  inconsiderable 
streams,  flow  westerly  into  the  Dela- 
ware bay.  The  fast  land  of  the 
county  is  composed  of  clay  based  on 
sand,  generally  covered  with  oak  fo- 
rest, from  which  large  quantities  of 
timber  and  cord  wood  are  annually 
sent  to  tlic  Philadelphia  and  New  York 
markets.  The  greater  portion  of  the 
inhabitants  are  settled  on  the  east  and 
west  margins  of  this  fast  land,  along 
which  run  the  main  roads  of  the 
county.  The  forest  land,  when 
cleared,  becomes  arable,  and,  with 
due  cultivation,  produces  good  crops 
of  corn  and  rye.  The  farms  are  ge- 
nerally large,  running  from  the  roads 
landward.  Some  cleared  and  culti- 
vated tracts  are  interspersed  with  the 
forest.  The  wealth  of  the  county 
is  in  its  timber. 


CAP 


117 


CAP 


The  name  of  this  county  is  derived  j 
from  CorneHus  Jacobse  Mey,  a  navi- 
gator in  the  service  of  the  Dutch 
West  India  Company,  who  visited 
the  Delaware  bay  in  1623,  for  the 
purpose  of  colonization,  but  the  set- 
tlements, if  any  were  made  here  by 
him,  were  soon  abandoned.  In  1630 
a  purchase  of  land,  extending  along 
the  bay  for  sixteen  miles,  and  six- 
teen inward,  was  made  of  the  In- 
dians, by  the  Dutch  governor  of  New 
Amsterdam,  Van  Twiller,  for  the 
Sieurs  Goodyn  and  Blomaert,  direc- 
tors of  the  West  India  Company;  but 
we  do  not  learn  that  these  lands  were 
immediately  peopled  by  Europeans. 
From  the  records  of  the  court  of  this 
county,  it  appears  probable  that  some 
English  settlers  were  established  here 
at  an  early  period,  from  New  Eng- 
land, and  we  may  conjecture  that 
they  were  colonists  from  New  Ha- 
ven, some  of  whose  descendants  may 
yet  remain  in  the  county. 

The  county  is  divided  into  4  t-ships ; 
its  pop.  in  1830,  was  4396  souls; 
being  about  20  to  the  square  mile; 
of  whom  2400  were  white  males, 
2308  white  females,  118  free  colour- 
ed males,  107  free  coloured  females, 
3  slaves;  among  these  were  1  deaf 
and  dumb,  but  there  were  none  blind 
nor  alien. 

The  seat  of  justice  is  centrally  si- 
tuated at  Middletown,  where  there 
are  a  frame  court  house,  brick  fire 
proof  offices,  and  a  stone  prison ;  the 
other  public  buildings  of  the  county, 
consist  of  an  Episcopalian  church,  2 
Baptist  do.,  2  Methodist  do. 

At  an  early  period  of  its  history 
the  inhabitants  were  engaged  in  the 
whale  fishery ;  at  present,  their  chief 
support  is  derived  from  the  timber 
and  cord  wood  trade,  raising  of  cat- 
tle, and  supplying  the  market  M'ith  oys  - 
ters,  clams,  fish,  &c.  At  Cape  Island, 
a  considerable  revenue  is  derived  from 
the  company  who  visit  the  sea  shore 


during  the  hot  weather.  By  the  as- 
sessor's report  for  1832,  the  county 
contained  but  20,244  acres  of  im- 
proved land,  a  little  more  than  one- 
eighth  part  of  its  area;  669  house- 
holders, 8  grist  mills,  the  chief  part 
of  which  are  moved  by  wind,  16  saw 
mills,  29  stores,  679  horses,  and 
2093  neat  cattle  over  3  years  of  age ; 
and  paid  for  t-ship  purposes  $324  60 ; 
for  state  purposes  $646  01,  and  $2000 
for  county  uses. 

By  the  act  of  8th  March,  1797,  it 
sends  1  member  to  the  assembly,  and 
by  the  constitution,  1  member  to 
council. 

The  court  of  common  pleas  and 
quarter  sessions  for  Cape  May  co.,  sit 
on  the  1st  Tuesdays  of  February,  the 
last  of  May,  the  1st  of  August,  and 
the  4th  of  October;  and  the  circuit 
courts  on  the  last  Tuesday  of  May, 
annually,  at  Middletown. 

This  portion  of  the  state  has  not 
generally  been  holden  in  due  estima- 
tion. If  its  inhabitants  be  not  nume- 
rous, they  are  generally  as  indepen- 
dent as  any  others  in  the  state,  and 
enjoy  as  abundantly  the  comforts  of 
life.  They  are  hospitable,  and  re- 
spectable for  the  propriety  of  their 
manners,  and  are  blessed,  usually, 
with  excellent  health.  Until  lately 
they  have  known  little,  practically,  of 
those  necessary  evils  of  social  life, 
the  physician  and  the  lawyer.  Morse 
assures  us,  that  their  women  possess- 
ed the  power  not  only  of  sweetening 
life,  but  of  defending  and  prolonging 
it,  being  competent  to  cure  most  of 
the  diseases  which  attack  it.  We 
learn,  however,  that  their  practice  in 
the  latter  particular,  has  lately  been 
contested;  that  one  or  more  physi- 
cians have  crept  in,  but  we  rejoice  to 
hear  that  they  find  little  employment. 
We  learn  also,  that  the  county,  like 
Ireland,  refusing  nourishment  to  nox- 
ious animals,  no  lawyer  can  subsist 
in  it. 


CAP 


118 


CED 


STATISTICAL  TABLE  OF  CAPE  MAY  COUNTY. 


Townships. 

c 
o 

-3 

M 

Area. 

Surface. 

Population. 

1810 

1820 

1830 

Upper, 
Dennis, 
Middle, 
Lower, 

12i 

14 

12 

8 

lU 
8^ 
10 

8 

37,000 
43,500 
60,000 
21,000 

161,500 

1664  2107 

1106  1157 
862 1001 

1067 

1508 

1366 

995 

42654936 

Cape  May  Cotirt  House,  p-t.  and 
seat  of  justice  of  Cape  May  co.,  cen- 
trally situate  in  Middle  t-ship,  104 
miles  N.  E.  from  W.  C,  and  102  S. 
from  Trenton,  34  S.  E.  from  Bridge- 
ton,  and  74  from  Philadelphia;  con- 
tains a  court  house  of  wood,  a  jail  of 
stone,  fire-proof  offices  of  brick,  2  ta- 
verns, 8  or  10  dwellings,  and  a  Bap- 
tist church  of  brick.  "  Lat.  39°  N. 
long.  2''  8'  E.  from  W.  C;  it  is  call- 
ed Middletown,  in  the  post-office  lists. 

Cape  May,  the  most  southern  point 
of  N.  J.,  and  the  eastern  cape  of  the 
Delaware  bay,  formed  by  the  bay  and 
the  Atlantic  ocean:  lat.  38°  56',  long. 
2°  18'  E.  from  w'.  C;  a  liglit  house 
stands  upon  the  point.  The  name  of 
this  cape  should  have  been  written 
Mey,  since  it  lias  its  name  from 
Cornelius  Jacobse  Mey,  a  distinguish- 
ed navigator,  who  visited  the  Dela- 
ware in  1623,  in  the  employ  of  the 
Dutch  West  India  Company.  He 
gave  his  Christian  name,  Cornelius, 
to  the  west  cape  of  the  bay. 

Cape  May  Island,  bcacli  of  the 
Atlantic  ocean,  near  the  southern 
point  of  the  .state,  in  Lower  t-ship. 
Cape  May  co.,  104  miles  by  post- 
route  from  Philadelphia,  115  from 
Trenton,  and  117  from  W.  C;  it  is  a 
noted  and  much  frequented  watering 
place,  the  .season  at  which  commences 
about  the  first  of  July,  and  continues 
until  the  middle  of  August,  or  1st 
Scptemlx^r.  There  are  here  six 
boarding  houses,  three  of  which  are 
very  large;  the  .sea  bathing  is  conve- 
nient and  excellent,  the  beach  afll)i-ds 
pleasant  drives,  and  there  is  excellent 
fishing  in  the  adjacent  waters.  There 
is  a  post-office  here. 


Carllshurg,  hamlet  of  Deerfleld 
t-ship,  Cumberland  co.,  between  3 
and  4  miles  N.  E.  of  Bridgeton. 

Carpenter'' s  Landing,  post-town  of 
Greertwich  t-ship,  Gloucester  co.,  upon 
Mantua  creek,  at  the  head  of  sloop 
navigation,  3  miles  S.  W.  from  Wood- 
bury ;  7  miles  by  the  creek  from  the 
Delaware;  42  miles  from  Trenton, 
and  148  from  W.  C.  It  is  a  place 
of  considerable  trade,  in  lumber,  cord 
wood,  &c.,  and  contains  1  tavern,  2 
stores,  30  dwellings,  and  1  Methodist 
church. 

Cat-tail,  hamlet,  of  Upper  Freehold 
t-ship,  Monmouth  co.,  on  Cat-tail 
creek,  on  the  line  between  Middlesex 
and  Monmouth  cos.,  16  miles  S.  W. 
from  Freehold,  and  28  S.  E.  from 
Trenton. 

Cedar  Bridge,  hamlet,  Stafford 
t-ship,  Monmouth  co.,  upon  the  Os- 
wego, or  E.  branch  of  Wading  river, 
33  miles  S.  of  Freehold,  contains  a 
saw  mill,  2  taverns,  and  several 
dwc^llings,  surrounded  by  pine  forest. 

Cedar  Creek,  Stafford  t-ship,  Mon- 
mouth CO.,  flows  S.  W.  about  6  miles, 
into  Little  Egg  Harbour  bay,  2  miles 
below  the  mouth  of  Manahocking 
creek. 

Cedar  Creek,  Dover  t-ship,  Mon- 
mouth CO.,  rises  by  .several  branches, 
and  flows  eastwardly  about  16  miles 
to  the  Atlantic  ocean.  The  village  of 
Williamsburg  is  seated  upon  it,  near 
the  head  of  tide  water,  and  contains 
10  or  12  dwellings,  2  taverns,  2  stores. 
Goodluck  is  a  thickly  settled  neigh- 
bourhood, a  short  distance  on  the  S. 
W.  The  country  on  the  E.  is  salt 
marsh  ;  elsewhere,  sandy,  and  cover- 
ed with  pine  forest. 


CEN 


119 


CHA 


Cedar  Creek,  Fairfield  t-ship, 
Cumberland  co.,  rises  in  the  t-ship, 
and  flows  westerly  through  it  lor 
about  10  miles,  giving  motion  to  se- 
veral mills,  and  emptying  into  Nan- 
tuxet  cove,  Delaware  bay.  It  is  na- 
vigable about  4  miles  to  Cedarville. 

Cedar  Pond,  small  lake  of  about 
100  acres,  Pompton  t-ship,  Bergen 
CO.,  sends  forth  a  portion  of  its  waters 
to  supply  the  stream  of  Clinton  forges. 

Cedar  Swamp  Creek,  Upper  t-ship, 
Cape  May  co.,  rises  in  the  t-ship  by 
2  branches,  and  flows  N.  E.  8  miles, 
into  Tuckahoe  river.  Its  course  is 
through  an  extensive  cedar  swamp. 

Cedar  Swatiip  Creek,  of  Egg  Har- 
bour t-ship,  Gloucester  co.,  a  mill 
stream,  which  flows  S.  W.,  by  Bar- 
gaintown,  about  7  or  8  miles,  into 
Great  Egg  Harbour  bay. 

Cedarville,  p-t.  of  Fairfield  t-ship, 
Cumberland  co.,  pleasantly  situated, 
on  Cedar  creek,  at  the  head  of 
navigation,  about  4  miles  from  the 
mouth  of  the  creek,  7  S.  from  Bridge- 
ton,  183,  by  post  route,  N.  E.  from 
W.  C,  and  77  S.  from  Trenton ;  con- 
tains about  60  dwellings,  a  store,  and 
tavern,  grist  and  saw  mill,  and  an 
extensive  button  manufactory.  The 
country  about  it  is  sandy  and  poor; 
but  the  lots  in  the  village  are  careful- 
ly cultivated  and  productive.  Trade, 
wood  and  lumber.     Inhabitants,  375. 

CerfaryJZZe,  of  Caldwell  t-ship,  Es- 
sex CO.,  upon  Peekman's  run,  about 
2  miles  above  its  confluence  with  the 
Passaic  river.  There  are  here  seve- 
ral small  mills,  such  as  grist  mill,  saw 
mill,  and  cotton  factory. 

Centreville,  p-t.  of  Pittsgrove  t-ship, 
Salem  co.,  upon  Muddy  run,  and  upon 
the  line  dividing  Salem  from  Cumber- 
land CO.,  17  miles  S.  E.  from  Salem 
town,  and  75  S.  from  Trenton;  con- 
tains some  12  or  15  dwellings,  ta- 
vern, store,  and  school  house. 

Centreinlle,  East  Windsor  t-ship, 
Middlesex  co.,  upon  the  turnpike  road 
from  Bordentown  to  Cranberry,  9 
miles  from  the  foi'mer,  and  18  miles 
S.  W.  from  New  Brunswick,  contains 
a  tavern  and  several  dwellings. 

Centreville,     small      village,     of 


Knowlton  t-ship,  Warren  co.,  on  the 
road  leading  I'rom  Hope  to  Knowlton 
mills  and  Columbia;  about  4  miles 
from  the  first  and  last,  and  10  N.  E. 
from  Belvidere;  contains  a  tavern, 
store,  smith  shop,  Presbyterian  church, 
and  several  dwellings. 

Centreville  Post-Office,  Hunter- 
don CO.;  by  post  route,  189  miles 
from  W.  C,  and  30  from  Trenton. 

Chambers^  Brook,  tributary  of  the 
north  branch  of  the  Raritan,  and  S. 
E.  boundary  of  Bedminster  t-ship, 
Somerset  co.,  rises  in  the  mountain  on 
the  E.,  and  flows  S.  W.,  about  4  miles 
to  its  recipient. 

Chambers'  Mill  Branch,  a  small 
stream,  rising  in  the  centre  of  Mon- 
tague t-ship,  Sussex  co.,  and  flowing 
westerly,  about  5  miles,  into  the  river 
Delaware.  It  gives  motion  to  several 
mills  near  its  mouth. 

Change  Water,  furnace,  on  the 
Musconetcong  creek,  in  Mansfield 
t-ship,  Warren  co.,  3  miles  from  the 
village  of  Mansfield,  and  10  S.  E. 
from  Belvidere,  the  county  town. 

Chai'lottesbiirg,  the  name  of  a  fur- 
nace, formerly  on  the  Pequannock 
creek,  Pompton  t-ship,  Bergen  co., 
now  in  ruins. 

Charleston,  small  village,  in  the 
N.  E.  part  of  Bethlehem  t-ship,  Hun- 
terdon CO.,  on  the  Musconetcong 
mountain,  13  miles  N.  of  Flemington. 
Charleston,  hamlet,  of  Kingwood 
t-ship,  Hunterdon  CO.,  10  miles  W\  of 
Flemington ;  contains  a  tavern,  store, 
and  several  dwellings. 

Chatham  t-ship,  Morris  co.,  bound- 
ed north  by  Hanover  t-ship ;  E.  and 
S.  E.  by  the  Passaic  river,  which 
separates  it  from  Livingston,  Spring- 
field and  New  Providence  t-ships, 
Sussex  CO. ;  W.  and  S.  by  Morris 
t-ship.  Centrally  distant,  S.  E.  from 
Morristown,  6  miles;  greatest  length, 
N.  andS.  9  miles,  breadth,  E.  and 
W.  5  miles;  area,  14,400;  surface 
undulating,  except  on  the  south, 
which  is  covered  by  Long  Hill. 
Black  Brook  rises  in  the  t-ship  and 
flows  W.  to  the  Passaic  river,  through 
Morris  t-ship.  Bottle  Hill,  Chatham, 
and   Columbia    are   villages    of  the 


CHE 


120 


CHE 


t-ship,  the  first  two  post-towns ;  popu- 
lation in  1830,  1865.  In  1832  there 
were  in  the  t-ship  340  taxablcs,  40 
single  men,  9  stores,  3  saw  mills,  and 
5  grist  mills,  5  distilleries,  1  fulling 
mill,  1  carding  engine,  254  horses 
and  mules,  and  1015  neat  cattle,  un- 
der 3  years  old;  and  the  t-ship  paid 
state  tax,  $248  35 ;  county  tax,  $556 
04 ;  poor  tax,  $600 ;  road  tax,  $600. 
The  turnpike  roads  from  Elizabeth- 
town  and  Newark  cross  this  t-ship  to 
Morristown. 

Chatham,  p-t.  of  Chatham  t-ship, 
Morris  co.,  on  the  road  from  Eliza- 
bethtown  to  Morristown,  10  miles 
from  the  one,  and  7 1  from  the  other  ; 
220  N.  E.  from  W.  C,  and  54  from 
Trenton ;  contains  1  Presbyterian  and 
1  Methodist  church,  an  academy,  3 
stores,  2  taverns,  a  grist  mill  and  saw 
mill,  and  between  40  and  50  dwell- 
ings. A  thriving  village,  with  neat 
dwellings,  surroundfd  by  a  pleasant, 
well  cultivated  country,  watered  by 
the  Passaic  river,  which  flows  through 
the  town. 

Cheapside,  agricultural  village,  of 
Livingston  t-ship,  Essex  co.,  on  the 
turnpike  road  from  Newark  to  Mor- 
ristown, 10  miles  VV.  of  the  former. 
Chccsequakc's  Creek,  with  several 
branches  flowing  into  the  Raritan 
bay,  about  3  miles  below  Ambov, 
Middlesex  co.,  drains  a  swamp  of 
considerable  extent. 

Chesnut  Neck,  strip  of  fast  land, 
lying  between  Little  Egg  Harbour 
river  and  Nacote  crcek^^  Calloway 
t-ship,  (ilnucester  co. 

Chesimt  Run,  small  branch  of  the 
Assunpink  creek,  Upper  Freehold 
t-ship,  Monmouth  co. 

Chester  t-ship,  Morris  co.,  bounded 
N.  by  Roxbury  t-ship,  N.  E.  by  Ran- 
dolph t-ship,  E.  by  Mondham  "t-ship, 
S.  by  Bodminster  t-ship,  Somerset 
CO.,  and  W.  by  Washington  t-ship. 
Centrally  distant  W.  from  Morris- 
town 12  miles;  greatest  length  N. 
and  S.  9,  breadth  E.  and  W.  6  miles; 
area,  18000  acres;  surface  rolling; 
soil  on  the  N.  loam,  on  the  S.  grey 
limestone,  under  good  cultivation; 
drained   on    the  W.   by  the   Black 


river,  and  on  the  E.  by  tributaries  of 
the  N.  brainch  of  the  Raritan  river ; 
population  in  1830,  1338.  In  1832 
the  t-ship  contained  324  taxables, 
whose  ratables  did  not  exceed  $30; 
23  single  men,  3  stores,  5  saw  mills, 
and  2  grist  mills,  4  distilleries,  1  forge, 
2  fulling  mills,  and  311  horses  and 
mules,  and  669  neat  cattle,  above  3 
years  of  age ;  and  paid  the  following 
taxes:  state,  $193  14;  county,  $432 
43;  poor  $400;  road,  $400. 

Chester  t-ship,  Burlington  co., 
bounded  N.  E.  by  the  Rancocus 
creek,  S.  E.  by  Evesham  t-ship,  S. 
W.  by  Pensauken  creek,  which  di- 
vides it  from  Gloucester  co.,  Water- 
ford  t-ship,  and  N.  W.  by  the  river 
Delaware.  Centrally  distant  S.  W. 
from  Mount  Holly  9  miles;  great- 
est length  7,  breadth  6  miles ;  area, 
22,000  acres;  surface  level;  soil  sand 
and  sandy  loam,  of  good  quality,  ge- 
nerally, well  cultivated,  and  produc- 
tive of  grass,  grain,  vegetables,  and 
fruits.  Beside  the  streams  already 
mentioned,  the  t-ship  is  drained  by 
the  N.  branch  of  Pensauken  creek, 
by  Pompeston  creek,  and  Swede's 
branch,  the  last  two  emptying  imme- 
diately into  the  Delaware.  All  are 
mill  streams.  The  Rancocus  Draw- 
bridge, Westfield,  and  Moorestown, 
are  villages  of  the  t-ship,  the  last  a 
post-town;  population  in  1830,  2333. 
In  1832  the  t-ship  contained  taxables 
524,  householders  205,  whose  rata- 
bles did  not  exceed  $30 ;  single  men 
96,  stores  8,  fisheries  5,  grist  mills  3, 
saw  mills  6,  tan  vats  27,  carding 
machines  2,  distilleries  for  cider  3, 
coaches  and  chariots  7,  two  horse 
stages  2,  dearborns  52,  covered  wa- 
gons 90,  chairs  and  curricles  30,  gigs 
and  sulkies  22,  neat  cattle  1060,  and 
horses  and  mules  570,  over  3  years 
of  age ;  and  it  paid  state  tax,  $336  38; 
county,  $1173  91;  and  road  tax, 
$1100. 

Chester,  p-t.  of  Chester  t-ship, 
Morris  co.,  on  the  turnpike  road  lead- 
ing from  Morristown  to  Easton,  13 
miles  N.  W.  from  the  former,  50  N. 
E.  from  Trenton,  and  216  from  W. 
C;  at  the  foot  of  a  low  isolated  moun- 


CLA 


121 


CLI 


tain, which  covers  it  on  the  north;  it 
extends  along  the  road  for  more  than 
a  mile,  and  contains  1  Presbyterian, 
and  1  Congregational  church,  2  ta- 
verns, 3  stores,  and  about  30  dwell- 
ings, and  lies  upon,  or  near,  a  vein  of 
gi'cy  limestone. 

Chesterfield  t-ship,  Burlington  co., 
bounded  N.  W.  and  N.  by  Cross- 
wick's  creek,  which  divides  it  from 
Nottingham  t-ship,  S.  E.  by  Hanover 
t-ship,  S.  W.  by  Bacon's  run  and 
Black's  creek,  and  W.  by  the  river 
Delaware.  Centrally  distant  N.  E. 
from  Mount  Holly  12  miles;  greatest 
length  N.  and  S.  8  miles;  greatest 
breadth  E.  and  W.  6  miles ;  surface 
level;  soil,  generally,  sandy,  mixed 
with  clay  and  loam ;  drained  by  the 
creeks  mentioned,  which  flow  to  the 
Delaware  river,  the  bank  of  which  is 
here  considerably  elevated,  giving  a 
picturesque  appearance  to  the  country, 
especially  at  and  near  Bordcntown. 
Bordentown  and  Recklesstown  are  the 
post-towns,  and  only  villages  of  the 
t-ship;  population  in  1830,  2386.  In 
1832  the  t-ship  contained  554  taxa- 
bles,  whose  ratables  did  not  exceed 
$30  ;  75  single  men,  1030  neat  cattle, 
and  510  horses,  above  3  years  old; 
10  stores,  1  saw  mill,  2  grist  mills, 
40  tan  vats,  6  distilleries  for  cider,  2 
coaches  and  chariots,  3  phaetons  and 
chaises,  7 'four  horse  stages,  10  two 
horse  stages,  41  dearborns,  58  cover- 
ed wagons,  8  chairs  and  curricles,  17 
gigs  and  sulkies ;  and  it  paid  state 
tax,  $346  49;  county  tax,  $1216  32 
and  t-ship  tax,  $1000. 

Cheio^s  Landing,  p-t.  of  Glouces- 
ter t-ship,  Gloucester  co.,  upon  the 
N.  branch  of  Big  Timber  creek,  at 
the  head  of  navigation,  9  miles  S. 
E.  from  Camden,  and  6  N.  E.  from 
Woodbury,  41  S.  E.  from  Trenton, 
and  1 49  N.  E.  from  W.  C.  It  is  a  place 
of  considerable  business  in  lumber 
and  cord  wood,  and  contains  2  stores, 
2  taverns,  2  grist  mills,  and  between 
30  and  40  dwellings,  1  Episcopal  and 
1  Methodist  church. 

Clarke sburg,  hamlet,  of  Upper 
Freehold  t-ship,  Monmouth  co.,  on 
the  road  from  Wrightsvillc  to  Free- 


hold  court-house,  12  miles  from  the 
latter,  and  20  from  Trenton  ;  contains 
some  half  dozen  dwellings,  store  and 
tavern. 

Clarkesborough,  p-t.  of  Greenwich 
t-ship,  Gloucester  co.,  5  miles  S.  W. 
from  Woodbury,  44  from  Trenton, 
and  150  from  W.  C;  contains  a  store, 
tavern,  and  from  25  to  30  dwellings ; 
and  within  2  miles  S.  W.  there  is  a 
Friend's  meeting  house. 

Clarkesville,  (formerly  called  So- 
dom) p-t.  of  Lebanon  t-ship,  Hunter- 
don CO.,  on  Spruce  run,  and  on  the 
Musconetcong  mountain,  on  the  west- 
ern line  of  the  t-ship,  14  miles  N.  of 
Flemington,  37  from  Trenton ;  con- 
tains 1  tavern  and  store,  2  saw  mills, 
2  grist  mills,  and  6  or  8  dwellings; 
the  surface  is  very  rough  and  stony, 
but  parts  are  productive ;  iron  abounds 
in  the  mountain,  and  plumbago  is  also 
found  in  several  places  upon  it,  near 
the  village. 

Clarkesville,  small  hamlet,  of  West 
Windsor  t-ship,  Middlesex  co.,  on 
the  straight  turnpike  road  from  Tren- 
ton to  Brunswick,  7  miles  N.  E.  from 
the  one,  and  18  S.  W.  from  the  other; 
contains  2  taverns,  and  6  or  8  dwell- 
ings ;  soil  good,  and  country  pleasant 
around  it. 

Clementon,  village,  of  Gloucester 
t-ship,  Gloucester  co.,  on  a  branch  of 
Big  Timber  creek,  5  miles  above 
Chew's  landing,  10  miles  S.  E.  of 
Woodbury,  and  13  from  Camden; 
contained  formerly  some  glass  works, 
at  present  1  tavern,  store,  grist  and 
saw  mills,  and  some  12  or  15  dwell- 
ings ;  marl  abounds  in  the  vicinity, 
and  is  advantageously  used  upon  the 
soil. 

Clinton,  formerly  called  Hunt's 
Mills,  p-t.,  of  Hunterdon  co.,  on  the 
south  branch  of  Raritan  river,  at  the 
point  of  junction  of  Lebanon,  Bethle- 
hem, and  Kingwood  t-ships,  lying 
partly  in  each,  and  on  the  turnpike 
road  leading  from  Somerville  to  Eas- 
ton ;  about  20  miles  from  the  former, 
and  17  from  the  latter;  10  miles  N. 
E.  from  Flemington,  33  from  Tren- 
ton, and  210  from  W.  C.  The  town 
is  built  in  a  valley  surrounded  on  all 


CLO 


122 


COL 


sides  by  liills,  which  on  the  N.  N.  E.  I 
and  N.  W.,  approach  closely  to  it, 
but  are  more  distant  on  the  south.  It 
contains  1  Presbyterian  church,  1 
common  Enghsh,  and  a  Sunday 
school,  2  large  grist  mills,  2  runs  oi' 
stones  each,  an  oil  mill,  at  which  from 
8000  to  10,000  bushels  of  flaxseed 
are  annu;illy  manufactured,  a  wool- 
len manufactory,  with  fulling  mill 
and  cards  for  country  work,  3  stores, 
3  taverns,  and  35  dwellings.  The 
fall  used  at  the  water-works  here,  is 
85  feet  only,  but  a  very  great  power 
may  be  obtained,  the  stream  having  a 
very  rapid  descent,  and  large  volume. 
The  surrounding  country  is  very  fer- 
tile, and  carefully  tilled,  being  enrich- 
ed by  lime  made  from  a  grey  stone, 
which  in  a  broad  vein  skirts  the  Mus- 
conetcong  mountain,  and  which  rises 
in  cliffs  at  the  village,  nearly  100  feet 
high.  The  average  product  in  wheat 
here,  is  rated  at  18  bushels  the  acre, 
and  fr<jm  the  best  farms  25  bushels 
the  acre  are  obtained.  Iron  ore,  and 
pliunbago,  abound  in  the  neighbour- 
ing mountain,  and  the  inhabitants 
look  for  increased  prosperity  from  a 
rail-road  contemplated  to  be  made 
through  their  town,  leading  from 
Elizabethtown  to  Belvidere.  The 
town  lies  177  feet  above  tide  water. 
By  act  of  19th  February,  1833,  au- 
thority was  given  to  incorporate  a 
company  for  any  species  of  ma- 
nufacture here,  with  a  capital  of 
$120,000. 

Clinton  Forge,  Pompton  t-sliip, 
Bergen  co.,  on  a  small  stream  flowing 
from  Hanks,  Cedar,  and  Buck  ponds, 
and  em])tying  into  Pequannock  creek, 
28  milrs  N.  W.  from  ITackensack. 

Cloiiinfll  Creek,  small  stream  of 
Greenwich  t-ship,  Gloucester  co., 
flow  ing  by  a  course  of  2  or  3  miles 
into  the  Delaware  river,  opposite  to 
Little  Tinicuin  island. 

Clonfer,  village,  of  Ilackmsack 
t-sliip,  Bergen  co.,  4i  miles  N.  E.  of 
llackensack  town,  near  the  W.  foot 
of  the  Palisaile  [(ills,  surrounded  by  a 
soil  of  rich  loam,  contains  a  tavern,  a 
store,  and  from  12  to  15  dwellings. 

Closter  Mountain,  part  of  the  Ber- 


gen ridge,  Bergen  co.,  Hackensack 
a)id  Harrington  t-ships,  forming  the 
right  bank  of  the  North  river,  and 
the  Palisades.  Its  formation  is  trap, 
resting  upon  red  and  grey  sandstone. 
Height  about  400  feet;  the  eastern 
side  precipitous,  the  west  gently  de- 
clining; thickly  settled  and  well  cul- 
tivated; the  top  generally  covered 
with  wood. 

Cloi^e  River.  (See  Deep  Clove 
River.) 

Clove  Church,  on  the  bank  of 
Clove  river.  Wantage  t-ship,  Sus- 
sex CO. 

Cohansey  River,  rises  in  Upper 
Alloways  creek  t-ship,  Salem  co.,  its 
head  waters  interlocking  with  those  of 
Alloways  creek.  It  flows,  thence,  by  a 
due  S.  course  of  15  miles,  by  Bridge- 
ton,  forming  the  division  line  between 
Deerfield  and  Hopewell  t-ships,  Cum- 
berland CO.,  into  Fairfield  t-ship; 
turning,  thence,  westerly,  it  runs 
about  8  miles  to  the  town  of  Green- 
wich, and  thence  by  a  meandering 
course  S.  W.  of  7  or  8  miles,  it  unites 
with  the  Delaware  bay.  The  river 
is  banked  in,  above  Greenwich,  to 
which  place  it  is  navigable  for  large 
brigs  and  schooners;  vessels  of  80 
tons  burthen  ascend  to  Bridgeton,  20 
miles  from  the  mouth.  Above  Bridge- 
ton  the  stream  is  not  navigable,  but 
affords  a  very  valuable  Wciter  power, 
which  is  used  at  the  town  for  driving 
a  rolling  and  slitting  mill,  nail  factory, 
and  gristmill,  &c.  &c.  (See  Bridge- 
ton.) 

Cohansey  Core,  bay  of  the  Cohan- 
sey creek,  Fairfield  t-ship,  Cumber- 
land CO.,  an  inlet  from  the  Delaware 
bay. 

Cold  Spring  Inlet,  Lower  t-ship, 
Ca]ie  May  co.,  l)etween  Two  Mile 
Beach,  and  Poverty  Beach,  upon  the 
Atlantic  sea-board.  It  is  less  than 
half  a  mile  in  width.  It  has  its  name 
from  a  spring  about  3  or  4  miles 
inland,  which  sends  its  tribute  to  the 
ocean  by  this  passage. 

Cold  Spring,  p-t.,oi'howeT  t-ship, 
Cape  May  co.  Centrally  situated  on 
the  road  to  Cape  May  Island,  i)  miles 
S.  from  Cape  May  court-house,  112 


COL 


123 


COP 


from  Trenton,  and  117  N.  E.  from 
W.  C. ;  contains  1  tavern,  2  stores, 
trom  15  to  20  dwellings,  and  an  Epis- 
copal church.  It  derives  its  name 
from  a  remarkble  spring  near  it, 
which  rises  in  the  marsh,  and  is 
overflowed  at  every  tide. 

Cold  Brook,  small  tributary  of 
Lamington  river,  flowing  into  it  S.  W. 
from  Tewkesbury  t-ship,  Hunterdon 
CO.,  by  a  course  of  about  4  miles, 
giving  motion  to  a  mill  near  its 
mouth. 

Cold  Branch,  tributary  of  Hospi- 
tality creek,  an  arm  of  the  Great  Egg 
Harbour  river,  Hamilton  t-ship,  Glou- 
cester CO. 

Colestoion,  hamlet,  of  Evesham 
t-ship,  Burlington  co.,  12  miles  S.W. 
of  Mount  Holly,  and  3  from  Moores- 
town;  contains  an  Episcopal  church 
and  several  dwellings. 

Collard  Branch,  of  the  west  arm 
of  Wading  river,  rises  in  Northamp- 
ton t-ship,  Burlington  co.,  and  flows 
S.  W.  about  8  miles,  to  its  recipient, 
in  Washington  t-ship,  at  the  head  of 
the  mill  pond  of  Martha  furnace. 

CoWs  Neck,  p-t.,  Shrewsbury 
t-ship,  Monmouth  co.,  6  miles  N.  E. 
of  Freehold,  206  from  W.  C,  and  41 
from  Trenton;  contains  from  15  to 
20  dwellings,  1  tavern,  2  stores,  3 
grist  mills,  2  saw  mills,  a  place  of 
considerable  business,  on  a  soil  of 
red  and  fertile  sand. 

Columbia,  village,  of  Chatham 
t-ship,  Morris  co.,  on  the  turnpike 
road  from  Newark  to  Morristown,  1 3 
miles  from  the  one,  and  4  from  the 
other ;  contains  1  store,  1  tavei-n, 
and  5  or  6  dwellings,  in  a  level  plea- 
sant country. 

Columbia  Forge,  on  Lubber  run, 
centrally  situate  in  Byram  t-ship, 
Sussex  CO. 

Columbia,  p-t.  and  village,  of 
Knowlton  t-ship,  on  the  Delaware 
river,  near  the  mouth  of  Paulinskill, 
distant  253  miles  from  W.  C,  94 
from  Ticnton,  and  10  from  Belvi- 
dere ;  contains  2  taverns,  a  store,  a 
Presbyterian  church,  a  glass  house, 
a  saw  mill,  and  20  dwellings.  The 
town  is  prettily  situated  on  a  high 


bank  of  the  river,  and  surrounded  by 
a  limestone  soil,  tolerably  well  culti- 
vated. A  company  was  incorporated 
by  act  of  12ih  February,  1833,  with 
authority  to  employ  $100,000  in  the 
conduct  of  the  glass  works  here. 

Columbia,  p-t.,  of  Hopewell  t-ship, 
Hunterdon  co.,  on  the  turnj)iko  road 
from  New  Brunswick  to  Lambert- 
ville,  10  miles  S.  E.  from  Fleming- 
ton,  17  N.  from  Trenton,  formerly 
called  Hopewell  Meeting  House ;  con- 
tains 1  Baptist  meeting,  2  taverns,  1 
store,  and  10  or  12  dwellings. 

Columbus,  or  Black  Horse,  p-t., 
of  Mansfield  t-ship,  Burlington  co.,  7 
miles  N.  E.  of  Mount  Holly,  5  S.  E. 
from  Bordentown,  13  from  Trenton, 
and  163  from  W.  C;  contains  a  ta- 
vern, store,  and  about  30  dwellings, 
surrounded  by  a  fertile  country. 

Communipaw,  village,  on  New 
York  bay,  2  miles  S.  of  Jersey  city, 
Bergen  t-ship,  Bergen  co.,  one  of  the 
earliest  settlements  of  the  Dutch,  and 
remarkable  for  the  tenacious  adhe- 
rence of  its  inhabitants  to  their  pri- 
mitive costume  and  manners;  some 
15  or  20  dwellings,  whose  inhabi- 
tants are  chiefly  agriculturists. 

Congassa  Run,  tributary  of  the  S. 
branch  of  Toms'  river,  Dover  t-ship, 
Monmouth  co. 

Coope.r''s  Creek,  Gloucester  co., 
rises  by  two  branches,  the  N.  near 
the  E.  boundary  of  the  county,  and 
the  S.  on,  and  forming,  the  line  be- 
tween Waterford  and  Newton  and 
Gloucester  t-ships,  uniting  N.  of 
Haddonficld,  above  which  the  stream 
is  not  navigable.  There  are  mills  on 
both  branches  near  their  sources. 

Cooperstoirn,  Willingboro'  t-ship, 
Burlington  co.,  7  miles  N.  W.  from 
Mount^Holly,  and  3  S.  W.  from  Bur- 
lington ;  contains  a  Friends'  meeting 
house,  tavern,  store,  and  8  or  10 
dw'ellings. 

Copperas  Mountain,  Pequannock 
t-ship,  Morris  co.,  on  the  S.  W.  side 
of  Greenpond  valley,  thus  named  on 
account  of  the  large  quantity  of  the 
sulphate  of  iron  found  here,  and  which 
was  formerly  made  into  the  copperas 
of  commerce. 


CRA 


124 


CRO 


Corson's  Inlet,  a  passage  of  the 
sea,  through  the  beach,  to  the  la- 
gunes  and  marshes  of  Upper  t-ship, 
Cape  May  co.,  about  half  a  mile  in 
width. 

Coursenville,  p-t.  of  Stillwater 
t-ship,  Sussex  CQ.,  distant  by  post- 
route  from  W.  C.  2S9  miles,  I'rom 
Trenton  81  miles,  and  from  Newton, 
S.  W.,  five  miles;  contains  a  store 
and  some  half  dozen  dwellings;  ad- 
jacent country,  slate. 

Cove,  small  village  of  Upper  Penn''s- 
ncck  t-ship,  Salem  co.,  about  12  or 
13  miles  N.  of  Salem,  and  2  S.  of 
Penn's  Grove,  on  the  river  Delaware; 
contains  8  dwellings,  a  tavern  and 
store. 

Cox  Hall  Creek,  small  stream  of 
Lower  t-ship,  Cape  May  co.,  flowing 
into  the  Delaware  bay. 

Crabtoicn,  Howell  t-ship,  Mon- 
mouth CO.;  contains  10  or  12  dwell- 
ings, 2  taverns,  and  a  store. 

Craft's  Creek,  Mansfield  t-ship, 
Burlington  co. ;  rises  near  the  eastern 
border  of  the  t-ship,  and  flows  W. 
and  N.  W.  about  9  miles  to  the  river 
Delaware,  opposite  the  lower  point  of 
Newbold's  island.  By  act  of  assem- 
bly passed  11th  February,  1833,  au- 
thority was  given  to  mak(>  a  rail  or 
Macadamized  road  from  the  mouth  of 
this  creek  to  the  neighbourhood  of 
New  Lisbon,  a  distance  of  13  miles 
39  chains. 

Cranberry  p-t.,  lying  partly  in 
South  Brunswick  t-ship,  and  partly 
in  South  Amboy  t-ship,  Middlesex 
CO.,  on  the  turnpike  road  leading 
from  Bordentown  to  South  Amboy, 
16  miles  from  tlic  former,  185  from 
W.  C,  and  15  from  Trenton;  plea- 
santly situated  in  a  level  country,  and 
light  sandy  soil ;  contains  a  Presby- 
terian church  with  cupola  and  bell, 
an  academy,  a  grist  mill,  2  tanne- 
ries, 3  taverns,  2  stores,  and  from 
60  to  80  dwellings.  Cranberry  brook, 
tributary  of  the  Millstone  river,  flows 
through  the  town. 

Cranberry    Inlet,    formerly    from 
the  ocean  to  Barnegat  Bay,  between 
Island  beach  and  Squam  beach. 
Crane's  Gap,  in  the  first  moun- 


tain, Bloomfield  t-ship,  Essex  co., 
through  which  passes  the  turnpike 
road  from  Newark  to  Rockaway. 

Craven'' s  Ferry,  p-o.,  Salem  co. 

Cropivell,  village  of  Evesham  t-sp, 
Burlington  co.,  near  the  western 
boundary,  11  miles  S.  W.  of  Mount 
Holly;  contains  a  tavern,  store,  12 
or  15  dwellings,  and  a  Quaker  meet- 
ing house;  soil,  sandy  loam. 

Cross  Keys,  hamlet  of  Trenton 
t-ship,  Hunterdon  co.,  on  the  road 
from  Trenton  to  Pennington;  con- 
tains 4  or  5  dwellings. 

Cross  Creeks,  name  given  to  small 
tributaries  of  Back  creek,  Fairfield 
t-ship,  Cumberland  co.,  near  the  De- 
laware bay,  which  intersect  each 
other. 

Cross  Roads,  Bedminster  t-ship, 
Somerset  co.,  between  7  and  8  miles 
N.  W.  of  Somerville,  on  Artie's 
brook,  in  a  level,  fertile,  limestone 
country ;  contains  a  store,  tavern,  and 
5  or  6  dwellings. 

Cross  Roads,  hamlet  of  South 
Brunswick  t-ship,  Middlesex  co.,  9 
miles  S.  W.  Irom  New  Brunswick; 
contains  2  taverns,  a  store,  and  seve- 
ral dwellings;  soil,  light  and  sandy. 

Cross  Roads,  hamlet  of  Evesham 
t-ship,  Burlington  co.,  8  miles  S. 
from  Mount  Holly;  contains  a  ta- 
vern, a  store,  a  Methodist  church, 
and  8  or  10  dwellings;  soil,  sandy 
loam. 

Crosstmck''s  Creek,  the  Indian  name 
of  which  is  said  to  be  Clossweeksvnk, 
a  separation,  rises  by  two  branches, 
the  north  in  Hanover  t-ship,  Bur- 
lington CO.,  near  Wrightstown ;  and 
the  south  in  Upper  Freehold,  Mon- 
mouth CO.,  uniting  in  the  latter  t-ship 
and  county  near  New  Eijypt,  thence 
running  northerly  antl  north  westerly 
across  Chesterfield  t-ship,  Burlington 
CO.,  to  the  River  Delaware,  at  Bor- 
dtmtown.  It  is  a  steady  and  service- 
able mill-stream,  whose  course  is  se- 
micircular, and  in  length  about  25 
miles ;  it  is  navigable  to  Grove  Mill, 
about  6  miles  from  the  mouth  ;  marl 
is  frequently  found  on  its  banks. 

Crosswicks,  p-t.  of  Chesterfield 
t-ship,  Burlington  co.,  on  the  high 


CUM 


125 


CUM 


southern  bank  of  Crosswick's  creek, 
4  miles  E.  from  Bordentown,  14  N. 
E.  from  Mount  Holly,  174  from 
W.  C,  and  8  S.  E.  from  Trenton  ; 
contains  from  40  to  50  dwellings,  a 
very  large  Quaker  meeting  house  and 
school,  4  taverns,  5  or  6  stores,  a  saw 
mill  and  grist  mill ;  the  village  is 
pleasantly  situated  in  a  fertile  coun- 
try, whose  soil  is  sandy  loam ;  near 
the  town  is  a  bed  of  iron  ore,  from 
which  considerable  quantities  are 
taken  to  the  furnaces  in  the  lower 
part  of  the  county. 

Culverts  Pond,  Frankford  t-ship, 
Sussex  CO.,  at  the  foot  of  the  Blue 
mountain  ;  one  of  the  western  sources 
of  the  Paulinskill. 

Culverts  Gap,  in  the  Blue  moun- 
tain, between  Sandistone  and  Frank- 
ford  t-ships,  Sussex  co.,  through 
which  the  turnpike  road  from  Milford 
passes ;  distant  from  Newton  N.  W. 
10  miles. 

Cumberland  County,  was  taken  al- 
together from  Salem,  by  the  act  of 
19th  January,  1748,  with  the  follow- 
ing boundaries.  Beginning  at  the 
mouth  of  Stow  creek,  thence  up  the 
creek  to  John  Buck's  mills,  leaving 
the  mills  in  this  county;  thence  up 
Stow  creek  branch  to  the  house  of 
Hugh  Dunn,  leaving  such  house  with- 
■  in  the  new  county;  thence  by  a 
straight  line  to  Nathan  Shaw's  house, 
also  within  the  new  county;  thence 
by  a  N.  E.  course,  intersecting  the 
Pilesgrove  line ;  thence  leaving  Piles- 
grove,  in  Salem  co.,  along  such  line 
till  it  intersects  the  line  dividing  the 
counties  of  Gloucester  and  Salem ; 
thence  S.  E.  down  the  Gloucester 
line  to  the  boundaries  of  Cape  May 
CO.;  thence  by  such  county  to  the 
Delaware  bay,  and  up  the  bay  to  the 
place  of  beginning.  By  the  same 
act,  the  county  was  divided  into  six 
precincts  or  townships,  viz.  Green- 
wich, Hopewell,  Stow  creek,  Fair- 
field, Deerfield,  and  Maurice  river; 
to  which  Milleville,  taken  from  Mau- 
rice river  and  Fairfield  t-ships,  in 
1801,  and  Downe  t-ship,  have  been 
since  added.  The  county  is  bounded 
by  the  Delaware  bay  on  the  S.  S.  W., 


Salem  co.  N.  W.,  Gloucester  N.  E., 
and  Cape  May  co.  on  the  S.  E.  Its 
greatest  length  is  about  30  miles  N. 
and  S.,  and  breadth  30  miles  E.  and 
W. ;  area,  524  square  miles,  or 
33,500  acres ;  central  lat.  39°  20'  N. ; 
Long.  2°  E.  from  W.  C. 

Geologically  considered,  Cumber- 
land CO.  belongs  to  the  belt  of  dilu- 
vial and  alluvial  formation,  which  ex- 
tends along  the  continent  of  North 
America,  ti-om  Long  Island  to  the 
Gulf  of  Mexico,  and  contains  in 
place,  the  deposits  of  greenish  blue 
marl,  intermixed  with  shells,  similar 
to  those  found  in  the  limestone  and 
grauwacke  of  the  transition,  and 
abundantly  in  the  secondary  horizon- 
tal limestone  and  sandstone,  with  beds 
of  bog  iron  ore,  and  ochre.  The  ele- 
vated ridges  between  the  streams,  are 
crowned  in  places  with  sandstone 
and  puddingstone  cemented  with  iron 
ore.  The  marl  beds  yet  developed, 
lie  chiefly  on  Stow  creek,  and  the 
iron  ore  in  Greenwich  t-ship.  The 
marl  is  used  for  manure  with  much 
advantage  upon  the  lighter  soils,  and 
its  use  is  daily  extending.  The  sur- 
face of  the  country  is  generally  flat ; 
the  soil  south  of  Cohansey  creek  is 
generally  sandy.  A  salt  marsh  ex- 
tends along  the  Delaware  bay,  in 
breadth  from  half  a  mile  to  two 
miles,  adjoining  which,  eastwardly, 
is  a  strip  of  clay  and  loam,  having  an 
average  width  of  about  a  mile,  tole- 
rably fertile  and  covered  with  fai'ms. 
A  prolific  marsh  borders  the  creeks, 
which  are  embanked,  at  various  dis- 
tances from  their  mouths,  and  em- 
ployed for  grazmg  cattle.  The 
northern  part  of  the  county,  particu- 
larly, that  portion  of  it  lying  north 
and  west  of  the  Cohansey  creek,  is 
composed  of  clay  and  sandy  loam, 
on  which  considerable  quantities  of 
wheat,  oats  and  corn,  are  grown. 
The  timber  above  Cohansey,  consists 
of  white  oak,  black  and  red  oak,  and 
hickory,  which  also  characterize  the 
clay  and  loam  of  the  western  belt. 

I  Below  Cohansey,  it  is  generally  pine ; 
forests  of  which  cover  the  greater 
portion  of  the  eastern   part  of  the 


CUM 


126 


CUM 


county,  which,  having  been  generally 
once,  at  least,  cut  over,  are  now  in 
various  stages  of  growth. 

The  principal  streams  are  Stow 
creek  on  the  N.  W.  boundary;  Co- 
hansey  creek  in  the  N.  W.  section, 
Maurice  river  running  centrally 
through  the  co.,  and  Tuckahoe  river 
upon  the  east. 

The  chief  towns  are  Bridgeton,  the 
seat  of  justice,  Greenwich,  Deerfield, 
Roadstown,  Millville,  Port  Elizabeth, 
Nantuxet,  or  Newport,  Dividing 
Creek,  Mauricetown,  Bricksboro', 
Dorchester,  Leesburg,  and  Marshall- 
ville,  or  Cumberland  Works,  Ccdar- 
ville,  and  Fairton. 

There  are  in  the  county  2  fur- 
naces, one  at  Millville,  and  the  other 
above  Port  Elizabeth,  on  the  Mana- 
muskin  creek;  and  three  extensive 
glass  manufactories,  one  at  Millville, 
one  at  Port  Elizabeth,  and  the  third 
at  Marshall ville.  At  the  last  place, 
and  on  Maurice  river,  there  is  con- 
siderable ship  building,  in  vessels  of 
from  50  to  100  tons  burthen.  Large 
quantities  of  grain  are  exported  from 
Bridgeton,  and  timber  and  cordwood 
from  every  creek  of  the  county. 

The  religious  sects  are  Episcopali- 
ans, Presbyterians,  Baptists,  Metho- 
dists, and  Quakers. 

A  county  Bible  society  holds  its 
meetings  at  Bridgeton,  and  tempe- 
rance societies  have  been  established 
with  great  success  in  the  townships. 
The  provisions  for  education  consist 
of  an  academy  at  Bridgeton,  another 
at  Port  Elizabeth,  and  common 
schools  in  the  several  towns  and 
townships. 


The  inhabitants  of  the  county  are 

derived  chiefly  from  English,  Swiss, 
and  German  settlers ;  and  it  is  proba- 
ble, from  several  circumstances,  that 
a  colony  of  Puritans,  from  Newhaven, 
was  settled  near  the  margin  of  the 
Delaware  so  early  as  1640,  some  of 
whose  descendants  may  yet  remain. 

By  the  census  of  1830,  the  popula- 
tion amounted  to  14,093,  of  whom 
6723  were  white  males;  6582  white 
females ;  2  female  slaves ;  431  free 
coloured  males;  355  free  coloured 
females ;  of  which  27  were  aliens,  4 
deaf  and  dumb,  and  7  blind. 

By  the  abstract  of  the  assessors, 
there  were,  in  1832,  in  the  county, 
2742  taxables,  774  householders, 
whose  ratables  did  not  exceed  $30 ; 
33  single  men;  54  storekeepers,  or 
merchants;  two  fisheries,  1  woollen 
manufactory,  1  cupola  furnace,  2 
blast  furnaces,  44  runs  of  stones  for 
grinding  grain,  21  saw  mills,  1  forge, 
1  rolling  and  slitting  mill,  1  fulling 
mill,  6  tanneries,  4  glass  manufacto- 
ries, 4  distilleries  for  cider,  2053 
horses,  5713  neat  cattle,  above  the 
age  of  3  years,  and  9  stud  horses. 

By  the  act  of  3d  November,  1814, 
the  county  sends  3  members  to  the 
Assembly,  1  member  to  Council. 

The  courts  of  common  pleas  and 
general  quai'ter  sessions,  are  holden 
annually  at  Bridgeton,  on  the  third 
Tuesday  of  February,  the  fourth 
Tuesday  of  September,  the  first  Tues- 
day of  June,  and  the  last  Tuesday  of 
Nov.  The  circuit  court  is  holden 
at  the  same  place  on  the  first  Tuesday 
of  June,  and  last  Tuesday  of  Novem- 
ber, annually. 


DEC  127  DEE 

STATISTICAL  TABLE  OF  CUMBERLAND  COUNTY. 


^ 

-a 

Population. 

Townships. 

^ 

Area. 

Surface 

J 

n 

generally  level. 

1810 

1820 

1830 

Deerfield, 

11 

9 

34,000 

1889 

1903 

2417 

Downe, 

14 

iM 

58,240 

1501 

1749 

1923 

Fairfield, 

15 

s 

46,720 

2279 

1869 

1812 

Greenwich, 

7 

6 

13,440 

858 

890 

912 

Hopewell, 

10 

6 

20,000 

1987 

1952 

1953 

Maurice  River, 

19 

11 

79,360 

2085 

2411 

2724 

Milleville, 

16 

16 

73,500 

1032 

1010 

1561 

Stow  Creek, 

7 

6 

10,240 

1039 

884 

791 

335,460 

12,670 

12,668 

14,093 

Cumberland  Furnace,  on  Mana- 
muskin  ci-eek,  Maurice  river  t-ship, 
about  5  miles  above  Port  Elizabeth, 
and  17  east  of  Bridgeton. 

Cumberland  Works,  (See  Mar- 
shallville.) 

Daretotvn,  Pittsgrove  t-ship,  Salem 
CO.,  near  the  N.  W.  boundary,  on  the 
head  waters  of  Salem  river,  13  miles, 
a  little  N.  of  E.  from  Salemtown; 
contains  12  or  14  dwellings,  2  stores, 
one  Presbyterian,  and  one  Methodist 
church. 

Dead  River,  a  tributary  of  the 
Passaic  river,  rising  by  several  branch- 
es in  the  Mine  mountain  of  Bernard 
t-ship,  Somerset  co.,  and  flowing 
E.  to  its  recipient,  along  the  N.  base 
of  Stony  Hill ;  including  Harrison's 
brook,  its  longest  branch,  its  length 
may  be  about  9  miles. 

I)ayton''s  Bridge,  post-ofRce,  Sa- 
lem county. 

Danville,  post-office,  Warren  co. 

Deal,  small  hamlet,  and  watering 
place,  220  miles  N.  E.  from  W.  C^ 
and  64  from  Trenton,  on  Poplar 
Swamp  creek,  about  a  mile  from  the 
sea,  in  Shrewsbury  t-ship,  Monmouth 
CO.,  16  miles  E.  from  Freehold,  and 
f3  S.  of  Long  Branch  boarding  houses. 
There  are  several  boarding  houses  at 
this  place,  where  from  50  to  100  per- 
sons may  be  comfortably  accommo- 
dated. 

Deckerfown,  p-t.,  of  Wantage 
t-ship,  Sussex  co.,  at  the  intersection 
of  the  Newton  and  Bolton,  with  the 
Paterson     and     Hamburg    turnpike 


road;  244  miles  from  W.  C,  86 
from  Trenton,  and  14  from  Newton. 
The  town  contains  a  grist  mill,  a 
Presbyterian  church,  4  stores,  2  ta- 
verns, and  from  15  to  20  dwellings, 
and  lies  in  a  rich  limestone  country. 

Deej)  Brook,  Caldwell  t-ship,  Es- 
sex CO.,  rises  in  the  Second  mountain, 
and  flows  N.  to  the  Passaic  river, 
having  a  semicircular  course  of  3 
or  4  miles,  and  receiving  a  small  tri- 
butary, called  Green  Brook. 

Deep  Creek,  Lower  Alloways 
creek  t-ship,  Salem  co.,  rises  in  that 
t-ship,  and  flows  S.  W.,  a  meander- 
ing course,  through  the  meadows  and 
marshes  for  7  or  8  miles,  to  the  Dela- 
ware.    It  is  not  navigable. 

Deep  Creek,  Shrewsbury  t-ship, 
Monmouth  co.,  makes  in  from  the 
ocean,  between  1  and  2  miles ;  less 
than  a  mile  above  Shark  inlet. 

Deep  Clove  River,  a  tributary  of 
Wallkill  river;  rises  at  the  east  foot 
of  the  mountain,  in  Wantage  t-ship, 
and  flows  S.  E.  by  a  course  of  12 
miles,  to  its  recipient;  receiving  from 
the  S.  W.  the  Papakating  creek,  a 
short  distance  below  Deckertown. 
There  are  several  mills  on  both  these 
streams. 

Deep,  or  Great  Rtm,  a  tributary 
of  the  Great  Egg  Harbour  river, 
Hamilton  t-ship,  Gloucester  co.,  into 
which  it  flows  from  the  west,  about  a 
mile  below  Weymouth  furnace. 

Deep  Rtm,  tributary  of  South  ri- 
ver, rises  in  Upper  Freehold  t-ship, 
Monmouth  co.,  and  flows  by  a  N.  W. 


DEL 


128 


DEL 


course  of  between  8  and  9  miles,  to 
its  recipient,  in  South  Amboy  t-ship, 
Mickllesex  co.,  a  mill  stream. 

Deerfeld  Township,  Cumberland 
CO.,  bounded  N.  E.  by  Pittsgrove 
t-ship,  N.  W.  by  Upper  AUoways 
creek  t-ship,  Salem  co. ;  S.  by  Fair- 
field and  Millville  t-ships,  and  VV. 
by  Hopewell  t-ship,  Cumberland 
CO.  Greatest  length,  N.  and  S.  11 
miles,  breadth,  E.  and  W.  9  miles; 
area,  34,000  acres.  Surface,  level; 
soil,  clay,  gravel  and  sand,  and  not 
remarkat)le  for  fertility,  but  improv- 
ing under  the  application  of  marl. 
It  is  drained  by  the  Cohansey  creek, 
which  runs  southward  along  its  west- 
ern boundary,  and  by  Muddy  run,  a 
branch  of  Maurice  river,  which  flows 
on  the  S.  E.  line.  Population  in  1830, 
2,417:  In  1832,  there  were  in  the 
t-ship,  taxables,  305;  2  Presbyterian, 
1  Baptist  and  1  Methodist  church; 
1  academy  and  several  schools;  118 
householders,  whose  ratables  did  not 
exceed  $30;  11  stores;  9  pairs  of 
stones  for  grinding  grain ;  one  wool- 
len manufactory;  2  saw  mills;  1  full- 
ing mill;  316  horses,  and  560  neat 
cattle,  above  the  age  of  3  years ;  and 
the  township  paid  for  township  pur- 
poses, $500,  and  for  county  and  state 
tax,  $835  25.  Bridgeton,"  Deerfield 
and  Carllsburg  are  towns  of  this  t-ship. 

Deerfeld  Street,  post  town  of 
Deerfield  t-ship,  Cumberland  co.,  7 
miles  N.  of  Bridgeton ;  165  miles  N. 
E.  of  Washington  city,  and  63  S. 
from  Trenton;  contains  from  20  to 
25  dwellings,  occupied  chiefly  by 
agriculturists,  1  tavern,  1  store,  and 
a  Presbyterian  church. 

DelVs  Brook,  small  branch  of  the 
Rockaway  river,  flowing  eastwardly 
about  5  miles  through  Pleasant  val- 
ley, Randolph  t-sliip,  Morris  co. 

Delmrnre  Hirer  and  Bay,  called 
by  the  Indians,  Poiitaxaf,  Marisqve- 
ton,  Makerish-itton,  Mdl-eriskkiskon, 
Lenape-  Wihitftick  (stream  of  the  Le- 
nape,)  by  the  Dutch,  ^7/7/c7^  or  South 
river, Charles  river,  and  Nassau  river, 
and  by  the  Swedes,  New  Swedeland 
stream,  one  of  the  most  considerable 
in  N.  America,  rises  by  two  princi- 


pal branches,  in  the  state  of  New 
York.  The  northernmost,  the  Mo- 
hawk or  Cooqvago,  issues  from  Lake 
Utsaemthe  lat.  42°  45',  takes  a  S.  W. 
course,  and  turning  S.  E.  crosses 
the  Pennsylvania  line  in  lat.  42°. 
Seven  miles  below  this  point  it  re- 
ceives the  Popachton  branch,  which 
rises  in  the  Katskill  mountain,  from 
the  S.  E.  It  touches  the  N.  W.  cor- 
ner  of  N.  Jersey,  in  lat.  41°  24',  at 
Carpenter's  Point,  at  the  mouth  of 
the  Nevisink  or  Mackackomack  ri- 
ver. The  course  of  the  current, 
above  and  below  the  Blue  mountain, 
is  crooked;  and  is  through  a  moun- 
tainous country,  until  it  leaves  the 
Water  Gap.  The  Delaware  Water 
Gap  is  one  of  the  greatest  natural  cu- 
riosities of  the  state.  It  would  seem, 
from  the  quantity  of  alluvial  lands, 
above  the  mountain,  that  at  some 
remote  period,  a  dam  of  great 
height,  here,  impeded  the  progress  of 
the  river.  Had  the  dam  been  half  as 
high  as  the  mountain,  it  would  have 
turned  the  water  into  the  North  river. 
It  may  have  had  an  elevation  of  150 
or  200  feet,  forming  a  lake  of  more 
than  50  miles  in  length;  extending 
over  the  Minisink  settlements.  It 
has  been  conjectured  that  this  dam 
was  engulphed  by  some  gi-eat  con- 
vulsion of  the  earth ;  and  the  opinion 
is  supposed  to  be  sustained  by  the  ex- 
traordinary depth  of  the  channel  in 
several  places  of  its  passage  through 
the  mountain.  An  hundred  years 
ago  the  boatmen  I'cported,  that  they 
could  not  reach  the  bottom  with  their 
longest  lines ;  and  even  now  we  are 
informed  that  the  bottom  in  these 
places  cannot  be  attained  with  two 
plough  lines  attached  to  each  other. 
But  we  see  nothing  in  these  appear- 
ances that  renders  it  necessary  to 
resort  to  the  conjecture,  that  an  earth- 
quake was  emjiloyed  to  open  an  ade- 
quate passage  for  the  river,  and  that 
it  performed  its  ofRce  with  such  ac- 
curacy, and  economy  of  power,  as  to 
do  no  more  than  was  indispensable, 
and  to  leave  the  rugged  and  lofty 
wall,  1600  feet  high,  rising  almost 
precipitously  from  the  water's  edge, 


DEL 


129 


DEL 


unbroken.  The  distance  through  the 
mountain  is  about  two  miles.  The  rock 
presents  a  great  variety  of  strata,  in 
which  granitic  rock,  slate,  grauwacke 
and  the  old  sandstone  alternate.  The 
sandstone  is,  at  one  place,  at  least, 
and  probably  at  others,  so  soft  as  to 
disintegrate  rapidly.  At  the  place  re- 
ferred to,  the  water  has  scooped  out  a 
basin  from  the  hill  of  many  acres  in 
extent,  which  are  now  under  cultiva- 
tion. Before  the  bed  of  the  river  was 
broken  down,  there  must  have  been 
a  cataract  here,  higher  than  that  of 
Niagara.  Supposing  the  waters  to 
have  been  poured  over  the  precipice 
upon  a  bed  of  soft  or  disjointed  stones, 
very  deep  excavations  must  have 
been  made,  which  the  great  mass  of 
waters,  in  seasons  of  freshet,  would 
continue  to  preserve.  It  is  probable 
that,  so  much  of  the  mountain  as 
forms  the  present  bed  of  the  river 
was,  throughout,  of  soft  or  very  fria- 
ble material.  The  stream  has  obvi- 
ously sought  the  most  practicable 
passage ;  and  to  attain  it,  has  formed 
an  almost  riffht-angled  course  through 
the  mountain.  Whatever  may  have 
been  the  resistance,  the  conquest  has 
been  complete,  and  it  now  flows 
through  the  deep  ravine  in  calm  and 
silent  majesty,  without  a  ripple  to 
tell  of  its  whereabout;  and  occasion- 
ally resting  in  motionless  pools,  of 
from  two  to  three  hundred  yards 
wide,  as  if  to  reflect  the  picturesque 
scenery  which  surrounds  and  hangs 
over  it. 

The  lovers  of  diversified  nature 
cannot  visit  this  spot  without  high 
gratification.  The  "  Gap,"  the 
break,  in  the  almost  unvarying  line 
of  the  Kittatinny  mountain  is  visible 
at  nearly  as  groat  a  distance  as  the 
mountain  itself.  As  we  approach  it 
from  the  S.  E.,  the  ground  rises  ra- 
pidly, almost  precipitously,  differing 
in  this  particular,  as  do  all  the  moun- 
tain ranges  of  our  country,  from  the 
N.  VV.  declivity,  whose  descent  is  long 
and  gradual.  At  the  entrance,  the  sides 
of  the  mountain,  close  to  the  water's 
edge,  leave  scarce  room  for  a  road, 
overhung  by  immense  masses  of  rock, 


threatening  destruction  to  the  travel- 
ler beneath.  The  passage,  however, 
widens  as  we  proceed,  and  the  scene- 
ry assumes  a  less  imposing  character. 
Verdant  isles  stud  the  bosom  of  the 
stream,  and  contrast  beautifidly  with 
the  rocky  and  wood-clad  eminences, 
which  now  have  a  more  rounded 
form.  These  islands  are  rich,  and 
bear  the  most  luxurious  harvests. 
About  two-thirds  of  the  way  through 
the  mountain  from  the  Jersey  shore, 
may  be  seen,  most  advantageously, 
near  Dutotsburg,  on  the  Pennsylva- 
nia bank,  the  pretty  cascade  formed 
by  Cherry  creek,  which  precipitates 
its  waters  in  foam  and  spray,  over  a 
declivity  of  more  than  50  feet. 

"  The  sunl)ow's  rays  still  arch 
The  torrent  with  the  many  hues  of  heav'n,. 
And  roll  the  sheeted  silver's   waving  co- 
lumn 
O'er  the  crags  headlong  perpendicular, 
And  fling  its  lines  of  foaming  light  along, 
And  to  and  fro,  like  the  pale  courser's  tail, 
The  giant  steed,  to  be  bestrode  by  Death,^ 
As  told  in  the  Apocalypse." — Byron. 

On  the  top  of  the  mountain,  2  miles 
from  the  "  Gap,"  is  a  large  chalybeate 
spring,  which  deposits  much  ferrugi- 
nous ochre,  similar  to  that  of  the  Paint 
spring  of  Freehold  t-ship,  Monmouth 
CO. ;  and,  also,  a  deep  lake,  near  a 
mile  in  circumference,  well  stored 
with  fish.  The  margin  of  the  river, 
above  the  mountain,  is  narrow,  but 
very  fertile  ;  and,  on  the  Pennsylva- 
nia side,  abounds  in  lime.  A  road 
follows  each  bank  through  the  njoun- 
tain.  That  on  the  Jersey  shore, 
rough,  but  safe,  was  made  in  the  year 
1830,  by  the  aid  of  a  donation  of 
$2000  from  the  state.  Before  its 
completion,  we  are  told,  that  the  in- 
habitants, north  of  the  mountain,  made 
their  way  over  the  precipices  by  means 
of  ladders  of  ropes. 

We  know  no  more  admirable  spot 
for  a  summer  retreat  than  at  the 
foot  of  the  mountain,  on  the  north 
side  of  the  Gap.  Here  might  be  en- 
joyed the  charms  of  diversified  and  al- 
ways delightful  scenery;  a  revivify- 
ing breeze,  which  follows  the  river 
through  the  sinuosities  of  its  valley — 
fine  rides  on  its  banks,  into  the  rich 


DEL 


130 


DEL 


limestone  country  of  the  Wallpack; 
renovated  vigour  I'rom  the  bracing  mi- 
neral fountain;  fine  fishing  upon  the 
lake,  the  river  and  mountain  brooks, 
of  which  the  richest  spoil  is  the  gilded 
perch  and  speckled  trout  ;  and  the 
more  manly  exercise  of  shooting,  the 
country  abounding  in  game.  A  good 
house  established  at  Brotzmanville, 
upon  the  prattling  stream,  which  there 
makes  the  air  musical,  and  which 
might  be  used  with  great  convenience 
for  baths,  and  other  purposes,  we 
think  would  be  much  encouraged, 
provided  the  road  through  the  moun- 
tain be  kept  in  good  order. 

From  New  Jersey,  the  principal 
tributaries  to  the  Delaware,  above 
tide  water,  are  Flatkill,  Paulinskill, 
Pequest,  Musconetcong,  Laokatong, 
the  Wickhechccoke,  and  the  Assun- 
pink ;  below  tide,  the  Crosswicks, 
Rancocus,  Cooper's,  Oldman's,  Sa- 
lem, Stow,  and  Cohansey  creeks,  and 
Maurice  river.  At  Easton,  the  Dela- 
ware receives,  from  Pennsylvania, 
the  Lehigh  river.  From  the  South 
mountain,  below  Easton,  to  the  tide 
water  at  Trenton,  the  river  has  a  S. 
W.  course  of  about  60  miles,  in  which 
there  are  25  noted  rapids,  with  an 
aggregate  fall  of  165  feet.  But  the 
navigation  has  been  improved,  and  is 
safe  at  the  ordinary  height  of  the  wa- 
ter. From  Easton  to  Bristol,  the 
Delaware  division  of  the  Pennsylva- 
nia canal  has  been  completed,  and  in 
connexion  with  the  Lehigh  canal,  af- 
fords advantageous  communication 
with  the  cf)al  mines,  and  the  valley  of 
theLohiiili  river.  Two  surveys  have 
been  made  for  a  canal  along  the  val- 
ley of  the  Delaware  from  Easton  to 
Carpenter's  Point. 

The  Delaware  and  Raritan  canal 
receives  its  water  by  a  feeder,  which 
taps  thi;  river  on  the  left  bank,  about 
23  miles  above  Trenton.  The  Mor- 
ris canal  ent<'rs  the  river  below  Phil- 
lipsburg,  and  <i|»p(tsitf  to  l')aston. 

At  Camden,  opposite  Philadelphia, 
the  river  is  divided  into  two  channels, 
by  Petfy's  and  Smith's  islands.  The 
western,  near  the  centre  of  Phila- 
delphia,  is  900  feet  wide,  with  a  mean 


depth  of  30  feet;  the  eastern  is  2100 
feet  wide,  with  a  mean  depth  of  9  feet ; 
the  whole  area  equal  to  46,350  feet, 
affording  a  commodious  and  safe  har- 
bour, to  which  ships  of  the  line  may 
ascend. 

At  the  head  of  the  bay,  at  Dela- 
ware City,  and  opposite  to  Fort  Dela- 
ware, which  commands  the  passage 
of  the  river ;  the  Delaware  and  Che- 
sapeake canal,  14  miles  in  length, 
connects  this  with  the  Chesapeake 
bay,  and  its  many  tributary  rivers. 
This  point  is  distant  from  Camden  45 
miles,  and  the  bay  extends,  thence,  75 
miles  to  the  ocean,  with  a  width  vary- 
ing from  3  to  30  miles,  occupying  an 
area  of  630,000  acres.  Its  naviga- 
tion is  difficult  and  dangerous,  being 
infested  with  shoals,  which  often  prove 
destructive.  It  opens  into  the  Atlan- 
tic, between  Cape  Henlopen,  on  the 
S.  E.,  and  Cape  May,  on  the  N.  E., 
which  are  about  20  miles  apart.  The 
length  of  the  bay  and  river,  to  the 
head  of  tide,  at  Trenton,  is  155 
miles.  A  74  gun  ship  may  ascend 
to  Philadelphia,  120  miles;  sloops, 
to  Trenton  falls;  boats,  of  8  or  10 
tons,  100  miles  above  them;  and  ca- 
noes 150  miles  higher. 

Below  Port  Penn,  70  miles  from 
the  sea,  the  bay  affords  no  safe  har- 
bourage ;  nor  is  there  S.  of  New  York, 
for  several  hundred  miles,  any  place, 
where  a  vessel,  during  the  rudest  sea- 
son of  the  year,  when  approach  to  the 
coast  is  most  dangerous,  may  seek 
protection  against  the  elements.  The 
losses  from  this  cause  have  induced 
the  national  government  to  form  an 
artificial  port,  or  breakwater,  at  the 
entrance  of  the  bay.  The  law  for 
this  purpose  was  enacted,  in  1828-9, 
and  the  work  is  in  steady  progression, 
and  will  be  speedily  com])leted.  The 
anchorage  ground,  or  roadstead,  is 
formed  by  a  cove  in  the  southern 
shore,  directly  west  of  Cape  Henlo- 
pen; and  the  seaward  end  rests  on  an 
extensive  shoal,  calk'd  the  Shears; 
the  tail  of  ^v•hich  makes  out  from  the 
shore  aliout  5  miles  up  the  bay,  near 
Broialkill  creek ;  whence  it  extends 
eastward,  and  terminates  at  a  point, 


DEL 


131 


DEN 


about  2  miles  to  the  N.  of  the  sliore, 
at  the  cape.  The  breakwater  con- 
sists of  an  isolated  dyke,  or  wall  of 
stone;  the  transversal  section  of 
which  is  a  trapezium,  the  base  rest- 
ing on  the  bottom,  and  the  summit 
line  forming  the  top  of  the  work. 
The  other  sides  represent  the  inner 
and  outer  slopes  of  the  work ;  that  to 
the  seaward  being  the  greater.  The 
inward  slope  is  45°,  the  top  horizon- 
tal, 22  feet  in  breadth,  and  raised  5^ 
feet  above  the  highest  spring  tides ; 
the  outward,  or  sea  slope,  is  39  feet 
in  altitude,  on  a  base  of  105|  feet; 
both  these  dimensions  being  measured, 
in  relation  to  a  horizontal  plane,  pass- 
ing by  a  point  27  feet  below  the  low- 
est spring  tides.  The  base  bears  to 
the  altitude  nearly  the  same  ratio  as 
similar  lines  in  the  profiles  of  the  Cher- 
bourg and  Plymouth  breakwaters. 
The  opening  or  entrance  from  the 
ocean  is  650  yards  wide,  between  the 
north  part  of  the  cape  and  east  end  of 
the  breakwater,  and  will  be  accessible 
by  all  winds  from  the  sea.  The 
Breakwater,  proper,  is  a  dyke  in  a 
straight  line  from  E.  S.  E.  to  W.  N. 
W.,  1200  yards  in  length.  At  the 
distance  of  350  yards  from  the  upper 
or  western  end,  that  space  forming 
the  upper  entrance,  a  similar  dyke, 
500  yards  long,  is  projected  in  a  di- 
rect line  W.  by  S.  \  S.,  forming  an 
angle  of  146°  15'  with  the  breakwa- 
ter. This  part  of  the  work  is  design- 
ed as  an  icebreaker. 

The  whole  length  of  the  two  dykes 
will  be  1700  yards,  and  they  will  con- 
tain, when  finished,  900,000  cubic 
yards  of  basalt  and  granite  rock, 
weighing  from  a  quarter  of  a  ton  to 
three  tons,  and  upwards.  The  depth 
of  water,  at  low  tide,  is  from  4  to  six 
fathoms,  over  a  surface  of  7  tenths  of 
a  square  mile.  Although  unfinished, 
this  magnificent  work  has  already 
proved  its  utility,  saving  many  vessels 
and  many  valuable  lives. 

There  are  five  bridges  erected  over 
the  Delaware  river,  viz.  at  Trenton, 
at  Lambertville,  at  Prallsville,  at 
Philipsburg,  and  at  Columbia.  Au- 
thority has  also  been  given  to  erect  a 


bridge  over  the  river  at  Philadelphia, 
and  another  opposite  Taylorsville. 
The  Delaware  and  Hudson  canal 
crosses  the  river  by  means  of  a  dam, 
constructed  below  the  mouth  of  the 
Lackawaxan. 

Den  Brook,  mill  stream  and  tri- 
butary of  the  Rockaway  river,  rises 
in  Randolph  t-ship,  Morris  co.,  and 
flows  by  a  course  N.  E.,  about  8 
miles  along  the  N.  W.  base  of  Trow- 
bridge mountain,  to  its  recipient  near 
Danville. 

Dennis's  Creek  t-ship,  Cape  May 
CO.,  bounded  N.  E.  by  Upper  t-ship, 
S.  E.  by  the  Atlantic  ocean,  S.  by 
Middle  t-ship,  S.  W.  by  Delaware 
Bay,  W.  and  N.  W.  by  Maurice 
River  t-ship,  Cumberland  co.  Cen- 
trally distant  from  Cape  May  court- 
house N.  9  miles  ;  greatest  length  E. 
and  W.  14  miles  ;  breadth  N.  and  S. 
8i  miles  ;  area,  43,500  acres.  Den- 
nis's creek  runs  on  the  S.  W.  bor- 
der, through  a  very  extensive  cedar 
swamp,  and  the  northern  part  of  the 
t-ship  consists  of  sandy  plains ;  the 
population  in  1830  was  1508.  In 
1832  the  t-ship  contained  about  300 
taxables,  198  householders,  whose 
ratables  did  not  exceed  '$30 ;  3  grist 
mills,  7  saw  mills,  2  carding  ma- 
chines, 8  stores,  and  1 85  horses,  503 
head  of  neat  cattle,  over  3  years  of 
age  ;  it  paid  t-ship  tax,  $94  2*7  ;  state 
tax,  162  75;  and  county  tax,  $503 
54.  Part  of  Ludlam's  beach  fronts 
the  ocean,  between  which  and  Leam- 
ing's  beach,  the  tide  rushes  in  over 
the  marshes  and  lagunes  which  bor- 
der the  eastern  boundary  for  a  breadth 
of  about  2  miles.  Dennis's  Creek  is 
the  post-town.  There  are  2  churches 
in  the  t-ship. 

Dennis''s  Creek,  p-t.  of  Dennis's 
Creek  t-ship,  Cape  May  co.,  at  the 
head  of  the  riavigation  of  Dennis's 
creek,  6  or  7  miles  from  the  Dela- 
ware bay,  7  miles  N.  from  Cape  May 
court-house,  194  from  W.  C,  and  97 
from  Trenton ;  contains  from  30  to 
40  dwellings,  2  taverns,  5  stores,  and 
a  tide  grist  mill.  The  town  is  built 
on  both  sides  of  the  creek,  extending 
each  way,  about  half  a  mile.     Ship 


Die 


132 


DOV 


building  and  trade  in  lumber  are  car- 
ried oil  fxteiisively  here.  The  coun- 
try around  it,  above  the  marsh,  is  of 
sandy  loam. 

Denn's  Branch,  of  Stow  creek,  a 
small  tributary  of  Stow  creek,  Salem 
CO.,  flowing  westerly  into  its  recipient 
by  a  course  of  3  or  4  miles. 

Denville,  p-t.  of  Hanover  t-ship, 
Morris  co.,  on  the  right  bank  of  the 
Rockaway  river,  7  miles  N.  of  Mor- 
ristown,  231  N.  E.  from  W.  C,  and 
65  Irom  Trenton ;  contains  a  store, 
tavern,  cider  distillery,  and  6  or  8 
dwellings. 

DevWs  Brook,  small  tributary  of 
the  Millstone  river,  in  South  Bruns- 
wick t-sliip,  Middlesex  co.,  flowing  S. 
W.  about  5  miles  to  the  river. 

Deptford  t-ship,  Gloucester  co., 
bounded  N.  E.  by  Gloucester  t-ship, 
S.  E.  by  Hamilton  t-ship,  S.  W.  by 
Greenwich  t-ship,  and  N.  W.  by  the 
river  Delaware.  Greatest  length  N. 
W.  and  S.  E.  25,  and  breadth  7 
miles;  area,  57,600  acres;  surface 
level ;  soil  sandy :  in  the  northern 
part,  grass,  vegetables,  and  fruit  are 
successfully  cultivated  ;  the  southern 
is  chiefly  pine  forest,  valuable  for 
tiiTiber  and  cord  wood.  It  is  drained 
northward  by  Big  Timber  creek ; 
Mantua  creek  on  the  west  boundary ; 
and  southward  by  Innskeeps,  Squan- 
kum,  and  Faraway,  branches  of  the 
(ireat  Egg  Ihirbour  river.  Iron  ore, 
and  some  chalybeate  waters  are  found 
within  2  miles  of  Woodbury.  Wood- 
bury, the  seat  of  justice  for  the  coun- 
ty, Malaga,  and  Glassborough,  are 
post-towns  of  the  t-ship:  population 
in  1830,  3.599.  In  1832  the  town- 
ship contained  449  householders, 
whose  ratables  did  not  exceed  ^30 
in  value,  19  stores,  8  fisheries,  6 
grist  mills,  1  cotton  and  1  woollen 
manufactory,  1  carding  machine,  9 
saw  mills,  1  ferry,  1  distillery,  1 
glass  factory,  13H9  neat  cattle,  and 
672  hnrs(!s  and  nudes  abov(^  the  a^e 
of  3  years. 

Dichrrson,  the  seat  of  the  Hon. 
iNhihldii  Dickerson,  former  Governor 
of  New  Jersey,  and  n'|)i-cscntative  of 
that  state  in  the  United  States  Senate, 


and  the  site  of  one  of  the  most  ex- 
tensive and  valuable  iron  mines  in 
the  state;  ten  miles  N.  W.  from 
Morristown,  Randolph  t-ship,  Morris 
county,  upon  the  northern  part,  or 
continuation  of  Schooley's  mountain. 

Dillon's  Lahding,  Dover  t-ship, 
Monmouth  co.,  on  the  north  side  of 
Toms'  river  bay,  about  2  miles  from 
its  confluence  with  Barnegat  bay. 

Dividing  Creek,  Downe  t-ship, 
Cumberland  co.,  rises  centrally  in 
the  t-ship,  and  flows  southerly  by  a 
very  crooked  course  of  10  or  12 
miles,  into  Maurice  creek  cove,  in 
Delaware  bay.  It  is  navigable  to  the 
village  of  Dividing  Creek. 

Diinding  Creek,  p-t.  of  Downe 
t-ship,  Cumberland  co.,  about  17 
miles  S.  of  Bridgeton,  86  from  Tren- 
ton, and  192  N.  E.  fromW.  C;  con- 
tains from  25  to  30  dwellings,  a  store, 
tavern,  and  grist  mill. 

Dogtown,  a  mountain  hamlet,  on 
the  line  separating  Amwell  from 
Kingwood  t-ship,  Hunterdon  co.,  5 
miles  N.  W.  from  Flemington ;  con- 
tains a  tavern,  a  wheelwright  shop, 
and  two  or  three  cottages. 

Doctor^s  Creek,  branch  of  the 
Crosswicks,  rises  near  Clarkeville,  in 
the  eastern  part  of  Upper  Freehold 
t-ship,  Monmouth  co.,  and  flows  by  a 
west  course  of  about  14  miles,  by  Im- 
laystown  and  Allentown,  to  its  reci- 
pient near  the  Sand  Hills  in  Notting- 
ham t-ship,  Burlington  co.,  turning 
several  mills  by  the  way. 

Dorchester,  village,  of  Maurice 
river  t-ship,  Cumberland  co.,  on  the 
Icfl:  bank  of  the  river,  about  10  miles 
from  the  Delaware  bay,  and  20  S.  E. 
from  Bridgeton ;  contains  between  30 
and  40  dwellings,  1  tavern,  and  2 
stores.     The  soil  about  it  is  sand3\ 

Dorson\s  Brook,  tributary  of  the 
north  branch  of  Raritan  river.  Mend- 
ham  t-ship,  Morris  co.,  having  a 
course  on  and  near  the  west  t-ship 
line  of  about  4  or  5  miles. 

/>orer  t-sliip,  Monmouth  co.,  bound- 
ed N.  by  Howell  and  Freehold  t-ships, 
E.  by  the  Atlantic  Ocean,  S.  by  Staf- 
ford t-ship,  S.  W.  by  Northampton 
and  Hanover  f-ships,  Burlington  co., 


DOV 


133 


DRA 


and  N.  W.  by  Upper  Freehold.  Cen- 
trally distant  S.  from  Freehold,  24 
miles ;  greatest  length  E.  and  VV.  22 ; 
breadth  N.  and  S.  17  miles;  area, 
including  Barnegat  bay,  and  the  At- 
lantic beach,  200,000  acres.  It  ex- 
tends from  the  Atlantic  Ocean  to  the 
western  line  of  the  county.  Surface 
generally  level,  but  there  are  some 
hills  in  the  south,  at  the  head  of 
Forked  river,  called  Forked  River 
mountains;  soil,  generally  sand  or 
light  gravel,  covered  with  pine  forest, 
whence  enormous  quantities  of  tim- 
ber and  cord  wood  are  taken  for  the 
New  York  market,  and  for  the  supply 
of  iron  works  in  the  t-ship.  It  is 
drained  E.  by  Toms'  river  and  its 
several  branches.  Cedar  creek,  and 
Forked  river;  on  the  W.  by  some 
branches  of  the  Rancocus.  Toms' 
river,  Cedar  creek,  and  Goodluck,  are 
villages;  the  two  first  post-towns  of 
the  t-ship.  Population  in  1 830,  2898. 
In  1832,  the  t-ship  contained  about 
550  taxables,  201  householders, 
whose  ratables  did  not  exceed  30  dol- 
lars, 72  single  men,  9  stores,  7  saw 
mills,  2  grist  mills,  3  blast  furnaces, 
350  horses  and  mules,  and  925  neat 
cattle,  3  years  old  and  upwards;  and 
paid  in  state  and  county  taxes, 
i|1265  00. 

Dover,  p-t.  of  Randolph  t-ship,  Mor- 
ris CO.,  on  the  Rockaway  I'iver,  8 
miles  N.  W.  from  Morristown,  233 
N.  E.  from  VV.  C,  and  67  from  Tren- 
ton ;  the  mountains  recede  here,  and 
form  a  small  plain,  on  which  the  town 
is  built,  on  several  streets  and  on  both 
sides  of  the  river,  which  is  passed  by 
one,  perhaps  more  bridges.  It  con- 
tains 3  large  rolling  and  slitting  mills, 
boring  and  turning  engines,  a  cupola 
furnace  or  foundery,  and  saw  mill,  the 
property  of  the  heirs  of  the  late  Mr. 
M'Farlane,  of  New  York,  a  factory 
of  machinery,  owned  by  W.  Ford,  a 
bank  with  an  actual  capital  of  $50,000 
and  the  right  to  extend  it  to  $150,000, 
an  academy,  used  also  as  a  church, 
and  about  30  dwellings;  much  busi- 
ness has  formerly  been  done  here; 
the  Morris  canal  descends  into  the 
valley  by  an  inclined  plane  and  4 


locks ;  a  valuable  iron  mine,  known 
as  "  Jackson's,"  near  the  town,  is 
extensively  worked,  and  governor 
Dickerson's  mine  is  about  3  miles 
distant. 

Downe  t-ship,  Cumberland  co., 
bounded  N.  by  Fairfield  and  Mille- 
ville  t-ship,  E.  by  Maurice  river, 
S.  and  W.  by  the  Delaware.  Cen- 
trally distant,  S.  E.  from  Bridgeton, 
14  miles;  greatest  length  E.  and  W. 
14,  breadth  N.  and  S.  12  miles ;  area, 
58,240  acres;  surface,  level;  soil, 
marsh  upon  the  bay  and  Maurice 
river;  loam  for  a  narrow  strip  of 
about  a  mile  in  width,  adjoining  the 
marsh,  the  remainder  sandy.  Mau- 
rice river  follows  the  whole  of  the 
east  boundary;  Nantuxet  creek  the 
north-west,  between  which  flows  Di- 
viding, Oranoken,  Fishing,  Broad, 
Oyster,  and  Fortescue  creeks.  Po- 
pulation in  1830,  1923;  in  1832, 
there  were  in  the  t-ship,  taxables, 
310,  householders  93,  whose  ratables 
did  not  exceed  $30 ;  stores  6,  grist 
mills  5,  saw  mills  2,  carding  ma- 
chine 1 ;  120  horses,  901  cattle  above 
the  age  of  3  years ;  Mauricetown, 
Newport,  Dividing  Creek,  Port  Nor- 
ris,  and  Buckshutem,  are  villages  of 
the  t-ship,  of  which  the  three  first  are 
post-towns. 

Double  Pond,  a  sheet  of  water  in 
the  Wawayanda  mountain,  Sussex 
CO.,  which  sends  forth  northwardly  a 
small  stream  called  Double  Pond 
creek,  which  unites  with  Warwick 
creek,  in  the  state  of  New  York. 

Drakestown,  Morris  co.,  on  the 
line  dividing  Washington  from  Rox- 
bury  t-ship,  on  the  road  from  Morris-> 
town  to  Hackettstown,  15  miles  from 
the  former  and  three  from  the  latter, 
and  upon  Schooley's  mountain  ;  con- 
tains a  store,  and  from  12  to  15 
dwellings. 

Drakesville,  Roxbury  t-ship,  Mor- 
ris CO.,  on  the  turnpike  road  leading 
from  Morristown  by  Stanhope  fur- 
nace, 12  miles  N.  E.  from  the  for- 
mer, and  upon  the  Morris  canal ;  con- 
tains a  tavern,  a  store,  and  from  12 
to  15  dwellings.  The  country  on 
the  S.  and  S.  E.  is  level,  sandy,  and 


DUG 


134 


EDG 


poor ;  on  the  N.  hilly  and  rough,  but 
improving  by  the  use  of  Ume. 

Drowned  Lands,  on  tlie  line  sepa- 
rating Wantage  irom  Vernon  t-ships, 
Sussex  CO.,  and  extending  thence 
into  CR'ange  co.,  of  New  York. 
This  is  a  morass  of  unusual  extent 
for  the  northern  states,  and  celebrated 
for  the  yearly  inundation  to  which  it 
is  subject,  and  the  malaria  which  it 
occasions  during  the  autumn.  It  is 
twenty  miles  long,  and  varies  in 
breadth  from  1  to  5  miles.  Through 
it  flows  the  Wallkill,  with  a  current 
scarce  perceptible,  to  whose  waters, 
when  swelled  by  the  spring  freshets, 
it  owes  its  annual  submergence.  It 
is  composed  of  an  accumulation  of  ve- 
getable matter,  whose  surface  is  im- 
perfectly converted  into  soil,  abound- 
ing with  carbonaceous  substance,  em- 
pyrcumatic  oil,  and  gallic  acid,  and 
covered  in  midsummer  with  rank  and 
luxuriant  vegetation.  The  ditches, 
made  in  several  places,  in  forming 
roads  across  it,  disclose  peat  of  excel- 
lent quality.  This  equivocal  lake  en- 
circles several  islands,  the  largest  of 
which  contains  200  acres  of  excellent 
land,  well  cultivated ;  the  smaller  ones 
are  uninhabited,  and  generally  cover- 
ed with  wood,  among  which  the  beau- 
tiful flowering  shrub.  Rhododendron 
Maximum,  laurelled  leaved  rose  tree, 
grows  abundantly.  The  rocks  on  the 
island,  and  upon  the  borders  of  the 
morass,  indicate  that  it  reposes  on 
blue  chcrty  limestone;  but  in  one 
place,  at  least  the  island  near  Wood- 
ville,  primitive  limestone,  the  rock  of 
the  neighbouring  country  appears. 
No  successful  eifurt  has  yet  been 
made  to  drain  this  vast  swamp,  which 
is  abandoned  as  pasturing  ground  to 
cattle  on  the  sui)si(lcncc  of  the  spring 
inundation,  fur  a  few  weeks  only,  and 
is  for  the  rest  of  the  year  a  desolate 
waste. 

•    Dry  Branch,  tributary  of  Paulin's 
creek,  Knowlton  t-p.  Warren  co. 

Duck  Island,  in  the  Delaware  ri- 
ver, above  Hordentown,  in  Nottinir. 
ham  township,  iiurlingfon  county.  It 
is  somewhat  more  than  a  mile  in 
length. 


Dimker  Pond,  south  of  Bear  Fort 
mountain,  Pompton  t-ship,  Bergen  co., 
sends  forth  a  small  tributary  to  the 
Pequannock  creek. 

Dunks's  Ferry,  a  noted  and  long 
established  ferry  on  the  Delaware  ri- 
ver, Willingboro'  t-ship,  Burlington 
CO.,  4  miles  below  the  city  of  Burling- 
ton. 

Dyer's  Creek,  a  small  marsh 
stream  of  Middle  t-ship.  Cape  May 
CO.,  which  flows  into  the  Delaware, 
after  a  course  of  3  or  4  miles. 

Dutch  Neck,  viHage  of  W.  Wind- 
sor t-ship,  Middlesex  co.,  18  miles  S. 
W.  from  Trenton ;  contains  a  tavern 
and  3  or  4  stores ;  soil,  gravelly  and 
poor. 

East  Creek,  mill  stream  of  Dennis 
t-ship.  Cape  May  co.,  flowing  about 
7  miles  S.  W.  into  the  Delaware  bay. 

East  Windsor.  (See  Windsor, 
East.) 

Eayrstown,  village  of  Northamp- 
ton t-ship,  Burlington  co.,  on  the  S. 
branch  of  Rancocus  creek,  near  the 
junction  of  Haines'  creek  with  that 
stream,  and  at  the  head  of  tide,  be- 
tween 3  and  4  miles  S.  W.  from 
Mount  Holly ;  contains  a  cotton  fac- 
tory, a  grist  mill,  saw  mill,  fulling 
mill,  1  tavern,  1  store,  and  12  or  15 
dwellings;  soil,  sandy  loam,  fertile 
and  well  cultivated. 

Edinburgh,  W.  Windsor  t-ship, 
Middlesex  co.,  on  the  Assunpink 
creek,  18  miles  S.  W.  from  N.  B., 
and  8  miles  E.  of  Trenton;  contains 
a  Presbyterian  church  of  wood,  1 
store,  1  tavern,  a  grist  mill,  and  12 
or  14  dwellings;  soil,  sandy  and 
light. 

Eaton,  p-t.  of  Shrewsbury  t-ship, 
Monmouth  co.,  2  miles  S.  from 
Shrewsburytown,  upon  Shrewsbury 
river,  11  miles  from  Freehold,  48 
from  Trenton,  and  213  from  W.  C, 
on  a  branch  of  Swimming  I'iver,  1^ 
miles  above  navigable  water;  con- 
tains about  30  dwellings,  5  or  6  stores, 
2  taverns,  a  grist  mill,  and  an  aca- 
demy, in  a  pleasant  and  fertile  coun- 
try. ' 

Edgepeling,  a  tributary  of  Atsion 
river,  rising  in  Evesham  t-ship.  Bur- 


EGG 


135 


EGG 


^     lington  CO.,  and  flowing  by  a  south- 
^     erly  course  of  8  or  9  mileSj  to  its  re- 
cipient in  Washington  t-ship. 

Egg  Harbour,  Little,  t-ship,  Bur- 
lington CO.,  bounded  N.  by  Oswego, 
or  east  branch  of  Wading  river, 
which  separates  it  from  Northampton 
t-ship,  S.  E.  by  StafFoi'd  t-ship,  Mon- 
mouth CO.,  S.  by  Little  Egg  Harbour 
river  and  bay,  and  W.  by  Washington 
t-ship.  Centrally  distant  from  Mount 
Holly,  S.  E.  35  miles;  greatest  length 
N.  and  S.  20  miles ;  breadth  E.  and 
W.  10  miles;  area,  76,800  acres, 
including  bays  and  inlets;  surface, 
level;  soil,  gravel  and  sand.  The 
northern  part  of  the  township,  call- 
ed the  Plains,  is  of  the  former,  cover- 
ed with  low  pines  and  scrub  oaks, 
forming  an  excellent  covert  for  deer 
and  grouse,  which  find  abundant  food 
in  the  mast  produced  by  the  latter. 
The  southei'n  part  of  the  t-ship  is 
sandy,  covered  with  forest.  It  is 
drained  chiefly  by  branches  of  Little 
Egg  Harbour  river,  of  which  Bass  ri- 
ver is  here  the  chief.  Tuckerton, 
upon  Shorl's  mill  branch,  is  the  post- 
town.  Population  in  1830, 1490.  Li 
1832,  the  t-ship  contained  150  house- 
holders, whose  ratables  did  not  ex- 
ceed $30;  347  taxables,  51  single 
men,  6  stores,  4  saw  mills,  3  grist 
mills,  1  two  horse  stage,  7  dearborns, 
36  covered  wagons,  10  gigs  and  sul- 
kies, 640  neat  cattle,  170  horses  and 
mules ;  and  it  paid  state  tax,  $127  48 ; 
county  tax,  $444;  road  tax,  $300. 

Egg  Harbour  Bay,  Little,  partly 
in  Little  Egg  Harbour  t-ship,  Bur- 
lington CO.,  and  partly  in  StaflxDrd 
t-ship,  Monmouth  co. ;  extends  about 
14  miles  in  length,  and  from  2  to  4 
in  breadth,  from  Little  Egg  Harbour 
inlet  to  Barnegat  inlet,  and  contains 
many  islands,  the  haunts  of  ducks, 
geese,  and  sea-fowl. 

Egg  Harbour,  Little,  or  Mullica''s 
River,  rises  by  several  branches  in 
Burlington  and  Gloucester  cos.;  the 
chief  of  which  are  Batsto  river,  near 
Burlington,  Atsion  river,  on  the  boun- 
dary between  the  two  counties,  Me- 
chescalaxin  and  Nesochcaque,  which 
unite  near  Pleasant  Mills,  25  miles 


from  the  sea.  Hg»lf  way  below  this 
point.  Wading  and  Bass  rivers  blend 
with  the  main  stream,  which  is  navi-  ^ij 
gable,  for  sloops,  to  Batsto  furnace,  '"'' 
25  miles.  The  Little  Egg  Harbour 
bay  and  inlet,  and  Great  bay,  form 
a  sheet  of  salt  water,  separated  from 
the  ocean  by  Brigantine,  Tucker's 
and  Long  beaches,  the  connnunica- 
tion  with  which,  from  the  sea,  is  chief- 
ly by  the  New  inlet,  which  admits 
vessels  of  from  15  to  18  feet  draught, 
many  of  which,  during  the  late  war, 
entered  and  discharged  valuable  car- 
goes. The  Old  inlet,  to  the  north 
from  Tucker's  island,  is  now  little 
used,  except  for  vessels  of  very  light 
burden.  The  collection  district  of 
Little  Egg  Harbour,  comprehends 
the  shores,  waters,  bays,  rivers  and 
creeks,  from  Barnegat  inlet  to  Bri- 
gantine inlet,  both  inclusively.  Tuck- 
erton is  the  sole  port  of  entry,  at  which 
the  collector  resides. 

Egg  Harbour  River,  Great,  rises 
in  Gloucester  t-ship,  Gloucester  co., 
by  Inskeep's  branch,  and  flows  a  S. 
E.  course  through  Deptford,  Hamil- 
ton, Weymouth,  and  Egg  Harbour 
t-ships,  to  the  ocean,  about  45  miles ; 
receiving  in  its  way  several,  but  not 
very  considerable  tributaries,  on  either 
hand,  and  draining  a  wide  extent  of 
sandy  soil  and  pine  forest.  It  is  na- 
vigable for  sloops  of  considerable  bur- 
den, above  May's  Landing,  more  than 
25  miles;  and  from  this  point  flows 
through  a  continued  marsh.  Large 
quantities  of  wood,  coal,  and  lumber, 
are  annually  exported  from  this  river. 

Great  Egg  Harbour  bay  is  entered 
by  Great  Egg  Harbour  inlet,  between 
Absecum  and  Peck's  beaches.  The 
bay  is  about  five  miles  long,  and  has 
a  very  irregular  breadth,  varying 
from  half  a  mile  to  4  miles.  The 
inlet,  at  its  mouth,  is  more  than  a 
mile  in  width,  and  communicates  with 
the  bay  by  several  channels. 

Egg  Harbour  t-ship,  Gloucester 
CO.,  bounded  N.  E.  by  Absecum 
creek,  bay,  and  inlet,  which  separate 
it  from  Galloway  t-ship ;  S.  E.  by  the 
Atlantic  ocean ;  S.  W.  by  Great  Egg 
Harbour  inlet,  bay,  and  river,  and  N. 


ELI 


136 


ELI 


W.  by  Hamilton  t-sliip.  Centrally 
distant  from  Woodbury  S.  E.  48 
miles;  greatest  length  E.  and  W. 
12;  breadth  N.  and  S.  12  miles; 
area,  85,000  acres,  including  beaches, 
bays,  and  rivers ;  surl'ace  level ;  marsh 
several  miles  in  width,  within  the 
beach;  sandy  elsewhere,  and,  gene- 
rally, covered  with  jiine  forest.  Bar- 
gaintovvn  and  Somers'  Point  are  post- 
towns  of  the  t-ship;  population  in 
1830,  2510.  In  1832  the  t-ship  con- 
tained 122  householders,  whose  rata- 
bles  did  not  exceed  $30 ;  5  stores,  2 
grist  mills,  1  carding  machine,  6  saw 
mills,  510  neat  cattle,  and  260  horses 
and  mules;  and  paid  county  taxes, 
$307  59.^;  poor  tax,  $153  90;  road 
tax,  $M00. 

Great  Egg  Harbour,  collection 
district,  comprehends  the  river  of 
Great  Egg  Harbour,  together  with 
all  the  inlets,  bays,  sounds,  rivers, 
and  creeks,  along  the  sea  coast,'from 
Brigantine  inlet  to  Cape  May. 

Egg  Island,  Downe  t-ship,  Cum- 
berland CO.,  Dt>laware  bay,  off  the 
western  point  of  Maurice  Cove,  of  a 
triangular  form,  extending  about  half 
a  mil(^  upon  each  side. 

Egg  Island,  false,  a  point  of  Downe 
t-ship,  about  4  miles  higher  up  the 
bay,  than  the  foregoing,  and  which, 
from  similarity  of  configuration,  is 
oitrn  mistaken  for  it. 

Egg  Islands,  Barnegat  bay,  Dover 
t-ship,  Monmouth  co.,  about  3  miles 
below  the  mouth  of  Toms'  bay,  each 
near  a  mile  in  length. 

Eight  Mile  Branch,  of  Cedar 
creek,  Dover  t-ship,  Monmouth  co., 
rises  west  of  the  Forked  mountains, 
and  flows  eastwardly  to  its  recipient. 

Elizahethtoxcn,  and  t-ship,  Essex 
CO.,  thus  named  after  Lady  Elizabeth 
Carteret,  the  wife  and  executrix  of 
Sir  (Jeorge  (Jarteret.  The  town  lies 
upon  Elizabeth  creek,  1^  miles  W. 
from  a  point  of  fast  land,  runninjr 
through  the  marsh  to  Staten  Island 
Sound,  and  on  the  turnpike;  road  and 
rail-road,  from  New  Brunswick  to 
New  York,  17  miles  by  the  post 
road  from  the  former,  and  15  from 
the  latter;  42  from  Trenton,  and  210 


from  W.  C;  pleasantly  situated,  in 
a  level  and  fin-tile  country,  of  clay 
loam;  contains  400  dwellings,  3 
handsome  churches  of  brick,  one  be- 
longing to  the  Episcopalians,  and  two 
to  the  Presbyterians,  the  first  congre- 
gation of  whom,  is,  probably,  as  old 
as  the  town,  itself;  and  1  Methodist 
church,  of  wood.  There  were  two 
churches  in  this  town,  in  1748,  which 
the  Swedish  traveller,  Kalm,  prefer- 
red to  any  in  Philadelphia:  2  tem- 
perance societies,  having  together 
450  members,  whose  beneficial  influ- 
ence is  said  to  be  extensively  felt, 
there  not  being  a  distillery  in  the 
t-ship,  and  all  the  respectable  farmers 
conducting  their  labours  without  the 
stimulus  of  ardent  spirit;  a  bank 
called  the  "  State  Bank  at  Eliza- 
beth,^^ with  an  authorized  capital  of 
$200,000,  of  which  $132,924,  have 
been  paid  in,  conducted  reputably 
and  profitably ;  5  taverns  in  the  town 
and  two  at  the  Point ;  9  stores,  at  none 
of  which  is  ardent  spirit  sold ;  1  book 
store,  2  boarding  schools  for  girls,  at 
which  there  arc  about  100  pupils  from 
various  parts  of  the  country  ;  1  clas- 
sical boarding  school  for  boys,  con- 
taining 40  boarders,  under  the  care 
of  the  Reverend  Mr.  Halsey,  all  of 
which  are  in  high  repute;  2  public 
libraries,  one  religious,  the  other  mis- 
cellaneous, called  the  Elizabethtown 
Apprentices'  Library,  much  and  ad- 
vantageously used ;  1  printing  office, 
from  which  is  issued  the  newspaper 
called  the  New  Jersey  Journal,  origi- 
nally founded  by  the  venerable  judge 
Hallock,  at  Chatham,  in  1779,  re- 
moved to  this  town  in  1786,  and  con- 
ducted by  him  for  nearly  half  a  cen- 
tury; an  oil  mill,  large  grist  and  saw 
mill,  2  large  saw  mills  for  cutting 
mahogany,  with  circular  saws  for 
veneers;  2  large  oil  cloth  manufac- 
tories, belonging  to  the  same  compa- 
ny ;  2  earthenware,  and  1  earthen 
and  stoneware  jiotteries;  flax  works, 
which  brc^ak  and  dress  2  tons  per 
day,  driven  by  steam;  a  rope,  twine, 
and  cotton  bagging  factory,  also 
driven  by  steam,  and  employing  20 
hands;  2  tin,  sheet  iron,  and  stove 


ELI 


137 


ELS 


factories,  1  clock  manufactory,  and  1 
shears  manufactory,  moved  by  steam  ; 
2  carriage  makers,  2  tanneries,  one 
of  which  dresses  oil,  morocco,  and 
alum,  leather;  1  iron  foundery  for 
making  malleable  castings,  connected 
with  which  is  a  steam  engine  factory, 
and  machine  shop,  worked  by  steam ; 
and  a  book  bindery.    . 

The  town  or  t-ship  is  bounded  N. 
by  Newark  t-ship,  E.  by  Newark 
bay  and  Staten  Island  Sound,  S.  by 
Rahway,  and  W.  by  Union  t-ships; 
greatest  length  N.  E.  and  S.  W.  5 
miles;  breadth,  3|  miles;  area,  10,000 
acres ;  soil,  red  shale,  clay,  loam, 
and  marsh ;  from  the  last  of  which, 
large  quantities  of  grass  are  cut, 
chiefly  for  manure.  The  soil  is  of 
excellent  quality,  and  repays  the  la- 
bour of  the  husbandman  abundantly. 
Bound  Brook  runs  on  the  north,  and 
Morss  Brook  on  the  south  boundary. 
There  are  470  dwellings  in  the  t-ship, 
and  the  population  was,  in  1830, 
3455.  In  1832,  the  t-ship  contained 
550  taxables,  235  householders,  whose 
ratable  estate  did  not  exceed  30  dol- 
lai's,  83  single  men,  22  merchants, 
289  horses  and  mules,  579  neat  cat- 
tle over  3  years  of  age ;  and  it  paid 
in  1833,  state  tax,  .1^3 13  13;  county, 
$819  17;  road,  $800;  poor,  $900. 
The  t-ship  has  a  house  and  farm  of 
50  acres,  upon  which  its  poor  are 
kept. 

This  town  was  the  first  English 
settlement  made  in  the  state.  The 
land  was  purchased  for  a  company 
called  the  Elizabethtown  Associates, 
from  the  Indians  in  1664.  These 
Associates,  74  in  number,  were  origi- 
nally from  Jamaica,  Long  Island. 
They  held  adversely  to  Berkeley  and 
Carteret,  the  grantees  of  the  Duke  of 
York;  and  their  pertinacious  adhe- 
rence to  the  right,  real,  or  supposed, 
obtained  under  the  Indian  grant,  ^\'us 
cause  of  disturbance  and  commotion, 
not  only  during  the  government  of 
the  proprietaries,  but  for  many  years 
of  the  royal  administration.  During 
the  revolution,  the  town  suffered  much 
from  its  contiguity  to  New  York.  On 
the   21st   January,   1780,   the    first 


Presbyterian  church  was  burned  by 
the  British,  and  in  the  following  No- 
vember, its  minister,  the  Rev.  James 
Caldwell,  was  shot. 

Elizabethtown  is  a  desirable  resi- 
dence, whether  health,  business,  or 
pleasure,  be  in  view.  The  excellent 
order  and  morals  which  prevail  here, 
the  advantages  derived  from  its 
schools,  the  short  distance  from  New 
York,  to  which  the  inhabitants,  three 
times  a  day,  have  access,  by  steam- 
boats from  the  Point,  and  at  other 
times  by  stages;  the  rail-road  now 
being  constructed  through  the  town, 
and  that  to  be  made  by  Somerville  to 
Belvidere,  cannot  fail  to  increase  its 
population,  and  the  price  of  its  lands. 
The  town  is  built  upon  streets  un- 
commonly wide,  and  has  many  very 
handsome  buildings,  surrounded  by 
large  well  improved  lots.  The  t-ship 
was  originally  incorporated  by  Go- 
vernor Philip  Carteret,  about  the 
same  time  as  its  neighbour  Wood- 
bridge,  by  a  most  liberal  charter; 
and  subsequently,  28th  November, 
1789,  by  act  of  Assembly,  with 
bounds  including  parts  of  the  present 
adjacent  townships.  Its  area  has 
been  greatly  diminished  by  various 
acts.  The  corporate  officers  of  the 
'■'•Borough  of  Elizabeth^''  are  a  may- 
or, deputy  mayor,  recorder,  seven  al- 
dermen or  assistants,  a  sheriff,  coro- 
ner, treasurer,  clerk,  high  constable, 
and  seven  constables.  It  has  power 
to  regulate  general  police,  markets, 
roads,  &c.,  and  has  a  court  of  com- 
mon pleas  and  general  sessions, 
holden  4  times  annually,  vdth  a  ju- 
risdiction like  to,  and  exclusive  of, 
that  of  the  county  courts.  At  Eliza- 
bethtown Point  there  was  formerly  a 
ferry  by  which  passengers,  from  and 
to  New  York,  crossed  to  Staten 
Island. 

Ellishvrg,  small  hamlet,  of  Wa- 
terford  t-ship,  Gloucester  co.,  6  miles 
S.  E.  from  Camden,  9  miles  N.  E. 
from  Woodbury,  and  2  from  Had- 
donfield ;  contains  a  tavern,  store, 
smith  shop,  and  several  dwellings. 

Elsinborough,  t-ship,  Salem  co., 
bounded  N.  by  Salcjn  creek,  and  Sa- 


ENG 


138 


ESS 


lein  t-ship,  E.  by  Lower  AUoways 
t-ship,  S.  by  Alloways  creek;  and 
W.  by  the  Delaware  river.  Cen- 
trally distant  from  the  town  of  Sa- 
lem, 3  miles ;  greatest  length  N.  and 
S.  6  miles;  breadth  E.  and  W.  4 
miles ;  area,  about  8000  acres ;  sur- 
face, level ;  soil,  rick  loam  and  marsh 
meadow,  highly  cultivated.  The 
t-ship  is  drained  by  Alloways  creek 
on  the  south,  and  Salem  creek  on  the 
north.  Population  in  1830,  503.  In 
1832,  the  l-ship  contained  56  house- 
holders, whose  ratables  did  not  ex- 
ceed 30  dollars,  117  taxables,  118 
horses  and  mules,  and  547  neat  cat- 
tle, above  the  age  of  3  years. 

Empty  Box  Run,  Upper  B'reehold 
t-ship,  Monmouth  co.,  a  small  branch 
of  the  Assunpink  creek. 

Englishfown,  p-t.,  of  Freehold 
t-ship,  Monmouth  co.,  upon  Matcha- 
ponix  creek,  near  the  N.  W.  boun- 
dary of  the  t-ship  and  county ;  con- 
tains a  grist  mill,  2  taverns,  2  stores, 
and  about  30  dwellings,  surrounded 
by  a  light  sandy  soil. 

English  Neighbourhood,  pleasant 
village,  of  Ilackensack  t-ship,  Rergen 
CO.,  5  )iiiles  S.  E.  from  llackensack- 
town,  and  51  from  Hoboken,  on  the 
turnpike  road  to  Ilackensack ;  con- 
tains a  post-otlice,  a  Dutch  Relormed 
church,  and  a  church  of  Chris-ti-ans, 
3  taverns,  2  stores,  and  from  15  to 
20  dwellings.  This  village  is  at  a 
convenient  distance  from  New  York, 
by  a  good  road,  which,  through  a 
pleasant  country,  affords  a  very 
agreeable  drive  on  a  summer's  after- 
noon, to  the  business-worn  citizens. 

English  Creefc,  a  smart  mill  stream, 
of  Egg  Harbour  t-ship;  Gloucester 
CO.,  which  flows  by  a  S.  W.  course 
of  4  or  5  miles,  into  the  Great  Egg 
Harbour  river,  about  5  miles  from  the 
bay. 

English  Creek,  a  tributary  of  the 
ilackensack  river,  which  rises,  and 
has  its  course,  in  ilackensack  t-ship, 
I3ergen  co.;  and  almost  the  whole  of 
its  length  of  7  miles  is  through  a  ce- 
dar swamp.  This  creek  formed  the 
deR-nce  of  th(^  garrison  of  3000,  who 
retreated  from  Fort  Lee,  attacked  by 


Lord  Cornwallis,  18th  November, 
1776. 

Essex  County,  had  its  boundaries 
fixed  by  act  21st  January,  1709-10, 
commencing  at  the  mouth  of  I^ah- 
way  river,  where  it  falls  into  the 
Staten  Island  Sound ;  thence  up  the 
river  to  Robeson's  branch;  thence 
west  to  the  line  between  the  former 
eastern  and  western  divisions  of  the 
colony ;  thence  by  the  same  line,  to 
Pequannock  river,  where  it  meets  the 
Passaic  river;  thence  down  the  Pas- 
saic to  the  Bay  and  Sound ;  thence 
down  the  Sound  to  the  place  of  be- 
ginning. These  limits  were  modified 
by  the  act  of  4th  November,  1741, 
annexing  part  of  the  county  to  Somer- 
set. Essex  is  now  bounded  W.  N. 
and  E.  by  the  Passaic  river,  which 
separates  it,  W.  and  N.  W.  from  Mor- 
ris CO.,  N.  and  E.  from  Bergen  co.,  S. 
E.  by  Newark  bay  and  Long  Island 
Sound,  S.  by  Middlesex  co.,  and  S. 
W.  by  Somerset  co.  Greatest  length 
N.  and  S.  28  miles,  breadth  E.  and 
W.  19  miles;  area  in  acres,  154,680, 
or  241  ^:  square  miles.  Central  lat. 
40°  45'  N.;  long.  2°  45'  E.  from 
W.  C. 

Geologically  considered,  this  coun- 
ty will  be  classed  with  the  secondary 
or  transition  formation,  as  the  old  red 
sandstone  shall  be  determined  to  be- 
long to  either.  The  whole  seems 
based  upon  this  substratum.  It  is 
crossed,  however,  diagonally  from  S. 
W.  to  N.  E.,  by  2  mountain  ridges, 
entering  New  Providence  and  West- 
field  t-ships  from  Somerset  county, 
which  extend  for  25  miles,  unbroken 
by  any  stream  of  water,  to  the  Pas- 
saic, at  Paterson.  These  are  known 
by  the  local  names  of  First  and  Se- 
cond Mountains,  and  the  latter  by 
that  of  Short  Hills.  These  ridges, 
from  1  to  2  miles  asunder,  are  of 
trap  formation,  and  in  some  points  as- 
sume, particularly  at  the  Great  and 
Little  Falls,  on  the  I'assaic,  a  colum- 
nar character  and  appearances  of  the 
action  of  fire  in  their  cellular  form, 
which  support  the  igneous  origin  of 
that  rock.  These  hills,  generally 
covered  with  wood,  send  forth  tribu- 


ESS 


139 


ESS 


taries  to  the  cardinal  points  of  the  i 
compass,  and  their  rocky  basis  have 
caused  the  beautiful  cataracts  of  the 
Passaic  Falls. 

The  great  river  of  the  county  is 
the  Passaic,  whose  main  stream  en- 
compasses it  on  all  sides,  save  the 
south,  and  receives,  with  few  excep- 
tions, all  the  other  streams.  On 
the  west  of  the  mountains,  these 
tributaries  are  Deep,  Pine,  Black 
Rock,  Meadow,  and  River  Canoe, 
brooks;  on  the  east.  Second  and 
Third  rivers,  and  several  inconsidera- 
ble streams.  Peckman's  river  runs 
northward,  in  the  valley  between  the 
mountains,  emptying  into  the  Passaic, 
about  2  miles  below  the  Little  Falls. 
The  Rahway  river,  which  rises  in 
the  same  valley,  and  whose  source 
is  not  a  mile  south  of  the  former, 
runs  by  an  opposite  course  into  Staten 
Island  Sound.  Green  brook,  which 
rises  in  the  Short  Hills,  has  a  south- 
west course  to  the  Raritan,  on  the 
line  below  Somerset  and  Middlesex 
counties.  On  the  east  side  of  the 
mountains,  there  are  2  noted  chaly- 
beate springs;  one  in  Acquackanonck, 
and  the  other  in  Orange  township. 

The  soil  of  the  county  is  generally 
of  red  shale,  except  where  formed  of 
the  debris  of  the  mountains.  The 
first  is  almost  every  where  well  cul- 
tivated, and  in  many  places  highly 
productive  in  grain  and  grass;  and, 
as  a  large  proportion  of  the  popula- 
tion is  employed  in  manufactures,  an 
advantageous  market  is  produced  at 
the  door  of  the  farmer  for  all  his  pro- 
ductions ;  consequently,  the  whole 
country,  almost  without  exception, 
has  the  air  of  growing  wealth  and 
present  enjoyment.  A  large  portion 
of  the  surface  of  the  county,  on  each 
side  of  the  mountains  is  level,  but 
some  of  it,  hilly. 

The  principal  towns  are  on  the 
east  of  the  mountain;  Newark,  the 
seat  of  justice ;  Paterson,  Weasel, 
Acquackanonck,  Bloomfield,  Belle- 
ville, Orange,  South  Orange,  Camp- 
town,     Springfield,     Elizabethtown, 


Rahway,  Westfield,   Scotch   Plains, 

Plainfield,  &c. 

Four  turnpike  roads  cross  the 
county,  north-westerly,  leading  from 
Elizabethtown,  Newark,  and  Jersey 
City,  respectively. 

In  the  north  part  of  the  county,  a 
considerable  portion  of  the  agricultu- 
ral population  is  of  Dutch  descent, 
whilst  the  south  has  been  peopled 
from  English  sources,  and  principally 
from  Long  Island  and  New  Eng- 
land. The  inhabitants  have  the  love 
of  order,  decorum,  industry,  and 
thrift  of  their  ancestors. 

In  1830,  the  census  gave  an  ag- 
gregate of  41,911  souls,  of  whom 
20,242  were  white  males;  19,502 
white  females;  921  free  coloured 
males;  1018  free  coloured  females; 
107  male  slaves;  111  female  slaves. 
There  were  1176  aliens;  whites,  deaf 
and  dumb  27,  and  22  blind ;  and  1 
coloured  person  blind. 

In  1832,  the  county  contained  7710 
taxables,  3370  householders,  whose 
ratable  estates  did  not  exceed  830; 
1412  single  men,  306  merchants,  42 
grist  mills,  22  cotton,  and  13  wool- 
len manufactories,  41  saw  mills,  5 
furnaces,  5  carding  machines,  19 
paper  mills,  1  fulling  mill,  223  tan 
vats,  3  bleaching  and  printing  esta- 
blishments for  cotton,  &.C.,  and  5  dis- 
tilleries. Besides  these  sources  of 
trade,  a  very  large  business  is  done 
in  the  manufacture  of  shoes  and  hats 
for  foreign  markets. 

In  the  same  year,  the  county  paid 
state  tax,  $3822  04,  county  tax, 
$10,000,  poor  tax,  $10,570,  road 
tax,  $10,204. 

The  means  for  moral  improvement 
consist  of  many  religious  institutions, 
such  as  churches  pertaining  to  Epis- 
copalians, Presbyterians,  Methodists, 
Baptists,  and  Dutch  Reformed — bible, 
missionary,  and  temperance  societies ; 
academies  in  the  principal  towns,  at 
which  the  languages  and  the  higher 
branches  of  an  English  education  are 
taught,  and  common  and  Sunday 
schools,  in  every  vicinity. 


EVE  140  FAI 

STATISTICAL  TABLE  OF  ESSEX  COUNTY. 


^ 

13 

I 

1 

Population. 

Townships,  «&c. 

be 

a 

cs 

Area.            Surface. 

1810. 

1820. 

1880. 

Acquackanonck, 

7 

H 

14,000hilly, 

2023 

3338 

7710 

Bloomfield, 

5 

42 

14,000    do. 

3085 

4309 

Caldwell, 

7 

6 

16,500,    do. 

2235 

2020 

2004 

Elizabeth, 

5 

3i 

10,000i    do. 

2977 

3515 

3455 

Livingston, 

5 

4i 

13,000    do. 

1056 

1150 

Newark, 

7 

6 

12,000  level, 

8008 

6507 

10,953 

New  Providence, 

6 

2. 

7680  pt.  hill,  pt.  valley. 

756 

768 

910 

Orange, 

7 

5 

14,000  hilly,  rolling, 

2266 

2830 

3887 

Rahway, 

8 

4i 

10,000  level, 

1779 

1945 

1983 

Springfield, 

6 

5 

13,500  hilly. 

2360 

1804 

1653 

Union, 

5i 

5 

12,000>vel, 

142S 

1567 

1405 

Westfield, 

7 

6 

18,000 

pt.  hilly  pt.  level, 

2152 

2358 

2492 

154,680 

25,984 

30,793 

41,911 

Etna,  furnace  and  forge,  and  grist 
and  saw  mills,  on  Tuckahoe  creek, 
Weymouth  t-ship,  Gloucester  co., 
about  15  miles  from  the  sea. 

Everittstown,  Alexandria  t-ship, 
Hunterdon  co.,  11  miles  N.  W.  of 
Flemington,  upon  the  Nischisakawick 
creek,  contains  1  tavern,  a  grist  mill, 
a  Methodi.st  church,  and  several  dvvell- 
ings. 

Evesham  t-ship,  Burlington  co., 
bounded  on  the  N.  E.  and  E.  by 
Northampton  t-ship,  S.  E.  by  Wash- 
ington t-ship,  S.  W.  by  Waterford 
t-ship,  Gloucester  co.,  and  on  the 
N.  W.  by  Chester  t-ship.  Centrally 
distant  S.  W.  from  Mount  Holly  8 
miles;  gi*eatest  length  N.  and  S. 
15  miles;  breadth  10  miles;  area, 
67,000  acres;  surface,  generally 
level;  soil,  sand  and  sandy  loam; 
the  north-v/cstern  portion  jjrefty  well 
cultivated  and  productive.  The  south 
branch  of  the  Rancocus  forms,  in 
part,  the  N.  E.  boundary ;  Haines' 
creek,  and  several  other  tributaries, 
are  on  the  E.;  and  on  the  S.  the  t-ship 
is  drained  by  the  head  waters  of  the 
Little  Egg  Harbour  river.  Evesham, 
Medford,  Colestown,  Lumberton, 
Fostertown,  Evesham  Cross  Roads, 
Bodine,  Cropwell,  «Sic.  arc  the  villages 
of  the  t-ship,  the  two  first  are  po.st- 
towns;  population  in  1*^30,  4:239.  In 
1832    the   f-ship    contained  taxables 


850,  householders  366,  whose  rata- 
bles  did  not  exceed  $30,  single  men 
90,  stores  9,  saw  mills  12,  gri.st  mills 
7,  fulling  mills  2,  distilleries  for  cider 
4,  phaetons  and  chaises  3,  two  horse 
stages  1,  dearborns  40,  covered  wa- 
gons 221,  chairs  and  curricles  39, 
gigs  and  sulkies  11,  2303  neat  cattle, 
and  1016  horses  and  mules,  above  3 
years  old ;  and  it  paid  state  tax,  $607 
21;  county  tax,  $2119  15;  and  t-.ship 
tax,  $1500. 

Eiiesham,  p-t.,  Evesham  t-ship, 
Burhngton  co.,  8  miles  S.  W.  from 
Mount  Holly,  and  4  miles  S.  E.  from 
Moorestown,  34  from  Trenton,  and 
147  from  W.  C;  contains  a  Quaker 
meeting  house  and  several  dwellings. 

Evesham  Cross  Roads,  Evesham 
t-ship,  Burlington  co.,  6  miles  S.  W. 
from  Mount  llolly. 

Ewing''s  NecJi,  on  the  Delaware 
bay,  between  Tarkiln  creek  and  Mau- 
rice river  t-ship,  Cumberland  co. 

Factory  Branch,  of  Cedar  creek, 
small  stream  of  Dover  t-ship,  Mon- 
mouth CO. 

Fairfeld  t-ship,  Cumberland  co., 
is  bounded  on  the  N.  by  Deerfield, 
Hopewell,  and  Greenwich  t-ships, 
from  the  two  last  of  which,  it  is  sepa- 
rated by  the  Cohansey  creek ;  E.  by 
Milleville  t-ship,  and  S.  by  Downe 
t-ship  and  the  Delaware  bay.  Cen- 
trally   distant   S.    from  Bridijeton  7 


FAI 


141 


FLA 


miles;  greatest  length  E.  and  W.  15 
miles;  breadth  8  miles ;  area,  46,720 
acres;  surface,  level;  soil,  with  the 
exception  of  a  strip  of  marsh  and  up- 
land on  the  bay,  the  latter  of  which 
is  clay  and  loam,  is  of  sand.  The 
t-ship  is  drained  on  the  north  line  by 
the  Cohansey  creek,  on  the  south  line 
by  Nantuxet  creek,  and  intermediate- 
ly, by  several  small  streams,  of  which 
Cedar  creek  is  the  most  considerable ; 
all  of  which  flow  westward  ;  eastw^ard 
it  sends  forth  some  small  tributaries 
to  Maurice  river  ;  population  in  1830, 
1812.  In  1832  there  were  in  the 
t-ship  410  taxables,  105  household- 
ers, whose  ratables  did  not  exceed 
in  value  $30;  9  stores,  6  run  of 
stones  for  grinding  grain ;  2  saw 
mills,  1  tanneiy,  310  horses,  and 
1188  neat  cattle,  above  3  years  old  ; 
and  it  paid  road  tax,  $100;  county 
and  state  tax,  $868  55.  Cedarville 
and  Fairton  are  post-towns  of  the 
t-ship.  There  are  in  the  t-ship  a 
Presbyterian  and  Methodist  church. 

Fairfield,  small  village,  in  the 
northern  part  of  Caldwell  t-ship, 
Essex  CO.;  contains  a  Dutch  Reform- 
ed church,  and  some  8  or  1 0  dwellings, 
distant  1 1  miles  north  west  from  New- 
ark. 

Fairton,  p-t.  of  Fairfield  t-ship, 
Cumberland  co.,  in  the  fork  formed 
by  Mill  creek  and  Rattle  Snake  run, 
which  unite  and  flow  into  Cohansey 
creek ;  distant  about  4  miles  S.  of 
Bridgeton,  179  N.  E.  from  W.  C, 
and  73  S.  from  Trenton ;  contains 
from  30  to  40  dwellings,  2  stores,  a 
Methodist  church,  and  about  200  in- 
habitants. There  is  also  a  Presbyte- 
rian church  near  the  town.  Marl  has 
been  lately  discovered  here  on  the 
estate  of  Michael  Swing,  the  use  of 
which  adds  much  to  the  fertility  of 
the  lands. 

Fairvietv,  or  Quakertown,  p-t.  of 
Kingwood  t-ship,  Hunterdon  co.,  7 
miles  N.  W.  of  Flemington,  29  from 
Trenton,  and  188  from  W.  C;  con- 
tains a  Quaker  meeting  house,  2 
stores,  a  tavern,  and  some  12  or  15 
dwellings,  and  several  mechanics' 
shops.     The  soil  here  is  a  stiff  clay. 


which  is  becoming  fertile  by  the  use 
of  lime. 

Faraway  Branch,  small  tributary 
of  Hospitality  creek,  an  arm  of  the 
Great  Egg  Harbour  river,  in  Franklin 
and  Deptford  t-ships,  Gloucester  co. 

Fenwicke  Creek,  Mannington  t-sp. 
Salem  co.,  named  after  John  Fen- 
wicke, the  first  Quaker  settler  in  this 
country,  rises  by  two  branches,  one 
of  which,  and  the  main  stem,  form 
the  eastern  and  northen  boundary  of 
Salem  t-ship,  separating  it  from  Man- 
nington. The  greatest  length  of  the 
stream  may  be  6  miles.  It  empties 
into  Salem  creek,  at  the  town  of  Sa- 
lem, where  it  is  crossed  by  a  neat 
covered  bridge,  to  which  it  is  navi- 
gable. 

Finesville,  small  village  on  the 
Musconetcong  creek,  a  mile  above 
its  mouth,  and  19  miles  S.  W.  from 
Belvidere,  the  county  town,  and  8 
from  Easton;  lies  in  a  very  narrow 
but  fertile  valley ;  contains  a  grist 
mill,  saw  mill,  and  oil  mill,  a  woollen 
manufactory,  1  tavern,  1  store,  and 
fi'om  15  to  20  dwellings. 

Finn^s  Point,  a  noted  point  on  the 
Delaware,  of  Lower  Penn's  Neck 
t-ship,  Salem  co.,  about  4  miles  above 
Salem  creek,  and  1  above  Fort  Dela- 
ware. It  has  its  name  from  the  first 
landing  or  residence  of  the  Finn's 
here. 

Fishing  Creek,  a  small  stream  of 
Downe  t-ship,  which  flows  from  Ora- 
noken  creek,  through  the  salt  marsh, 
into  the  Delaware  bay. 

Fishing  Creek,  S.  W.  boundary  of 
Middle  t-ship.  Cape  May  co.,  flows 
westerly  4  or  5  miles  to  the  Dela- 
ware bay.  It  gives  name  to  a  post- 
office;  distant  109  miles  from  W.  C., 
and  112  from  Trenton. 

Five  Mile  Beach,  between  Here- 
ford and  Turtle  Gut  inlets,  partly  in 
Middle  and  partly  in  Lower  t-ship, 
Cape  May  co.,  of  a"  wedge-like  form, 
having  in  its  greatest  width  about  a 
mile. 

Flaggtown,  p-t.,  of  Hillsborough 
t-ship,  Somerset  co.,  6  miles  S.  W. 
from  Somerville ;  contains  1  tavern, 
and  about  a  dozen  houses.     It  is  1 91 


FLE 


142 


FOR 


miles  N.  E.  from  W.  C,  and  25  from 

Xrenton. 

Flanders,  p-t.,  of  Roxbury  t-ship, 
Morris  co.,  in  the  valley  of  the  south 
branch  of  the  Raritan  river,  and  in  a 
fertile  country,  at  the  east  foot  of 
Schooley's  mountain,*  13  miles  N. 
W.  of  Morristown,  54  N.  E.  from 
Trenton,  and  220  from  W.  C. ;  con- 
tains a  grist  and  saw  mill,  a  Metho- 
dist church,  a  school,  2  taverns,  2 
stores,  and  from  20  to  25  dwellings. 

Flatkill,  Big  and  Little,  creeks, 
of  Sussex  CO.,  both  of  which  rise  in 
Montague  t-ship,  and  unite  near  the 
southern  boundary  of  Sandistone 
t-ship;  thence  the  stream  flows  S.  W. 
into  the  river  Delaware,  at  the  Wal- 
pack  Bend.  The  course  of  the  main 
stream  is  parallel  with  the  Blue  moun- 
tain from  its  source,  and  for  the 
length  of  25  miles,  in  which  it  re- 
ceives some  inconsiderable  and  inno- 
minate tributaries  from  the  mountain. 

Flat  lirookville,  post-office,  San- 
dystone  t-ship,  Sussex  co.,  247  miles 
N.  E.  from  AV.  C,  and  89  from  Tren- 
ton. 

Flcmington,  p-t.,  of  Hunterdon  co., 
situate  at  the  northern  extremity  of 
the  valley,  lying  between  Rock  moun- 
tain and  Mount  Carmcl,  and  near  the 
S.  E.  foot  of  the  latter,  and  2  miles 
E.  of  the  south  branch  of  the  Raritan 
river,  23  miles  N.  from  Trenton,  45 
from  Philadelphia,  and  182  from  W. 
C,  25  N.  W.  from  Brunswick,  and 
25  S.  E.  from  Easton ;  the  two  last 
are  the  principal  markets  for  this  por- 
tion of  the  country.  The  surface  for 
many  miles  south  and  east  is  gently 
undulating;  the  valley  between  the 
moimtains  extending  about  8  miles ; 
the  soil  is  of  red  shale,  underlaid  by 
the  old  red  sandstone  formation,  and 
if  not  generous  in  spontaneous  pro- 
duction, is  grateful  for  the  careful 
cultivation  it  receives,  yielding  abun- 
dance of  grass,  wheat,  rye,  oats,  In- 
dian corn,  and  flax  ;  of  the  last,  many 
farmers  sow  from  12  to  15  acres,  for 
the  product  of  which  fhey  find  a  ready 
market  at  Philadelphia.  The  town 
is  also  famed  for  excellent  cheese, 
made  at  the  extensive  dairy  of  Mr. 


Capner.  Much  attention  is  also  given 
here  to  raising  horses,  of  which  the 
breeds  are  greatly  admired,  and  ea- 
gerly sought  for.  The  town  contains 
50  dwellings,  and  about  300  inha- 
bitants; a  very  neat  Presbyterian 
church,  of  stone,  built  about  35  years 
since;  a  Methodist  church,  of  brick, 
a  neat  building ;  and  a  Baptist  church, 
of  wood ;  two  schools,  one  of  which 
is  an  incorporated  academy,  and  3 
Sunday  schools ;  a  public  library,  un- 
der the  care  of  a  company  also  in- 
corporated; a  court-house,  of  stone, 
rough-cast,  having  a  Grecian  front, 
with  columns  of  the  Ionic  order. 
The  basement  story  of  this  building 
is  used  as  the  county  prison :  the  se- 
cond, contains  an  uncommonly  large 
and  well  disposed  room  for  the  court : 
the  third,  a  grand  jury  room ;  and 
other  apartments.  From  the  cupola, 
which  surmounts  the  structure,  there 
is  a  delightful  prospect  of  the  valley, 
bounded  by  mountains  on  the  S.  and 
S.  W.,  but  almost  unlimited  on  the 
S.  E.,  and  of  the  hill,  which  rises  by 
a  graceful  and  gentle  slope  on  the  N. 
and  N.  W.,  ornamented  with  well 
cultivated  farms  to  its  very  summit. 
The  houses,  built  upon  one  street, 
are  neat  and  comfortable,  with  small 
court  yards  in  front,  redolent  with 
flowei's,  aromatic  shrubs  and  creep- 
ing vines.  The  county  offices,  de- 
tached from  the  court-house,  are  of 
brick  and  fire-proof.  There  arc  here, 
5  lawyers,  2  physicians;  a  journal, 
published  weekly,  called  the  Hunter- 
don Gazette,  edited  by  Mr.  Charles 
George;  a  fire  engine,  with  an  in- 
corj)()rated  flre  association.  The  name 
of  the  i)Iace  is  from  its  founder,  Mr. 
Fleming,  who  resided  here  before  the 
revolution.  A  valuable  deposit  of 
copper  is  said  to  have  been  lately 
found  here. 

Fork  Bridge,  over  Maurice  river, 
about  2  miles  below  the  village  of 
Malaga,  on  the  line  between  Glou- 
cester, Salem  and  Cumberland  coun- 
ties. It  takes  its  name  from  the  fork 
of  the  river  above  it.  There  are 
here  two  mills  and  several  dwellings. 

Forked  River,  Dover  t-ship,  Mon- 


FRA 


143 


FRA 


mouth  CO.,  rises  at  the  foot  of  the 
Forked  river  mountains,  and  flows 
E.,  about  10  miles,  to  the  Atlantic 
ocean. 

Forked  River  Mountains,  two 
considerable  sand  hills  in  the  south- 
ern part  of  Dover  t-ship,  Monmouth 
county. 

Forstertoicn,  Evesham  t-ship,  Bur- 
lington CO.,  6  miles  S.  of  Mount  Hol- 
ly, is  a  cluster  of  some  8  or  10  farm 
houses,  upon  an  excellent  soil  of 
sandy  loam,  highly  cultivated. 

Fortesciie  Creek,  Downe  t-ship, 
Cumberland  co.,  flows  from  the  Oran- 
oken  creek,  through  the  salt  marsh 
into  the  Delaware  bay. 

Fort  Lee,  on  the  North  river,  and 
in  Hackensack  t-ship,  Bergen  co., 
about  5  miles  E.  of  Hackensack 
town.  This  was  a  noted  post  dur- 
ing the  revolutionary  war,  command- 
ins  in  common  with  Fort  Washing- 
ton,  on  the  New  York  side,  the  na- 
vigation of  the  river.  Both  forts 
were  strongly  garrisoned  by  the  Ame- 
rican troops,  and  bridled  the  English 
forces  in  New  York,  after  the  battle 
of  Long  Island.  Possession  of  them 
was  unfortunately  holden  after  their 
insufficiency  to  prevent  the  passage 
up  the  river  by  the  British  vessels  had 
been  experimentally  proven.  The 
capture  of  Fort  Washington  lost  the 
Americans  3000  men,  and  the  like 
number  in  Fort  Lee  were  saved  from 
the  same  fate  only  by  the  timely 
abandonment  of  the  works,  by  order 
of  Gen.  Greene,  on  the  18th  Novem- 
ber, 1776.  A  metallic  vein  was 
worked  near  this  fort,  at  the  com- 
mencement of  the  American  war, 
under  the  impression  that  it  contain- 
ed gold.  But  it  has  been  determined 
by  Dr.  Torrey,  that  the  ore  is  pyri- 
tous  and  green  carbonate  of  copper, 
in  a  matrix  of  quartz  and  siliceous 
and  calcareous  breccia,  dipping  under 
green  sandstone. 

Frankford  t-ship,  Sussex  co., 
bounded  N.  by  Wantage;  E.  by 
Hardiston;  S.  by  Newton,  and  W. 
by  Sandiston  t-ship.  Centrally  dis- 
tant, N.  from  Newton,  8  miles; 
greatest  length,  11 ;  breadth,  8  miles; 


area,  28,800  acres.  The  surface  of 
the  t-ship  is  hilly  towards  the  west ; 
the  boundary  on  that  side  running  on 
the  Blue  mountain.  The  remainder 
consists  of  valley  lands.  At  the  foot 
of  the  mountain,  Long  pond  and  Cul- 
ver's pond,  are  the  principal  sources 
of  Paulinskill  creek,  which  flows 
S.  W.  towards  the  Delaware.  On 
the  N.  the  t-ship  is  drained  by  the 
Papakating  creek,  a  tributary  of  the 
Wallkill  river.  Two  turnpike  roads, 
that  from  Morristown  to  the  De- 
laware, opposite  Milford,  running 
north-west,  and  the  Newton  and 
Bolton,  running  north-east,  cross  the 
township.  Augusta  and  Branchville 
are  post  towns,  lying  on  the  for- 
mer. Population  "^  in  "^  1 830,  1996. 
Taxables  in  1832,  370.  There  were 
in  the  t-ship,  in  1832,  110  house- 
holders, whose  ratables  did  exceed 
830;  6  stores,  14  run  of  stones  for 
grinding  grain,  2  carding  machines ; 
1  fulling  mill,  460  horses  and  mules, 
and  1540  neat  cattle,  above  three 
years  old ;  48  tan  vats,  5  distilleries. 
The  t-ship  paid  state  and  county  tax, 
$812  70;  poor  tax,  8900;  road  tax, 
8800.  Lime  and  slate  alternate  in 
sevei'al  veins  or  beds,  in  the  town- 
ship.   Their  soils  are  fertile. 

Franklin  t-ship,  Somerset  co., 
bounded  N.  by  Bridge  water  t-ship 
and  river;  N.  E.  by  Raritan  river, 
separating  it  from  Piscataway  t-ship, 
Middlesex  co. ;  S.  E.  by  North  and 
South  Brunswick  t-ships,  of  that 
county ;  and  S.  W.  and  W.  by 
Millstone  river,  dividing  it  from  Mont- 
gomery and  Hillsborough  t-ships, 
Somerset  co.  Centrally  distant,  S. 
E.,  from  Somerville,  7  miles.  Great- 
est length,  N.  E.  and  S.  W.,  13,- 
breadth,  E.  and  W.,  8  miles;  area, 
about  30,000  acres.  Surface  on  the 
S.  W.,  hilly,  elsewhere  gently  un- 
dulating. Drained  by  the  Millstone 
and  Raritan  rivers,  and  by  several 
tributaries,  of  which  Six.  Mile  Run  is 
the  chief.  Griggstown  is  a  village  of 
the  t-ship;  near  it,  at  the  foot  of  Rocky 
hill,  is  a  deposit  of  copper  ore,  not 
wrought.  Part  of  Kingston  and  Six 
Mile  Run  villajies  are  within  the  east 


FRA 


144 


FRE 


boundary,  on  the  Princeton  and  New 
Brunswick  turnpike.  Population  in 
1830,  3352.  In  1832,  there  were 
716  taxahles ;  67  houseliolders,  whose 
ratables  did  not  exceed  $30,  and  58 
single  men,  10  stores,  4  saw  mills, 
4  grist  mills,  13  tan-vats,  2  distil- 
leries, 862  horses  and  mules,  and 
1335  neat  cattle  above  the  age  of 
three  years;  and  it  paid,  state  tax, 
$709  30;  county,  $996   11. 

Franklin  t-ship,  Bergen  co., 
bounded  N.  by  Rockland  co.,  state 
of  New  York ;  E.  by  Saddle  river, 
which  divides  it  fi-om  Harrington 
t-ship ;  S.  by  Saddle  river  t-ship, 
and  W.  by  Pompton.  Centrally  dis- 
tant, N.  W.  from  Hackensack,  13 
miles;  greatest  length,  N.  and  S. 
10  miles;  breadth,  E.  and  W.  9 
miles;  area,  above  45,000  acres. 
There  are  elevated  grounds  on  the 
E.  and  W. ;  on  the  W.  lies  the  Ra- 
mapo  mountain.  The  greater  part 
of  the  township  is  valley,  with  undu- 
lating surface  and  diluvial  soil,  of 
gravel,  loam  and  sand,  poured  over 
a  sandstone  base;  generally  well 
cultivated  and  productive;  and  a 
large  portion  of  the  produce  is  con- 
sumed at  the  numerous  manufrictories 
of  the  townshi|).  It  is  drained  by 
the  Ramnpo  river,  coursing  the  base 
of  the  Ramapo  mountain,  in  the  N. 
W.  angle,  and  by  Saddle  river  on  the 
east  l)oundary,  with  their  tributaries. 
Population  in  1830,  3449.  In  1832, 
the  t-ship  contained  862  taxables,  83 
householders,  whose  ratables  did  not 
exceed  $30;  7  merchants,  18  grist 
mills,  13  cotton  mills,  25  saw  mills, 

3  paper  mills,  1  woollen  factory,  1 
furnace,  2  fulling  mills,  22  tan  vats, 

4  distilleries,  803  horses,  and  1780 
mules,  above  3  years  old;  and  it  paid 
state  tax,  $370  51,  county  tax, 
$753  25,  poor,  $500,  roads,  $2000. 
In  Franklin  there  are  4  Dutch  Re- 
formed,  2  Scceders,  and  2  Methodist 
churches. 

Franklin,  t-ship,  (lloucesfer  co., 
bounded  N.  E.  by  Deptlord  t-ship, 
S.  E.  by  Hamilton,  S.  VV.  by  Mill- 
villc  t-ship,  Cumberland  co.,  and 
Pittsgrovc  t-ship,  Salem  co.,  and  N. 


W.  by  Greenwich  and  Woolwich 
t-ships.  Centrally  distant,  S.  E.  from 
W^oodbury,  15  miles,  greatest  length 
16  miles;  breadth,  7  miles;  area, 
72,000  acres ;  surface,  level ;  soil, 
sandy,  and  generally  covered  with 
pine  forest.  It  is  drained  northward 
by  the  head  waters  of  Raccoon  cx'eek, 
S.  W.  by  the  sources  of  Maurice  ri- 
ver, and  S.  E.  by  branches  of  the 
Great  Egg  Harbour  river.  Glassboro', 
Malaga,  Little  Ease,  and  Union,  are 
villages  of  the  t-ship;  at  the  two  first 
are  post-offices.  There  are  iron  works 
at  Union.  Population  in  1830,  1574. 
In  1832,  the  t-ship  contained  276  4 
householders,  whose  ratables  did  not  ' 
exceed  $30;  4  stores,  2  grist  mills, 
9  saw  mills,  1  distillery,  3  glass  fac- 
tories ;  and  paid  county  tax,  $392  72, 
poor  tax,  $196  33,  and  road  tax, 
$1000. 

Franklin  Furnace,  and  village, 
Hardiston  t-ship,  Sussex  co.,  in  the 
valley  of  the  Wallkill  river,  1 1  miles 
N.  E.  of  Newton,  contains  2  forges 
of  2  fires  each,  a  cupola  furnace,  a 
blast  furnace  not  now  in  operation, 
a  woollen  manufactory  for  the  manu- 
facture of  broad  cloth,  a  grist  and 
saw  mill,  a  school  house,  and  a  new 
stone  Baptist  church,  and  24  dwell- 
ings. Dr.  Samuel  Fowler  is  the 
chief  proprietor  here,  and  is  ahke  dis- 
tinguished for  his  hospitality  and  his 
pursuit  of  mineralogy.  He  has  a 
cabinet  of  minerals  richly  meriting 
notice,  and  the  country  around  him 
is  considered  as  one  of  the  most  in- 
teresting mineral  localities  of  the 
United  States.  The  manufactures  of 
this  place  seek  a  market  at  New 
York,  or  at  Dover  and  Rockaway. 

Franklin,  small  village  of  Cald- 
well t-ship,  b^ssox  CO.,  11  miles  N. 
W.  of  Newark. 

Freehold,  Upper,  t-ship  of,  Mon- 
mouth CO.,  bounded  N.  and  N.  W.  by 
b^ast  Windsor  t-ship,  Middlesex  co., 
E.  by  Lower  Freehold,  S.  and  S.  E. 
by  Dover  t-ship,  and  W.  and  S.  W. 
by  Northampton  t-ship,  Burlington 
CO.  Centrally  distant  S.  W.  from 
PVechold,  the  countv  town,  15  miles. 
Greatest  length  N.  W.  and  S.  E.  16; 


FRE 


146 


GAL 


breadth  10  miles;  area,  about  90,000 
acres ;  surface,  level ;  soil,  clay,  sandy 
loam,  and  sand.  The  western  part 
of  the  t-ship  contains  some  excellent 
lands,  abundantly  productive  in  rye, 
corn,  oats,  and  grass ;  wheat  is  not 
a  certain  crop,  and  is  not  extensively 
cultivated.  The  south-eastern  part  of 
the  t-ship  is  covered  with  pine  forest. 
Population  in  1830,  4862.  In  1832, 
the  t-ship  contained  about  900  taxa- 
bles,  253  householders,  whose  rata- 
bles  did  not  exceed  $30 ;  80  single 
men,  20  stores,  12  saw  mills,  15  run 
of  stones  for  grain,  1  fulling  mill,  3 
carding  machines,  50  tan  vats,  16 
distilleries  for  cider,  1036  horses  and 
mules,  2438  neat  cattle,  3  years  old 
and  upward ;  and  paid  state  and  coun- 
ty taxes  to  the  amount  of  $3669  33. 
The  t-ship  is  remarkable  for  the  large 
quantities  of  pork  which  it  annually 
sends  to  market.  It  is  drained  on 
the  N.  E.  by  the  Millstone  river,  on 
the  S.  E.  by  the  head  waters  of 
Toms'  river,  N.  W.  by  Crosswick's 
creek  and  its  tributaries,  Lakaway 
and  Doctor's  creeks,  and  by  branches 
of  the  Assunpink  ;  and  S.  W.  by  the 
tributaries  of  the  Rancocus.  Wrights- 
ville,  Imlaystown,  Allentown,  Var- 
minton,  Prospertown,  and  Hernes- 
town,  are  villages  of  the  t-ship. 

Freehold,  Lower,  t-ship,  Mon- 
mouth CO.,  bounded  N.  E.  by  Mid- 
dletown  t-ship,  E.  by  Shrewsbury 
and  Howell,  S.  by  Dover,  S.  W.  by 
Upper  Freehold,  and  N.  W.  by  South 
Amboy  t-ships,  Middlesex  co.  Great- 
est length  N.  E.  and  S.  W.  23  miles; 
greatest  breadth  1 1  miles ;  area, 
104,000  acres;  surface,  level;  soil, 
sand  and  sandy  loam,  not  more  than 
half  of  which  is  in  cultivation,  being 
barren,  or  covered  with  pine  forest. 
Thei-e  are,  however,  some  very  good 
farms,  which  produce  abundance  of 
rye,  corn,  &rc.  Pork  is  also  a  staple 
product.  Englishtown  and  Freehold 
are  villages  and  post-towns.  The 
t-ship  is  drained  by  the  Millstone  ri- 
ver on  the  N.  W.;  Matcha[ionix 
brook,  a  tributary  of  the  South  river, 
on  the  north;  by  branches  of  the 
Swimming  river  on  the  N.  E.,  and 


by  arms  of  the  Manasquan  and  the 
Metetecunk  on  the  S.  E.,  and  by 
Toms'  river  on  the  south.  Popula- 
tion in  1830,  5481.  In  1832,  the 
t-ship  contained  about  1100  taxables, 
203  householders,  whose  ratables  did 
not  exceed  $30,  71  single  men,  11 
stores,  11  saw  mills,  16  run  of  grist 
mill  stones,  2  fulling  mills,  4  carding 
machines,  16  tan  vats,  14  distilleries 
for  cider,  1245  horses  and  mules, 
and  2569  neat  cattle,  3  years  ola 
and  upwards ;  and  it  paid  state  and 
county  tax,  $3563  86. 

Freehold,  or  Monmouth,  post-town 
of  Freehold  t-ship,  and  seat  of  justice 
of  Monmouth  co.,  about  4  miles  W. 
of  the  east  boundary  of  the  t-ship, 
201  miles  N.  E.  from  W.  C,  and  36 
S.  E.  from  Trenton,  situate  upon  a 
level  soil  of  sandy  loam,  which  is 
fast  improving  under  the  present 
mode  of  culture.  The  town,  though 
long  stationary,  is  now  thriving, 
and  contains  from  35  to  40  dwell- 
ings, a  court  house,  prison,  and 
public  offices,  an  Episcopal,  a  Me- 
thodist, a  Presbyterian,  Dutch  Re- 
formed, and  a  Baptist  church,  3  ta- 
verns, 5  or  6  stores,  4  practising  at- 
tornies,  2  physicians,  an  academy 
and  printing  office.  This  place  is 
noted  in  the  revolutionary  history,  on 
account  of  the  battle  of  Monmouth, 
which  was  fought  near  it. 

Frieshurg,  a  small  German  settle- 
ment of  Upper  AUoways  Creek 
t-ship,  near  the  south-east  boundary, 
12  miles  S.  E.  from  Salem,  and  5 
from  Allowaystown ;  contains  1  ta- 
vern, a  Dutch  Reformed  church,  and 
a  school. 

Fredon,  post-office,  Sussex  co.,  232 
miles  N.  E.  from  W.  C,  and  74 
from  Trentonl 

Galloway  t-ship,  Gloucester  co., 
bounded  on  the  N.  E.  by  Atsion  ri- 
ver, and  Mullica  or  Little  Egg  Har- 
bour river,  and  Great  Bay,  which 
separate  it  from  Burlington  co.,  S.  E. 
by  the  Atlantic  ocean,  S.  W.  by 
Hamilton  and  Egg  Harbour  t-ships, 
and  N.  W.  by  Gloucester  and  Here- 
ford t-ships.  Centrally  distant  S.  W. 
from  Woodbury,  35  miles;  greatest 


GIB 


146 


GLO 


length,  38;  breadth,  10  miles;  area, 
147,000  acres;  surface  level,  and  soil 
sandy.  The  sea  coast  is  girded  by 
Brigantine  beach,  within  which,  for 
a  depth  of  seven  miles,  is  a  space  co- 
vered with  lagunes  and  salt  meadows. 
Among  the  small  lakes,  Absecum, 
Reed's  and  Grass  bays,  are  the  most 
considerable.  The  remainder  of  the 
township  is  chiefly  covered  with  pine 
forest,  through  which  flow  many 
streams  of  water,  tributary  to  Little 
EfTg  Harbour  river.  Pleasant  Mills, 
Leed's  Point,  Gloucester  Furnace, 
Absecum  and  Smith's  Landing,  are 
villages  of  the  township.  Population, 
in  1830,  2960;  and  in  1820,  only 
1895,  presenting  an  instance  of  the 
greatest  increase  in  the  state.  In 
1832,  there  were  in  the  township,  as 
reported  by  the  assessor,  165  house- 
holders, whose  ratables  did  not  exceed 
$30,  7  stores,  3  grist  mills,  1  cotton 
manufactory,  1  blast  furnace,  5  saw 
mills,  375  neat  cattle,  and  205  horses 
and  mules  over  three  years  of  age. 

Georgctou'ii,  hamlet  of  Mansfield 
t-ship,  Burlington  co.,  near  the  N. 
E.  boundary  line,  6  miles  S.  E.  from 
Bordentown,  and  9  N.  E.  from  Mount 
Holly. 

Georgia,  a  small  hamlet  of  Free- 
hold t-ship,  Monmouth  co.,  5  miles 
S.  from  Freehold  town. 

German  Valley,  Washington  t-sp, 
Morris  county,  and  in  Schooley's 
mountain.  It  is  about  10  miles  long, 
varying,  in  width,  from  one  to  two 
miles.  The  soil  is  grey  limestone 
throughout,  and  is  well  cultivated, 
and  highly  productive.  The  inhabi- 
tants are  of  German  descent,  and  re- 
tain the  industrious  and  thrifty  habits 
of  their  ancestors.  The  valley  is 
drained  by  the  south  branch  of  the 
Raritan  river,  and  is  crossed  by  the 
turnpike  road  from  Morristown  to 
Easton,  which  passes  through  the 
post  town  of  Washington,  lying  in 
the  vale.  There  is  a  Presbyterian 
church  here. 

Gibson's  Creek,  small  tributary 
flowing  eastwardly  into  the  Great 
Egg  Harbour  river,  Weymouth  t-bhip, 
Gloucester  co. 


Glassboro\  p-t.  of  Franklin  t-ship, 
Gloucester  co.,  14  miles  S.  E.  from 
Woodbury,  22  from  Camden,  49 
from  Trenton,  and  155  from  W.  C; 
contains  an  Episcopal  and  Methodist 
church,  2  glass  houses  or  factories 
which  make  hollow  ware,  belonging 
to  Messrs.  Stangeer  &  Co.,  1  tavern, 
2  stores,  and  about  30  dwellings. 

Gloucester  County,  was  first  laid 
off  in  1677,  forming  one  of  the  only 
two  counties  of  West  Jersey ;  and  its 
boundaries  were  fixed  by  the  act  of 
21st  of  January,  1709-10:  begin- 
ning at  the  mouth  of  Pensaukin  creek; 
thence,  running  up  the  same  to  the 
fork  thereof;  thence  along  the  bounds 
of  Burlington  co.,  to  the  sea;  thence 
along  the  sea  coast  to  Great  Egg 
Harbour  river;  thence  up  said  river 
to  the  fork  thereof;  thence  up  the 
southernmost  and  greatest  branch  of 
the  same  to  the  head  thereof;  thence 
upon  a  direct  line  to  the  head  of  Old 
Man's  creek ;  thence  down  the  same 
to  the  Delaware  river;  thence  up 
Delaware  river  to  the  place  of  begin- 
ning. It  is,  therefore,  bounded  N. 
W.  by  the  Delaware  river,  N.  E.  by 
Burlington  co.,  S.  E.  by  the  Atlantic 
ocean,  and  S.  W.  by  the  counties  of 
Cumberland  and  Salem.  Greatest 
length,  from  Absecum  inlet,  on  the 
S.  E.  to  Red  Bank,  on  the  N.  W. 
55  miles :  greatest  breadth,  from  the 
head  of  the  Great  Egg  Harbour  bay, 
to  Tuckahoe  river,  30  miles;  area, 
1114  square  miles,  or  713,000  acres. 
Centra!  lat.  39°  40',  N.  long,  from 
W.  C.  2°  10',  E. 

The  whole  county  pertains  to 
the  alluvial  formation.  Along  the 
shores  of  the  Delaware,  and  for  se- 
veral miles  inward,  a  black  or 
dark  green  mud  is  raised  even  from 
a  depth  of  forty  feet,  in  which 
reeds  and  other  vegetables,  the  evi- 
dences of  river  alluvion,  are  distinctly 
visible.  The  remaining  part  of  the 
county  seems  to  have  been  gained 
from  the  sea;  and  beds  of  shells, 
whole  and  in  a  state  of  disintegra- 
tion, are  found,  at  various  depths,  in 
many  places.  The  green  earth,  or 
marl,  in  which  these  are  imbedded 


GLO 


147 


GLO 


together  witli  the  shells,  are  used 
with  great  advantage  upon  the  soil, 
especially  in  the  cultivation  of  grass, 
clover  particularly.  Bog  iron  ore  is 
found  near  Woodbury,  and  exported 
for  manufacture. 

The  surface  is  uniformly  level,  ex- 
cept where  worn  down  by  the  streams, 
and  the  soil  sandy;  having,  on  the 
N.  W.  an  admixture  of  loam  or  clay, 
in  many  places.  S.  E.  of  a  line  drawn 
about  7  miles  from  the  Delaware 
river,  N.  E.  across  the  county,  the 
country  is  universally  sandy  and 
covered  by  a  pine  forest,  generally, 
(but  with  occasional  cleared  patches  of 
greater  or  less  extent,)  from  which 
large  quantities  of  timber  and  cord 
wood  are  taken  for  market.  Along 
the  coast,  within  the  beach,  is  a  strip 
of  marsh  of  an  average  width  of  four 
miles,  in  which  are  lagunes,  the  chief 
of  which  are  Grass,  Reed's,  Absecum, 
and  Lake's  bays. 

The  county  is  drained  southward- 
ly by  Maurice  river,  which  flows  fruni 
it,  through  Cumberland  county,  into 
the  Delaware  bay ;  by  Tuckahoe  ri- 
ver, forming  the  line  between  it  and 
Cumberland ;  by  Great  and  Little 
Egg  Harbour  rivers,  which  rise  far 
north  in  the  county,  and  empty  into 
the  Atlantic ;  the  latter,  throughout  its 
whole  course,  forming  the  boundary 
between  Gloucester  and  Burlington 
counties.  All  these  streams  are  na- 
vigable some  miles  from  the  sea,  and 
afford  great  facilities  in  transporting 
the  lumber  and  cord  wood,  the  most 
valuable  products  of  this  region,  to 
market.  Their  inlets,  and  the  small 
bays  on  the  coast,  abound  with  oys- 
ters and  clams,  the  fishing  for  which 
gives  subsistence  to  many  of  the  in- 
habitants. These  rivers  have  also 
many  tributaries,  which  intersect  the 
forest  in  almost  every  direction.  The 
streams  on  the  N.  W.  are  Oldman's, 
Raccoon,  Little  Timber,  Repaupo, 
CloniTiell,  Mantua,  Big  Timber,  New- 
ton, Cooper's  and  Pensauken  creeks, 
most  of  which  are  navigable  lor  a 
short  distance,  and  furnish  outlets  for 
an  amazing  quantity  of  fruit  and  gar- 
den truck  and  firewood,  for  the  sup- 


ply of  the  Philadelphia  market,  and 
other  towns  on  the  western  side  of  the 
river. 

The  post  towns  of  the  township 
are,  Absecum,  Bargaintown,  Cam- 
den, an  incorporated  city.  Carpen- 
ter's Landing,  Chew's  Landing, 
Clarkesboro',  Glassboro',  Gloucester 
Furnace,  Gravelly  Landing,  Haddon- 
field,  Hammonton,  Jackson  Glass- 
works, Leeds'  Point,  Longacoming, 
Malaga,  May's  Landing,  Mullica 
Hill,  "Pleasant  Mills,  Smith's  Land- 
ing, Somers'  Point,  Stephens'  Creek, 
Sweedsboro,  Tuckahoe,  and  Wood- 
bury, the  seat  of  justice  of  the  county. 

There  are  several  academies  for 
teaching  the  higher  branches  of  edu- 
cation ;  and  primary  schools  in  most 
of  the  agricultural  neighbourhoods. 
There  are  also  established,  Sunday 
schools,  in  most,  if  not  all,  of  the  popu- 
lous villages ;  a  county  bible  society, 
various  tract  societies,  and  many  tem- 
perance associations ;  which  have  al- 
most rendered  the  immoderate  use  of 
ardent  spirits  infamous. 

In  1832,  by  the  report  of  the  asses- 
sors, the  county  contained  3075  house- 
holders, whose  ratables  did  not  ex- 
ceed $30  in  value;  978  single  men, 
102  stores,  21  fisheries,  45  grist  mills, 

2  cotton  and  2  woollen  manufactories, 
4  carding  machines,  4  blast  furnaces, 

3  forges,  63  saw  mills,  4  fulling  mills, 
8  ferries,  9  tan  yards,  29  distillei'ies, 
7  glass  factories,  2  four  horse  stage 
wagons,  967  covered  wagons  with 
fixed  tops,  204  riding  chairs,  gigs, 
sulkies,  and  pleasure  carriages,  4  two 
horse  stage  wagons,  31  dearborns 
with  steel,  iron,  or  wooden  springs ; 
and  it  paid  county  tax,  $10,000 ;  poor 
tax,  iSOOO;  and  road  tax,  $15,000; 
state  tax, 

By  the  census  of  1830  Gloucester 
CO.  contained  28,431  inhabitants,  of 
whom  13,916  were  white  males; 
12,962  white  females;  14  female 
slaves;  835  free  coloured  males; 
714  free  coloured  females.  Of  these 
there  were  deaf  and  dumb,  under  14 
years,  64;  above  14  and  under  30, 
73 ;  above  25  years,  80 ;  blind,  205 
white,  22  black ;  aliens  3365. 


GLO 


148 


GLO 


There  is  a  cx)unty  poor  bouse  esta- 
blished upon  a  farm  near  Blackwoods- 
town,  but  in  Deptford  t-ship,  contain- 
ing more  than  200  acres  of  land. 

The  following  extract  from  the  re- 
cords of  this  county,  presents  singu- 
lar features  of  the  polity  of  the  early 
settlers.  It  would  seem  that  the  in- 
habitants of  the  county  deeined  them- 
selves a  body  politic,  a  democratic 
commonwealth,  with  full  power  of 
legislation,  in  which  the  courts  parti- 
cipated, prescribing  the  punishment 
for  each  offence,  as  it  was  proven  be- 
fore them. 

Gloucester,  the  28th  May,  1686. 

By  the  proprietors,  freeholders,  and 
inhabitants  of  the  third  and  fourth 
tenths,  (alias  county  of  Gloucester) 
then  agreed  as  follows : 

Inprimus.  That  a  court  be  held  for 
the  jurisdiction  and  limits  of  the  afore- 
said tenths,  or  county,  one  time  at 
Axwamus,  alias  Gloucester,  and  at 
another  time  at  Red  Bank. 

Item.  That  there  bo  four  courts, 
for  the  jurisdiction  aforesaid,  held  in 
one  year,  at  the  days  and  times  here- 
after mentioned,  viz:  upon  the  first 
day  of  the  first  month,  upon  the  first 
day  of  the  fourth  month,  and  the  first 
day  of  the  seventh  month,  and  upon 
the  first  day  of  the  tenth  month. 

Item.  That  the  first  court  shall  be 
held  at  Gloucester  aforesaid,  upon  the 
first  day  of  September  next. 

Item.  That  all  warrants  and  sum- 
mons shall  be  drawn  by  the  clerk  of 
the  court,  and  signed  by  the  justice, 
and  so  delivered  to  the  sheriff  or  his 
deputy  to  execute. 

Item.  That  the  body  of  each  war- 
rant, &c.,  shall  contain  or  intimate 
the  nature  of  the  action. 


Item.  That  a  copy  of  the  declara- 
tion be  given  along  with  the  warrant, 
by  the  clerk  of  the  court,  that  so  the 
deft,  may  have  the  longer  time  to  con- 
sider the  same,  and  prepare  his  an- 
swer. 

Item.  That  all  summons  and  war- 
rants, &c.,  shall  be  served,  and  decla- 
rations given,  at  least  ten  days  before 
the  court. 

Item.  That  the  sherilf  shall  give 
the  jury  summons  six  days  before  the 
court  be  held,  in  which  they  are  to 
appear. 

Item.  That  all  persons  within  the 
jurisdiction  aforesaid,  bring  into  the 
next  court  the  marks  of  their  hogs, 
and  other  cattle,  in  order  to  be  ap- 
proved and  recorded. 

Rex     ^      Indict,  at  Gloucester  Ct. 

vs.  >N.  J.  10  Sept.  1686,  for 
Wilkes.  J  stealing  goods  of  Dennis 
Lins,  from  a  house  in  Philadelphia. 
Dft.  pleads  guilty,  but  was  tried  by 
jury.  Verdict  guilty,  and  that  pri- 
soner ought  to  make  pay't.  to  the 
prosecutor  of  the  sum  of  sixteen 
pounds.  Sentence.  The  bench  ap- 
points that  said  Wilkes  shall  pay  the 
aforesaid  Lins,  £16  byway  of  servi- 
tude, viz :  if  he  will  be  bound  by  in- 
dentures to  the  prosecutor,  then  to 
serve  him  the  term  of  four  years,  but 
if  he  condescended  not  thereto,  then 
the  court  awarded  that  he  should  be  a 
servant,  and  so  abide  for  the  term  of 
five  years.  And  so  be  accommodated 
in  the  time  of  his  servitude,  by  his 
master,  with  meat,  drink,  clothes, 
washing,  and  lodging,  according  to 
the  customs  of  the  country,  and  fit 
for  such  a  servant. 

In  1832  the  county  was  divided  into 
12  t-ships  as  in  the  following  table,  to 
which  Camden  is  now  to  be  added. 


GLO  149  GOD 

STATISTICAL  TABLE  OF  GLOUCESTER  COUNTY. 


^ 

T3 

P 

opulation 

Townships,  «Skc. 

bo 

c 

Area. 

1^ 

pq 

1810. 

1820. 

1830. 

Deptford, 

25 

7 

57,600 

2978 

3281 

3599 

Egg  Harbour, 

12 

12 

85,000 

1830 

1635 

2510 

Galloway, 

32 

10 

147,000 

1648 

1895 

2960 

Gloucester, 

20 

8 

60,000 

1726 

2059 

2332 

Greenwich, 

15 

7 

35,840 

2859 

2699 

2657 

Newton, 

6 

4 

9,000 

1951 

2497 

3298 

Franklin, 

16 

7 

72,000 

1137 

1574 

Hamilton, 

18 

11 

106,880 

877 

1424 

Waterford, 

25 

8 

50,000 

2105 

2447 

3088 

Weymouth, 

12 

10 

50,000 

1029 

781 

1270 

Woolwich, 

16 

7 

40,000 

3063 

3113 

3033 

Gloucestertown,  (area  in- 

662 

686 

eluded    in    Gloucester 

township.) 

713,320 

19,189 

23,089 

28,431 

Gloucester,  t-ship,  Gloucester  co., 
bounded  N.  by  Gloucestertown,  N. 
E.  by  Hereford  t-ship,  S.  E.  by  Ha- 
milton, and  S.  W.  and  W.  by  Dept- 
ford t-ship.  Centrally  distant  S.  E. 
from  Woodbury,  10  miles;  greatest 
length  N.  W.  and  S.  E.  20 ;  breadth 
8  miles  E.  and  W.  ;  area,  about 
60,000  acres ;  surface,  level ;  soil, 
sand  more  or  less  mixed  with  loam, 
and  in  the  northern  part  cultivated  in 
vegetables  and  fruit,  the  southern  be- 
ing chiefly  pine  forest,  valuable  for 
timber  and  fuel.  It  is  drained  north- 
ward by  Cooper's  creek  on  the  east- 
ern, and  Big  Timber  creek  on  the 
western  boundary,  southward  by  In- 
skeep's  branch  of  the  Great  Egg  Har- 
bour river.  Chew's  Landing,  Longa- 
coming,  Clementon,  Blackwoodtown, 
Tansborough,  and  New  Freedom, 
are  villages  of  the  t-ship ;  the  two  first 
post-towns.  Population  in  1830,2232. 
In  1832,  there  were  in  the  t-ship,  in- 
cluding Gloucestertown,  781  house- 
holders, whose  ratables  did  not  ex- 
ceed 830  in  value;  11  stores,  5  grist 
mills,  9  saw  mills,  2  tanneries,  and 
1  glass  factory;  and  it  paid  county 
tax,  $799  78;  poor  tax,  $400  73; 
road  tax,  $1000. 

Gloucestertown,  small  t-ship  of 
Gloucester  co.,  bounded  N.  by  New- 
ton, E.  and  S.  E.  by  Gloucester 
t-ship,  S.  W.  by  Big  Timber  creek. 


which  separates  it  from  Deptford 
t-ship,  and  W.  by  the  river  Delaware. 
Centrally  distant  N.  E.  from  Wood- 
bury 4  miles ;  greatest  length  E.  and 
W.  4;  breadth  N.  and  S.  3  miles. 

Gloucester,  small  town  of  Glou- 
cester t-ship,  Gloucester  co.,  on  the 
Delaware  river  opposite  Gloucester 
point;  contains  a  fishery,  a  ferry 
from  which  a  team-boat  plies,  about 
20  dwellings,  1   store,  and  1   tavern. 

Gloucester,  post-town  and  furnace 
of  Galloway  t-ship,  Gloucester  co., 
upon  Landing  creek,  a  branch  of  the 
MuUica  or  Little  Egg  Harbour  river, 
36  miles  S.  E.  from  Woodbury,  71 
from  Trenton,  and  179  from  W.  C. ; 
contains  a  furnace,  grist  and  saw 
mill,  a  store,  tavern,  and  a  number 
of  dwellings,  chiefly  for  the  accom- 
modation of  the  workmen,  of  whom 
there  are  about  60,  constantly  em- 
ployed, whose  families  may  amount 
to  300  persons.  The  furnace  makes 
annually  about  800  tons  of  iron, 
chiefly  castings,  and  has  annexed  to 
it  about  25,000  acres  of  land. 

Glover''s  Pond,  Hardwick  t-ship, 
Warren  co.,  the  extreme  source  of 
Beaver  brook. 

Godwinsville,  Franklin  t-ship,  Ber- 
gen CO.,  upon  Gofile  brook,  8  miles 
N.  W.  from  Hackensack ;  contains  1 
tavern,  2  stores,  7  cotton  mills,  hav- 
ing together  .5000  soindles,  and  from 


GOS 


150 


GRE 


45  to  50  dwellings ;  soil  around  it 
red  shale,  fertile  and  well  cultivated. 

Goffle  Brook,  rises  in  Franklin 
t-ship,  Bergen  co.,  about  a  mile  and 
a  half  E.  of  Hohokus,  and  flows  by 
a  southerly  course  of  5  miles  through 
Saddle  river  t-ship,  to  the  Passaic. 
It  is  a  rapid,  steady  stream,  and  gives 
motion  to  several  cotton  mills  at  God- 
winsville.  About  1|  miles  above  its 
mouth,  is  the  small  hamlet  called 
Goffle,  containing  5  or  6  farm  dwell- 
ings. 

Goodwatcr  Rim,  small  tributary  of 
Batsto  river,  Washington  t-ship,  Bur- 
lington CO.,  uniting  with  the  river  at 
the  head  of  Batsto  furnace  pond. 

Good  Luck,  town,  or  more  pro- 
perly neighbourhood,  of  Dover  t-ship, 
Monmouth  co.,  a  little  S.  W.  of  Cedar 
creek  or  Williamsburgh,  separated 
from  Barnegat  bay  by  a  strip  of  salt 
marsh,  and  surrounded  by  a  pine  fo- 
rest and  sandy  soil. 

Good  Luck  Point,  Dover  t-ship, 
Monmouth  co.,  on  the  S.  side  of 
Toms'  bay,  at  its  junction  with  Bar- 
negat bay. 

Goose  Creek,  Dover  t-ship,  Mon- 
mouth CO.,  puts  in  from  Barnegat 
bay,  2  miles  N.  of  Toms'  bay. 

Goose  Pond,  on  the  sea  shore  of 
Shrewsbury  t-ship,  Monmouth  co., 
about  2  miles  above  the  south  boun- 
dary of  ilic  t-ship. 

Goshen,  village  of  Upper  Freehold 
t-ship,  Monmouth  co.,  and  near  the 
head  of  Toms'  river,  13  miles  S.  of 
Monmouth  Court  House,  23  S.  E. 
from  Trenton ;  contains  1  tavern,  2 
stores,  10  or  12  dwellings,  a  grist 
and  saw  mill,  and  Methodist  meeting; 
country  around,  sandy  and  flat;  tim- 
ber, pine. 

Goshen  Creek,  mill-stream  of  Mid- 
dle t-ship,  Cape  May  co.,  rises  in  the 
northern  part  of  the  t-ship,  and  flows 
westerly  into  the  Delaware  bay,  by  a 
course  of  5  or  0  miles ;  it  is  naviga- 
ble for  about  3  miles  to  the  landing, 
for  the  small  village  of  Goshen.  A 
channel  through  the  marshes,  com- 
municates between  this  stream  and 
Dennis  creek. 

Goshen,  post-town  of  Cape  May 


CO.,  in  Middle  t-ship,  near  the  head  of 
navigation  of  Goshen  creek,  about  5 
miles  N.  W.  from  Cape  May  court- 
house, 198  N.  E.  from  W.  C,  and 
101  S.  from  Trenton;  contains  a  ta- 
vern, 2  stores,  a  steam  saw  mill,  and 
12  or  15  dwellings,  and  a  school 
house,  in  which  religious  meetings 
are  held. 

Grant  Pond,  on  the  Pochuck  moun- 
tain, Vernon  t-ship,  Sussex  co.,  a 
source  of  a  tributary  to  Warwick 
creek. 

Grass  Bay,  a  salt  marsh  lake, 
about  5  miles  long,  and  one  wide,  in 
Galloway  t-ship,  Gloucester  co.,  com- 
municating by  several  channels  with 
Reed's  bay  and  with  the  oceaji. 

Grass  Pond,  Green  t-ship,  Sussex 
CO.,  one  of  the  sources  of  the  Bear 
branch  of  Pequest  creek. 

Gratitude,  p-t.,  Sussex  co.,  221 
miles  N.  E.  from  W.  C,  and  68  from 
Trenton. 

Gravel  Hill,  village  and  p-t.  of 
Knowlton  t-ship,  Warren  co.,  in  the 
valley  of  the  Paulinskill,  near  the 
east  line  of  the  t-ship,  distant  by  post 
road  from  W.  C.  243  miles,  from 
Trenton  85,  and  from  Belvidere  N. 
E.  15  miles;  contains  a  large  grist 
mill,  tavern,  store,  tannery,  and  6  or 
8  dwellings;  soil  limestone. 

Gravelly  Landing,  p-t.  of  Gallo- 
way t-ship,  Gloucester  co.,  40  miles 
S.  E.  from  Woodbury,  79  from  Tren- 
ton, and  187  N.  E.'from  W.  C,  on 
Nacote  creek;  contains  a  tavern, 
store,  and  10  or  12  dwellings. 

Gravelly  Run,  small  tributary  of 
Great  Egg  Harbour  river,  flowing 
westerly  from  Egg  Harbour  t-ship  to 
its  recipient,  2  miles  below  May's 
Landing. 

Great  Meadotvs,  a  large  body  of 
G  or  8000  acres  of  meadow  land,  in 
lnde|iendence  t-ship,  Warren  co.,  wa- 
tered by  the  Pequest  creek. 

Great  Brook,  Morris  t-ship,  Morris 
CO.,  rises  at  the  head  of  Sjiring  valley, 
and  flows  by  a  semicircular  course  of 
H  or  9  miles,  j)artly  through  the  t-ship 
of  Chatham,  to  the  Passaic  river,  on 
the  S.  W.  part  of  IMorris  t-ship. 

Green  Brook,  or  Bound  Brook,  a 


GRE 


151 


GRE 


considerable  tributary  of  the  Raritan 
river,  rising  in  a  narrow  valley  be- 
tween New  Providence  and  Westfield 
t-ships,  Essex  co.,  and  thence  flowing 
by  a  S.  W.  course  of  about  16  miles, 
skirting  the  semicircular  mountain 
of  Somerset  co.,  to  its  recipient  at 
Bound  Brook.  It  is  a  mill  stream  of 
considerable  power. 

Green  Brook,  village,  on  Green 
brook  above  described,  in  Piscataway 
t-ship,  Middlesex  co.,  8  miles  from 
New  Brunswick,  6^  from  Somer- 
ville;  contains  a  mill,  a  school  house, 
2  stores,  and  15  dwellings.  The 
country  on  the  south  and  east,  level 
and  fertile,  valued  at  <f  50  the  acre ; 
on  the  north  mountainous. 

Green  Creek,  small  stream  of  Mid- 
dle t-ship,  Cape  May  co.,  which  by  a 
course  of  2  or  3  miles,  flows  into  the 
Delaware  bay.  It  gives  name  to  a 
post-office  near  it,  distant  106  miles 
from  W.  C,  and  109  from  Trenton. 
Green  Pond,  Valley,  and  Moun- 
tain; the  first  a  beautiful  sheet  of 
water,  3  miles  in  length  and  1  in 
breadth,  embosomed  in  the  valley  to 
which  it  gives  name,  between  the  Cop- 
peras and  Green  Pond  mountains,  Pc- 
quannock  t-ship,  Morris  co.  The 
pond  is  much  resorted  to  for  its  fish, 
and  its  beautiful  scenery,  where  na- 
ture is  yet  unsubdued,  and  the  red 
deer  still  roam  at  will.  The  valley  is 
drained  by  the  Burnt  Cabin  brook,  a 
principal  branch  of  the  Rockaway 
river.  Green  Pond  mountain,  which 
has  its  name  also  from  the  same 
source,  extends  about  13  miles  from 
the  Rockaway  to  the  Pequannock 
creek ;  it  is  a  high,  narrow,  and 
stony  granitic  ridge,  and  lies  on  the 
boundary  between  Pequannock  and 
Jefferson  t-ships. 

Greene  t-ship,  Sussex  co.,  bounded 
N.  E.  and  E.  by  Newton  and  Byram 
t-ships,  S.  by  Roxbury  t-ship,  Morris 
CO.,  W.  by  Independence  and  Hard- 
wicke  t-ships,  of  the  same  county, 
and  N.  W.  by  Stillwater  t-ship,  of 
Sussex  CO.  Centrally  distant  S.  W. 
from  Newton  7  miles ;  greatest  length 
N.  and  S.  9  miles;  breadth  E.  and 
W.  4  miles;  area,  14,080  acres;  sur- 


face on  the  south  mountainous,  else- 
where hilly.  It  is  drained  by  tri- 
butaries of  the  Pequest  creek,  which 
flow  through  it  to  the  southwest. 
Hunt's  and  Grass  ponds  are  noted 
sheets  of  water  in  the  t-ship ;  Green- 
ville near  the  centre  is  the  post-town. 
By  the  census  of  1830  the  t-ship  con- 
tained 801  inhabitants,  and  in  1832 
150taxables,  23  householders,  whose 
ratables  did  not  exceed  $30,  1  store, 
2  orist  mills,  1  saw  mill,  150  horses 
and  mules,  and  400  neat  cattle  3  years 
old  and  upwards,  12  tan  vats;  and 
paid  a  state  and  county  tax  of  $279 
60 ;  poor  tax,  200 ;  and  road  tax, 
$400.  The  mountain  on  the  S.  E. 
is  composed  of  grey  rock ;  the  basis 
of  the  soil,  in  the  remainder  of  the 
t-ship,  is  limestone  and  slate,  the 
former  prevailing. 

Green  Bank,  settlement  on  the  left 
bank  of  MuUica  river,  Washington 
t-ship,  Burlington  co.,  about  10  miles 
by  the  river  from  its  union  with  Great 
bay.  There  are  here,  2  taverns,  2 
stores,  and  12  or  15  dwellings,  with- 
in a  space  of  2  miles.  The  shore  is 
clean  and  high ;  the  soil  sandy  loam, 
of  tolerable  quality  and  well  cultivated. 
Greenville,  p-t.  and  village,  of 
Greene  t-ship,  Sussex  co.,  by  the  post 
route,  222  miles  N.  E.  of  W.  C,  69 
from  Trenton,  and  8  S.  W.  from 
Newton ;  contains  a  store,  tannery, 
and  10  or  12  dwellings,  and  is  sur- 
rounded by  a  rich  limestone  country. 
Green  Village,  Chatham  t-ship, 
Morris  co.,  3^  miles  S.  E.  from  Mor- 
ristown  ;  contains  some  5  or  6  dwell- 
ings, situated  in  a  pleasant  fertile 
country. 

Greenwich  t-ship,  Gloucester  co., 
bounded  on  the  N.  E.  bv  Deptford 
t-ship,  S.  E.  by  Franklin,"  S.  W.  by 
Woolwich  t-ships,  and  N.  W.  by  the 
river  Delaware.  Centrally  distant 
S.  W.  from  Woodbury  7  miles ;  great- 
est length  15  miles  ;  greatest  breadth 
7  miles;  area,  35,840  acres;  surface 
level ;  soil  sandy.  It  is  drained  N. 
W.  by  Mantua  on  the  N.  E.,  and  by 
Repaupo  creek  on  the  S.  W.  boun- 
dary ;  Clonmell  and  Crab  creeks  are 
small  intermediate  streams;  and  on 


GRE 


152 


GRE 


the  S.  W.  by  Raccoon  creek.  Byl- 
lingsport,  Paulsboro',  Sandtown, 
Clarkesboro',  Carpenter's  Landing, 
Barnsboro',  and  Mullica  Hill,  are 
villages  of  the  t-ship;  population  in 
1830,  2557.  In  1832  the  t-ship  con- 
tained  306  householders,  whose  rata- 
bles  did  not  exceed  $30  in  value;  9 
stores,  3  fisheries,  5  grist  mills,  1 
woollen  manufactory,  5  saw  mills,  1 
ferry,  2  tan  yards,  1054  neat  cattle, 
and  549  horses  and  mules,  under  3 
years  of  age ;  and  paid  county  tax, 
$1491  85  ;  poor  tax,  $745  92;  road 
tax,  $1100. 

Greenu-ich,  t-ship  of  Cumberland 
CO.,  bounded  N.  by  Newport  creek, 
which  divides  it  from  Stow  Creek 
t-shi]),  E.  by  Hopewell  t-ship,  S.  by 
Cohansey  creek,  which  divides  it 
from  Fairfield  t-ship  and  the  river 
Delaware,  and  W.  by  Stow  creek, 
which  separates  it  from  Lower  Allo- 
way's  Creek  t-sliij).  Centrally  dis- 
tant W.  from  Bridgeton,  8  miles; 
greatest  length  N.  and  S.  7  miles; 
breadth  E.  and  W.  6  miles ;  area, 
13,440  acres;  surface,  level;  soil,  ge- 
nerally of  clay  and  de(;p  rich  loam, 
and  well  cultivated.  Beside  the 
streams  named,  the  t-ship  is  drained 
by  Mill  creek  on  its  south-cast  boun- 
dary, and  by  Pine  Mount  creek; 
Greenwich  is  the  village  and  post- 
town.  Population  of  the  t-ship  in 
1830,  912.  In  1832,  it  contained 
205  t;txal)les,  72. householders,  whose 
ratables  did  not  exceed  in  value  $30 ; 
5  st(M-cs,  none  of  which  sell  ardent 
spirits,  3  grist  mills,  1  carding  ma- 
chine, 1  tannery,  1  distillery  for  cider, 
and  148  horses  and  484  ui'at  cattle 
3  years  old  and  upwards. 

Greenwich,  post-town  of  the  above 
t-ship,  on  the  Cohansey  creek,  6 
miles  from  the  mouth,  and  6  S.  W. 
from  Bridgeton,  by  post-route  195  N. 
E.  from  W.  C,  and  81  from  Tren- 
ton; contains  between  40  and  50 
dwellings  of  stone,  frame,  and  brick; 
1  tavern,  3  stores,  and  a  large  grist 
and  merchant  mill,  2  Quaker  meet- 
ing houses,  1  Methodist  church,  a 
temperance  society,  counting  more 
than   200   members;    the   soil    elay 


and  rich  loam,  well  cultivated,  and 
very  productive  in  wheat,  oats,  rye, 
and  corn. 

Greenwich,  t-ship.  Wan-en  co., 
bounded  N.  by  Oxford  t-ship,  N.  E. 
by  Mansfield,  S.  E.  by  the  Musconet- 
cong  creek,  which  separates  it  from 
Hunterdon  co.,  and  W.  by  the  river 
Delaware.  Centrally  distant  S.  from 
Belvidere,  the  county  town,  10  miles; 
greatest  length  N.  and  S.  13  miles; 
breadth  E.  and  W.  1 1  miles ;  area, 
38,000  acres ;  surface  hilly,  the 
South  Mountain  covering  the  t-ship. 
Drained  by  Lopatcong,  Pohatcong, 
and  Musconetcong  creeks,  all  which 
flow  S.  W.  through  the  t-ship  to  the 
Delaware  river.  The  turnpike  road 
from  Somerville  runs  N.  W.  and 
that  from  Schooley's  mountain  W. 
through  the  t-ship  to  Philipsburg,  on 
the  Delaware,  opposite  to  Easton. 
Below  that  town  the  Morris  canal 
commences,  and  runs  across  the 
t-ship.  The  population  in  1830,  was 
4486.  Taxables  in  1832,  830;  at 
that  time  the  t-ship  contained  266 
householders,  whose  ratables  did  not 
exceed  $30  in  value;  9  stores,  17 
run  of  stones  for  grinding  grain,  1 
fishery,  2  carding  machines,  1  cotton 
factory,  3  oil  mills,  1  fulling  mill,  3 
distilleries,  930  horses  and  mules, 
and  1265  neat  cattle  over  3  years  of 
age.  Although  this  t-ship  be  very 
mountainous,  it  is  one  of  the  most 
productive,  not  only  of  the  county, 
but  of  the  state.  \Vhilst  the  moun- 
tains assume  a  granitic  character,  the 
valleys  are  every  where  underlaid 
with  limestone,  and  their  soils  I'ertile. 
The  valleys  of  the  Musconetcong,  the 
Pohatcong,  and  Lopatcong,  and  even 
the  small  vales  through  which  their 
tributaries  wander,  are  highly  culti- 
vated and  improved,  and  there  are 
farmers  who  send  to  market  from 
one  thousand  to  three  thousand  bush- 
els of  wheat,  annually,  beside  other 
agricultural  productions.  The  most 
interesting  minerals  yet  discovered  in 
the  t-ship,  are  marble,  steatite  or 
soapstone,  and  iron. 

Greenwood,  forest,  east  of  the  Wa- 
wayanda  mountain,  and  west  of  Bear 


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153 


HAC 


Fort  Mountain,  on  the  borders  of  Ver- 
non and  Ponipton  t-ships,  and  Sussex 
and  Bergen  counties;  extending  N.  and 
S.  14  miles  into  the  state  oi'New  York. 

Griggstown,  Franklin  t-ship,  So- 
merset CO.,  on  the  right  bank  of  the 
Millstone  river,  and  on  the  Delaware 
and  Raritari  canal,  5  miles  below 
Kingston,  and  9  south  of  Somerville; 
contains  a  tavern,  stoi'e,  and  some 
half  dozen  dwellings.  A  grist  mill  for- 
merly here  has  been  torn  down,  be- 
ing in  the  route  of  the  canal,  which 
follows  the  bank  of  the  river.  A  cop- 
per mine  near  this  place  has  been 
wrought,  but  not  with  success. 

Groveville,  village  of  Nottingham 
t-ship,  Burlington  co.,  in  a  bend  of 
the  Crosswick's  creek,  about  6  miles 
S.  E.  of  Trenton,  and  4  N.  E.  from 
Bordentowri;  contains  a  large  wool- 
len manufactory,  grist  and  saw  mill, 
and  10  or  12  houses.  The  creek  is  na- 
vigable from  the  Delaware  to  the  vil- 
lage, a  distance  of  more  than  six  miles. 

Guineatoion,  a  small  hamlet  of  Up- 
per AUovvays  Creek  t-ship,  near  its 
northern  boundary;  contains  8  or  10 
dwellings,  chiefly  inhabited  by  ne- 
groes. 

Gum  Branch,  an  arm  of  the  south 
branch  of  Toms'  river,  flows  easterly 
about  4  miles  through  the  S.  E.  part 
of  Upper  Freehold  t-ship,  Monmouth 
county. 

Hackensack  t-ship,  Bergen  co., 
bounded  N.  by  Harrington,  E.  and  S. 
E.  by  Hudson's  river,  S.  by  Bergen 
t-ship,  S.  W.  by  Lodi,  and  N.  W. 
by  New  Barbadoes.  Centrally  dis- 
tant from  Hackensacktown,  2|  miles 
E. ;  greatest  length  N.  and  S.  9 
miles ;  breadth  E.  and  W.  .5  miles ; 
area,  24,000  acres;  surface  on  the 
E.  hilly,  on  the  W.  level ;  soil  red 
shale,  with  some  marsh  on  the  Hack- 
ensack river  and  English  creek,  ge- 
nerally well  cultivated  and  productive. 
It  is  drained  S.  by  the  Hackensack 
and  by  English  creek,  and  N.  by 
other  tributaries  of  the  river.  There 
are  four  bridges  over  the  Hackensack, 
connecting  this  with  New  Barbadoes 
t-ship,  viz.  one  at  New  Milford,  at 
Old    Bridge,    at    New  Bridge,    and 

u 


one  at  Hackensacktown;  these,  with 
Strahlenburg,  Closter,  Fort  Lee, 
Mount  Clinton,  and  English  Neigh- 
bourhood, are  the  most  noted  places 
of  the  t-ship.  The  frontier  on  the 
North  river,  is  marked  by  the  per- 
pendicular trap  rocks,  known  as  the 
Palisades.  Population  in  1830,  2200. 
In  1832  the  t-ship  contained  535  tax- 
ables,  94  householders,  whose  rata- 
bles  did  not  exceed  $30  in  value,  56 
single  men,  7  merchants,  11  grist 
mills,  4  fisheries,  1 1  saw  mills,  2  full- 
ing mills,  1  ferry,  over  the  Hudson, 
8  tan  vats,  460  horses,  and  1170  neat 
cattle,  above  3  years  old;  and  the 
t-ship  paid  the  following  taxes :  state, 
8303  61;  county,  $615  38;  poor, 
$300;  road,  $1000. 

Hackensack  River,  rises  by  two 
branches  in  Rockland  co.,  state  of 
New  York;  one  in  the  Hightorn 
mountain,  a  spur  of  the  Ramapo;  and 
the  other  from  a  pond,  in  the  high 
bank  of  the  Hudson  river,  opposite  to 
Sing  Sing.  These  unite  below  Clarkes- 
town,  and  thence  pursue  their  way 
southwardly,  through  that  county  into 
Bergen  co.,  and  thence  to  Newark 
bay.  Its  whole  length  by  meanders 
of  the  stream,  may  be  from  35  to  40 
miles.  Until  it  meets  the  tide  at 
Hackensacktown,  it  is  a  fine  mill 
stream.  Below  that  town  it  flows 
through  a  marsh  to  the  bay.  Sloops 
ascend  to  the  town. 

Hackensack,  post  and  county  town 
of  Bergen  co^  on  the  right  bank  of 
the  Hackensack  river,  15  miles  from 
its  mouth,  12  from  New  York,  63 
from  Trenton,  and  229  from  W.  C. 
It  is  a  pleasant  and  neat  town,  stretch- 
ing through  the  meadows,  on  the 
river,  for  about  a  mile  in  length  ;  con- 
taining about  150  dwellings  and  1000 
inhabitants,  principally  of  Dutch  ex- 
traction; three  churches,  viz.  one 
Dutch  Reformed,  and  two  formed  of 
seceders  from  that  church  :  two  aca- 
demies, one  boarding  school  for  fe- 
males, ten  stores,  three  taverns,  two 
paint  factories,  one  coach  maker,  two 
tanneries,  several  hatters,  three 
smiths,  and  four  or  five  cordwainers. 
The  county  court  house  is  a  neat  and 


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154 


HAM 


.<;pacious  brick  edifice;  the  offices  of" 
the  surrogate  and  county  clerk  are  of 
the  same  material,  and  fire  proof. 
Considerable  business  is  done  here 
witli  the  adjacent  country,  and  seve- 
ral sloops  ply  between  the  town  and 
New  York,  carrying  from  it  wood, 
lumber  and  agricuUural  products. 
The  Weehawk  Hank,  originally  esta- 
blished at  Weehawk,  on  the  North 
river,  was  removed  here  in  1825,  and 
then  received  the  name  of  the  Wash- 
ington Bank.  Its  authorized  capital 
is  $-200,000,  of  which  $93,460  have 
been  paid  in.  A  good  turnpike  road 
runs  from  Hoboken  to  Hackensack, 
and  tlience  to  Paterson.  Hacken- 
sack was  the  scene  of  considerable 
military  operations  during  the  revo- 
lutionary war. 

Hacketsfown,  p-t.,  Independent 
t-ship,  Warren  co.,  lying  between 
the  Morris  canal  and  Musconetcong 
river,  which  are  here  about  one  mile 
distant  from  each  other.  The  village 
is  by  the  post  road,  215  miles  N.  E. 
from  W.  C,  59  from  Trenton,  and 
15  E.  from  Belvidere,  the  county 
town,  and  6  from  Belmont  Spring, 
Schooley's  mountain;  contains  5 
large  stores,  2  taverns,  and  from  -30 
to  40  dwellings  of  wood  find  brick, 
1  Presbyterian  and  1  Methodist 
church,  an  academy,  in  which  the 
classics  are  tauglit,  2  common 
schools,  1  resident  Presbyterian  cler- 
gyman, and  3  physicians,  2  large 
flour  mills,  a  woollen  manufactory 
and  a  clover  mill.  The  town  is  built 
upon  cross  streets ;  is  surrounded  by 
a  fertile  limestone  country,  where 
farms  sell  at  from  50  to  75  dollars 
the  acre.  This  vicinity  is  rapidly  im- 
proving by  means  of  the  Morris  canal. 
Ilitddonfiiid,  p-t.,  of  Newton 
t-ship,  (lloucester  co.,  near  the  west 
bank  of  Cooper's  creek,  6  miles  S. 
E.  from  Camd(^n,  9  N.  E.  from 
Woodbury,  144  from  W.  C,  and 
•36  S.  from  Trenton;  contains  100 
dwellings,  a  (Quaker  meeting  and 
Baptist  church,  2  schools,  a  public 
library,  2  fire  companies,  and  2  fire 
engines,  7  stores,  2  taverns,  2  grist 
mills,  a  woollen  manuilictory  and  2 


tanneries.  This  is  a  very  pleasant 
town,  built  upon  both  sides  of  a  wide 
road,  along  which  it  extends  for 
more  than  a  half  mile.  The  houses 
are  of  brick  and  wood,  many  of  them 
neat  and  commodious,  and  surround- 
ed by  gardens,  orchards,  and  grass 
lots.  This  was  a  place  of  some  note, 
bearing  its  present  name,  prior  to 
1713.  The  house  erected  by  Eliza- 
beth Haddon,  of  brick  and  boards, 
brought  from  England,  in  style 
which  must  then  have  been  deemed 
magnificent,  has  upon  it  "1713, 
Haddonfield,"  formed  of  the  arch 
brick.  For  many  years  the  town  has 
undergone  little  change,  but  a  dispo- 
sition to  build  has  lately  been  awaken- 
ed. The  soil  of  the  surrounding 
country  is  of  excellent  quality,  being 
fertile  sandy  loam,  and  is  highly  pro- 
ductive of  corn,  vegetables,  fruits  and 
grass,  which,  with  its  vicinity  to  mar- 
ket, occasions  it  to  be  much  sought  af- 
ter,and  at  high  prices;  whole  farms  sell- 
ing at  from  60  to  100  dolls,  the  acre. 
HagerstoiLm,  a  small  hamlet,  of 
Elsinborough  t-ship,  Salem  co.,  on 
the  road  leading  from  Salem  to  Han- 
cock's bridge,  about  4  miles  S.  of  the 
former,  contains  10  or  12  cottages, 
inhabited  chiefly  by  negroes. 

Haines'  Creek,  a  considerable 
tributary  of  the  Rancocus  creek,  ri- 
sing by  several  branches  in  Eves- 
ham t-ship,  Burlington  co.,  on  all  of 
which  there  are  mills.  It  flows  N. 
E.  by  a  course  of  about  14  miles  to 
its  recipient,  near  Eayrstown. 

Ilakehokake  Creek,  rises  in  Alex- 
andria t-ship,  Hunterdon  co.,  and 
flows  S.  W.  by  a  course  of  6  or  7 
miles,  to  the  Delaware  river,  three 
miles  above  the  town  of  Alexandria, 
passing  by  Mount  Pleasant,  and  giv- 
ing motion  to  several  mills. 

HaWs  Pond,  small  basin  of  wa- 
ter, in  Newton  t-ship,  Sussex  co.,  3 
miles  S.  E.  of  the  town  of  Newton. 
Hamburg,  p-t.,  of  Vernon  t-ship, 
Sussex  CO.,  in  the  S.  W.  angle  of  the 
t-ship,  within  li  miles  of  the  west 
foot  of  the  Wall  kill  mountains,  near 
the  E.  bank  of  the  Wullkill  river,  and 
near   the    Pocluuk    turnpike    road. 


HAN 


155 


HAN 


Distant,  by  post  route  from  W.  C, 
248,  from  Trenton,  90,  and  from 
Newton,  14  miles;  contains  a  church 
common  to  Baptists  and  Presbyteri- 
ans, 2  taverns,  4  stores,  2  grist  mills, 
and  two  saw  mills,  and  15  or  20 
dwellings.  This  is  a  thriving  village, 
and  the  water  power  on  the  river  of- 
fers strong  inducements  to  settlers. 

Hamburg,  or  Wallkill Moimtains, 
a  local  name  given  to  the  chain  of 
hills  on  the  South  mountain,  extend- 
ing N.  E.  across  the  townships  of 
Byram  and  Hardiston,  and  inter- 
locking with  Wawayanda  and  Po- 
chuck  mountain,  in  Vernon  t-ship; 
about  25  miles  in  length. 

Hamilton  t-ship,  Gloucester  co., 
bounded  N.  E.  by  Galloway  t-ship, 
S.  E.  by  Egg  Harbour  and  Wey- 
mouth t-ships,  S.  W.  by  Maurice  ri- 
ver and  Milleville  t-ships,  of  Cumber- 
land CO.,  and  N.  W.  by  Franklin, 
Deptford  and  Gloucester  t-ships.  Cen- 
trally distant,  S.  E.  from  Woodbury, 
30  miles;  greatest  length,  N.  and  S., 
18  miles;  breadth,  E.  and  W.,  11 
miles;  area,  106,880  acres.  Sur- 
face level,  and  soil  sandy,  covered 
generally  with  pine  forest,  and  drain- 
ed, southwardly,  by  Great  Egg  Har- 
bour river,  which  runs  centrally 
through  it,  receiving  several  small 
tributaries  on  either  hand.  Hamilton 
and  May's  Landing  are  villages  of 
the  township ;  the  latter  a  post  town. 
Population  in  1830,  1424.  In  1832, 
the  township  contained  115  house- 
holders, whose  ratables  did  not  exceed 
#30 ;  7  stores,  2  grist  mills,  1  blast 
furnace,  6  saw  mills,  1  forge  with  4 
fires,  135  neat  cattle,  and  171  horses 
and  mules,  above  the  age  of  three 
years ;  and  paid  county  tax,  $209  62 ; 
poor  tax,  $104  74^ ;  road  tax, 
$800.  The  assessor  returns  but  670 
acres  of  improved  land. 

Hamilton  Village.  (See  Maifs 
Landing.) 

Hammonton  Post  Office,  Glouces- 
ter CO.,  by  post-route,  167  miles 
from  W.  C,  and  59  from  Trenton. 

HancocFs  Bridge,  Lower  Allo- 
ways  Creek  t-ship,  Salem  co.,  over 
the  Alloways  creek.    There  is  a  post- 


town  here,  which  contains  between 
30  and  40  dwellings,  a  Friend's  meet- 
ing house,  a  tavern,  and  2  stores. 
Distant  5  miles  S.  of  Salem,  174  N. 
E.  from  W.  C,  54  S.  from  Trenton: 
the  soil  immediately  about  the  town 
is  of  rich  clay,  and  marsh  meadow, 
banked  and  productive. 

Hanli's  Pond,  covers  about  300 
acres,  in  Pompton  t-ship,  Bergen  co., 
near  Clinton  Ibrges,  to  which  it  pays 
a  tribute  of  its  waters. 

Hanover  t-ship,  Burlington  co., 
bounded  N.  E.  by  Upper  Freehold 
and  Dover  t-ships,  Monmouth  co.,  S. 
by  the  North  and  Pole  Bridge  branch- 
es of  the  Rancocus  creek,  which  se- 
parate it  from  Northampton  t-ship, 
W.  and  N.  W.  by  Springfield,  Mans- 
field, and  Chesterfield  t-ships.  Cen- 
trally distant  N.  E.  from  Mount  Hol- 
ly, 12  miles;  greatest  length  N.  W. 
and  S.  E.  16  miles;  greatest  breadth, 
13  miles;  area,  44,000  acres;  sur- 
face, generally  level ;  soil,  sandy 
loam  and  sand,  and  in  the  S.  E.  part 
covered  with  pine  forest.  Drained 
N.  E.  by  tributaries  of  the  Cross- 
wick's  creek,  on  the  N.  W.  by 
Black's  creek,  and  on  the  S.  by  the 
north  branch  of  the  Rancocus,  upon 
which,  near  the  S.  W.  angle  of  the 
t-ship,  is  the  County  Poor  House.  Ar- 
ney'stown,  Shelltown,  Jacobstown, 
Wrightstown,  and  Scrabbletown,  are 
villages  of  the  t-ship  ;  at  the  first  of 
which  there  is  a  post-office.  Popu- 
lation in  1830,  2859.  In  1832,  the 
t-ship  contained  530  taxablcs,  298 
householders,  whose  ratables  did  not 
exceed  $30  in  value;  77  single  men, 
10  merchants,  5  saw  mills,  5  grist 
mills;  1  furnace,  called  Hanover;  20 
tan  vats,  1  carding  machine,  7  distil- 
leries for  cider,  1  two  horse  stage, 
36  dearborns,  85  covered  wagons,  5 
chairs  and  curricles,  13  gigs  and  sul- 
kies, and  paid  state  tax,^$392  14; 
county  tax,  $1369  19;  and  township 
tax,  $500. 

Hanover  t-ship,  Morris  co.,  bound- 
ed N.  by  Pequannock  t-ship,  E.  by 
Livingston  t-ship,  Essex  co.,  S.  E. 
by  Chatham  t-ship,  S.  by  Morris,  and 
W.  by  Randolph  t-ships.     Centrally 


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156 


HAR 


distant  N.  from  Morristown,  5  miles ; 
greatest  length  E.  and  W.  12 ; 
breadth  N.  and  S.  9  miles;  area, 
35,000  acres ;  surface  on  the  N.  W. 
hilly,  Trowbridge  mountain  there 
crossing  the  t-.ship;  on  the  E.  and  S. 
E.  level ;  soil,  clay,  loam  and  gravel. 
The  Rockaway  river  forms  its  north- 
ern boundary,  running  into  the  Pas- 
saic, which  on  the  east  divides  the 
t-ship  from  Essex  county.  The  Whip- 
pany  and  Parsipany  rivers  also  flow 
through  it,  uniting  about  a  mile 
before  they  commingle  with  the  Rock- 
away.  Population  in  1830,  3718. 
In  1832,  the  t-ship  contained  700 
taxables,  173  householders,  whose 
ratabies  did  not  exceed  $30  in  value ; 
79  single  men,  14  stores,  7  saw  mills, 
7  grist  mills,  29  tan  vats,  9  distille- 
ries, 3  paper  mills,  5  forges,  2  rolling 
and  slitting  mills,  2  fulling  mills,  2 
carding  machines,  4  cotton  manufac- 
tories, 621  horses  and  mules,  and 
2080  cattle  above  3  years  old;  and 
paid  state  tax,  $548  98 ;  county, 
$1229  08;  poor,  $1000;  road  tax, 
1000.  This  t-ship  is  not  remarkable 
for  the  extent  of  its  agricultural  pro- 
duce, the  soil  not  being  of  the  best 
quality,  yet  it  is  generally  well  culti- 
vated. It  contains,  however,  many 
and  various  manufactories,  and  abun- 
dant water  power  for  others. 

Hanover,  post-town  of  preceding 
t-ship,  on  the  turnpike  road  from 
Newark  to  Milford,  7  miles  E.  from 
Morristown,  225  from  W.  C,  and  59 
from  Trenton;  contains  a  Presbyte- 
rian church  and  half  a  dozen  dwell- 
ings, situate  on  the  plain  near  the 
bank  of  the  Passaic. 

Hanover  Neck  post  office,  Morris 
CO.,  227  uiiles  N.  E.  from  W.  C, 
and  61  from  Trenton,  by  post-route. 

Hardin sville  p-o.,  Gloucester  co. 

Hardiston  t-sp,  Sussex  co.,  boimd- 
ed  N.  by  Wantage  t-shij),  N.  E.  by 
Vernon,  S.  E.  by  Bergen  and  Mor- 
ris counties,  and  W.  by  Newton  and 
Frankford  t-ships.  Greatest  lenjTth 
13^  miles;  breadth  9  miles;  area, 
41,960  acres;  surlace  mountainous, 
covered  principally  by  the  Haniburfr 
or  Wallkill  mountains.     Pim|)le  Hill 


is  also  a  distinguished  eminence. 
The  t-ship  is  drained  chiefly  by  the 
Wallkill  river,  which  flows  north- 
ward, centrally  through  it,  and  Pe- 
quannock  creek,  which  flows  through 
the  eastern  angle.  Norman's  Pond, 
and  White  Ponds,  are  basins  which 
send  forth  tributaries  to  the  river. 
Population  in  1830,2588.  Taxables 
in  1832,  450.  There  were  in  the 
t-ship  in  1832, 2  Presbyterian  church- 
es, 171  householders,  whose  ratabies 
did  not  exceed  $30  in  value ;  8  store- 
keepers, 13  pairs  of  stones  for  grind- 
ing grain,  2  carding  machines,  7 
mill  saws,  1  furnace,  13  forge  fires, 
1  fulling  mill,  407  horses  and  mules, 
and  1437  neat  cattle  above  the  age  of 
3  years;  37  tan  vats,  9  distilleries. 
The  t-ship  paid  state  and  county  tax, 
$915;  poor  tax,  $500;  and  road 
tax,  $1200.  Sparta  and  Monroe  are 
post-towns  of  the  t-ship;  there  is  a 
third  post-office  at  Harmony  Vale,  in 
the  N.  W.  angle  of  the  t-ship.  The 
Hamburg  or  Wallkill  mountain, 
which  has  an  unbroken  course  through 
the  t-ship,  contains  an  inexhaustible 
mass  of  zinc  and  iron  ores,  and  the 
t-ship  generally  is  considered  as  one 
of  the  most  interesting  mineral  loca- 
lities in  the  United  States. 

Hardwick  t-ship,  Warren  co., 
bounded  E.  by  Stillwater  and  (4reen 
t-ships,  of  Sussex  co.,  S.  by  Indepen- 
dence t-ship,  W.  by  Knowlton,  and  N. 
by  Pahaquarry  t-ships.  Centrally 
distant  N.  E.  from  Belvidere,  15 
miles ;  greatest  length  N.  and  S.  11; 
breadth  E.  and  W.  8  miles;  area, 
24,320  acres.  Population  in  1830, 
1962.  There  were  in  the  t-ship  in 
1832,  82  householders,  whose  rata- 
ble estates  did  not  exceed  $30  in  va- 
lue; 5  stores,  13  pairs  of  stones  for 
grain,  2  carding  machines,  1  wool 
factory,  5  saw  mills,  56  tan  vats,  4 
distilleries ;  and  it  paid  a  state  and 
county  tax  of  $967  59.  The  sur- 
face of  the  t-ship  is  generally  hilly, 
and  is  drained  south-westerly  by 
Paulinskill,  Beaver  brook,  and  Bear 
branch  of  the  Pequcst  creek,  and 
also  by  some  limestone  sinks ;  Marks- 
boro',    Lawrenceville,    Johnsonburg, 


HAR 


157 


HIL 


and  Shiloh,  are  post-towns  of  the 
t-ship.  Lime  and  slate  alternate  in 
the  t-ship,  as  in  Knowlton ;  the  ridges 
being  of  the  latter,  and  the  valleys  of 
the  ibrmcr;  both  are  productive,  ex- 
cept where  the  slate  rock  approaches 
too  near  the  surface.  White  Pond 
in  this  t-ship,  about  a  mile  north  of 
Marksboro',  is  a  great  natural  curio- 
sity.    (See  Markshoroi' .) 

Harlingen,  p-t.,  Montgomery  t-sp. 
Somerset  co.,  9  miles  S.  W.  from 
Somerville,  185  from  W.  C,  and  19 
from  Trenton  ;  contains  a  Dutch  Re- 
formed church,  a  store,  tavern,  and 
4  or  5  dwellings,  in  a  fertile  country 
of  red  shale. 

Harmony,  post-office  and  Presby- 
terian church,  of  Greenwich  t-ship, 
Warren  co.,  by  the  post  route,  distant 
from  W.  C.  200,  from  Trenton  60, 
and  from  Belvidere,  8  miles. 

Harmony  Vale,  p-t.,  in  the  N.  W. 
angle  of  Hardistone  t-ship,  Sussex 
CO.,  240  miles  from  W.  C,  82  from 
Trenton,  and  10  from  Newton  ;  con- 
tains some  10  or  12  dwellings,  and 
a  Presbyterian  church. 

Harrington  t-ship,  Bergen  co., 
bounded  N.  by  Rockland  co..  New 
York,  E.  by  the  Hudson  river,  S.  by 
New  Barbadoes  and  Hackensack 
t-ships,  and  W.  by  Franklin  t-ship. 
Centrally  distant  from  the  town  of 
Hackensack  N.  7  miles;  greatest 
length  9^ ;  breadth  7  miles ;  area, 
34,000  acres;  surface  level,  except 
near  the  bank  of  the  North  river, 
along  which  runs  the  Closter  moun- 
tains, 400  feet  high,  forming  the  Pali- 
sades; soil  loam,  well  cultivated  and 
fertile.  It  is  watered  by  the  Hack- 
ensack river,  flowing  southerly  and 
centrally  through  it,  receiving  the 
Paskack  brook,  which,  rising  in  New 
York,  seeks  its  recipient  near  the  cen- 
tre of  the  t-ship ;  and  by  Saddle  river, 
which,  rising  also  in  New  York,  flows 
along  the  western  boundary ;  popula- 
tion in  1830,  2581.  In  1832  there 
were  776  taxables,  152  householders, 
whose  ratables  did  not  exceed  830  in 
value,  46  single  men,  .10  stores,  20 
grist  mills,  3  cotton  manufactories, 
2  furnaces,  23  saw  mills,  and  685 


horses,  and  1332  neat  cattle,  over  3 
years  of  age,  1  fulling  mill,  26  tan 
vats,  2  woollen  factories ;  and  it  paid 
state  tax,  $432  57;  county,  $910  92. 

Harrisoti^s  Brook,  branch  of  the 
Dead  river,  a  tributary  of  the  Passaic, 
rises  in  the  Mine  mountain  near  Veal- 
town,  and  flows  S.  5  miles  to  its  re- 
cipient, about  a  mile  below  Liberty 
Corner. 

HeatJicote' s  Brook,  tributary  of 
Millstone  river,  rising  near  the  Sand 
Hills,  and  flowing  westerly  about  5 
miles,  to  its  recipient,  near  Kingston. 

Herberton,  town  of  Hopewell  t-sp. 
Hunterdon  co.,  11  miles  S.  of  Flem- 
ington,  11  N.  from  Trenton;  con- 
tains some  half  dozen  dwellings,  a 
Baptist  church,  store,  and  tavern ;  the 
country  around  it  is  hilly,  with  soil 
of  red  shale,  well  cultivated.  The 
t-ship  poor-house,  on  a  farm  of  140 
acres,  is  near  it,  where  the  average 
number  of  30  paupers  are  annually 
maintained  by  their  own  labour. 

Hereford  Inlet,  Middle  t-ship.  Cape 
May  CO.,  a  passage  of  between  one 
and  two  miles  wide,  between  Learn- 
ing's and  Five  Mile  beach,  through 
which  the  sea  enters  the  lagunes  and 
marshes  upon  the  Atlantic  coast. 

Hickory,  small  hamlet  of  Bethle- 
hem t-ship,  Hunterdon  co.,  12  miles 
N.  W.  of  Flemington,  at  the  south 
foot  of  the  Musconetcong  mountain, 
and  on  the  line  dividing  Bethlehem 
from  Alexandria  t-ship. 

Higlitstown,  p-t.  of  East  Windsor 
t-ship,  Middlesex  co.,  on  the  turnpike 
road  from  Bordentown  to  Cranberry, 
and  on  Rocky  brook,  13  miles  from 
Bordentown,  183  from  W.  C,  and  18 
from  Trenton;  contains  a  Baptist  and 
Presbyterian  church,  3  taverns,  2 
stores,  a  grist  and  saw  mill,  and  fron> 
30  to  40  dwellings.  The  rail-road 
from  Bordentown  to  Amboy  passes 
through  the  town,  and  a  line  of  stages 
runs  thence  to  Princeton,  &c. 

Hillsborough  t-ship,  Somerset  co., 
bounded  N.  by  the  main  stem,  and 
south  branch  of  Raritan  river,  which 
separates  it  from  Bridgewater,  E.  by 
Millstone  river,  dividing  it  from  Frank- 
lin, S.  by  Montgomery,  and  W.  by 


HOB 


15H 


HOP 


Amwell  t-ship,  Hunterdon  co.  Cen- 
trally distant  S.  W.  from  Somerville 
5  miles ;  greatest  length  E.  and  ^^' . 
10;  breadth  N.  and  8.  7  miles  ;  area, 
about  36,000  acres;  surface  on  the 
west  hilly,  the  Neshanie  or  Rock 
mountain  extending  over  it ;  the  soil 
clay  and  loam :  on  the  east  level  and 
gently  undulating;  soil  red  shale. 
The  wliole  t-ship  is  well  cultivated. 
Besides  the  streams  on  the  bounda- 
ries, the  only  considerable  one  is 
Roy's  brook,  flowing  into  the  Mill- 
stone. Flaggtown,  Millstone,  Nesha- 
nie, Koughstown,  and  Blackwells,  are 
the  villages  of  the  t-ship;  the  two  first 
post-towns.  Population  in  1830, 2878. 
In  1832  the  t-ship  contained  about 
.560  taxablos,  95  householders,  whose 
ratables  did  not  exceed  $30  in  value, 
58  single  men,  9  stores,  8  saw  mills, 
8  grist  mills,  1  fulling  mill,  10  tan 
vats,  4  distilleries,  2  carding  ma- 
chines, 939  horses  and  mules,  and 
1638  neat  cattle,  of  3  years  old  and 
upwards;  and  paid  state  tax,  8382 
92;  county,  $1182  53.  There  is  a 
Dutch  Reformed  church  in  the  t-ship. 
Hoboken,  village  of  Bergen  t-ship, 
Bergen  co.,  on  the  North  river,  oppo- 
site to  the  city  of  New  York,  built 
chiefly  on  one  street,  and  contains 
about  1  hundred  dwellings,  3  licensed 
taverns,  many  unlicensed  houses  of 
entertainment,  4  or  5  stores,  and  se- 
veral livery  stables  and  gardens,  and 
betwc(^n  0  and  7  hundred  inhabitants. 
It  is  remarkable,  however,  cliiefly  as 
a  place  of  resort,  for  the  citizens  of 
New  York,  during  the  hot  days  of 
the  summer;  the  bank  of  the  river  is 
high,  and  the  invigorating  sea  breeze 
may  be  enjoyed  at  almost  all  hours 
when  tlic  sun  is  above  the  horizon. 
The  lilKTality  of  Mr.  Stevens,  who  is 
an  extensive  landholder  here,  has 
opened  many  attractions  to  visiters,  in 
the  walks  along  the  river  bank,  over 
his  grounds ;  and  in  the  beautiful  fields 
studded  with  clumps  of  troos,  and  va- 
riegated by  shady  woods,  the  busi- 
ness-worn Yorker  finds  a  momenta- 
ry relaxation  and  enjoynu'nt  in  the 
"  Elysian  fields;"  and  the  gastro- 
nomes, whetlier  of  the  corporation  of 


New  Amstel,  or  invited  guests,  find  a 
less  rural,  though  not  a  more  sensual 
pleasure,  in  the  least  of  Turtle  grove. 
The  value  of  the  groves  of  Hoboken 
to  the  inhabitants  of  N.  York,  is  inap- 
preciated  and  inappreciable.  They  are 
the  source  of  health  to  thousands. — 
Several  steam-boats  ply  constantly 
between  this  town  and  New  York. 

Holland'' s  Brook,  tributary  of  the 
south  branch  of  the  Raritan  river, 
rises  in  Readington  t-ship,  Hunter- 
don CO.,  and  flows  by  a  S.  E.  course 
of  about  7  miles,  to  its  recipient  in 
Bridgewater  t-ship,  Somerset  co. 

Holmdel  or  Baptistown,  p-t.  of 
Middletown  t-ship,  Monmouth  co.,  7 
miles  N.  E.  from  Freehold,  219  from 
W.  C,  and  53  E.  from  Trenton; 
contains  an  academy,  a  Baptist 
church,  2  stores,  8  dwellings,  lying 
in  a  highly  improved  country,  pro- 
ducing rye,  corn,  grass,  &c. 

Hog  Island,  in  Little  Egg  Har- 
bour river,  Galloway  t-ship,  Glou- 
cester CO. 

Hohokiis  Brook,  rises  and  has  its 
course  S.  E.  9  miles  in  Franklin 
t-ship,  Bei'gen  co.  It  is  a  rapid  wild 
stream,  studded  with  mills,  and  gives 
name  to  the  village  of 

Hohokvs,  village,  situate  on  the 
turnpike  road  leading  thence  to  the 
Sterling  mountain,  N.  Y.,  9  miles  from 
Hackensack ;  contains  a  tavern,  store, 
cotton  mill,  and  several  dwellings. 

Hojje  Creek,  a  small  stream  of  4 
or  5  miles  in  length,  which  rises  in, 
and  flows  through,  the  meadows  and 
marshes  of  Lower  Allovvay's  Creek 
t-ship,  Salem  co.    It  is  not  navigable. 

Hope,  p-t.,  on  the  lino  dividing 
Knowlton  from  Oxford  t-ship,  on  a 
branch  of  Beaver  brook,  212  miles 
from  W.  C,  and  59  from  Trenton, 
and  10  N.  E.  from  Belvidere;  con- 
tains a  grist  mill  and  saw  mill,  6 
stores,  2  taverns,  and  about  30  dwell- 
ings, an  Episco])al  and  Methodist 
church.  The  soil  around  it  is  lime- 
stone,  and  well  cultivated.  This  was 
originally  a  Moravian  settlenifnt. 

Hrpevell  t-.ship,  of  Cumberland  co., 
bounded  E.  by  DeorHeld,  S.  E.  and 
S.  by  Fairfield,  W.  by  Greenwich  and 


HOP 


159 


HOW 


Stow  Creek  t-ships,  and  N.  by  Hope- 
well t-ship,  of  Salem  co.  Greatest 
length  10,  breadth  6  miles;  area, 
20,000  acres ;  surface  rolling ;  soil 
clay  loam.  Cohansey  creek  bounds 
the  t-ship  on  the  east  and  south,  and 
Mount's  creek  and  Mill  creek,  its  tri- 
butaries, are  on  and  near  the  S.  W. 
boundaiy.  Population  in  1830, 1953. 
In  1832  there  were  in  the  t-ship  468 
taxables,  1  Seventh-day  Baptist,  and 
1  Methodist  church,  112  household- 
ers, whose  ratables  did  n(jt  exceed 
830  in  value,  4  stores,  5  run  stones 
for  grinding  grain,  1  cupola  furnace, 

1  rolling  and  slitting  mill,  3  tanneries, 

2  distilleries  for  cider ;  and  the  t-ship 
paid  for  road  tax,  $500;  and  for 
county  and  state  tax,  $1052  87.  Part 
of  the  town  of  Bridgeton  is  on  the 
eastern  boundary,  and  Shiloh  and 
Roadstown  are  on  the  west.  Bowen- 
town  lies  midway  on  the  road  between 
the  lirst  and  the  last. 

Hopewell  t-ship,  Hunterdon  co., 
bounded  N.  by  Amwell  t-ship,  E.  by 
Montgomery  t-ship,  of  Somerset  co., 
S.  E.  by  Lawrence  t-ship,  S.  by  Tren- 
ton t-ship,  and  W.  by  the  river  Dela- 
ware: Centrally  distant  S.  from 
Flemington  12  miles;  greatest  length 
E.  and^W.  12;  breadth  N.  and^S. 
10  miles;  area,  36,000  acres;  sur- 
face on  the  north  hilly,  a  chain  of  low, 
trap  mountains  extending  across  it ; 
and  on  the  south  level,  and  abundant- 
ly productive ;  soil  red  shale,  loam, 
and  gravel.  It  is  drained  on  the  west 
by  Smith's  and  Jacob's  creeks,  and 
east  bv  Stony  brook.  Population  in 
1630,  3151.  "  In  1832  the  t-ship  con- 
tained 70  houses  and  lots,  11  stores, 
5  fisheries,  6  saw  mills,  8  grist  mills, 
2  oil  mills,  17  tan  vats,  1  distillery,  1 
carding  machine,  1  fulling  mill,  863 
horses  and  mules,  and  1078  neat  cat- 
tle, over  3  years  of  age;  and  paid 
poor  tax,  $300;  road 'tax,  $1200; 
state,  $1722  84.  Pennington  and 
Woodsville  are  post-towns,  and  Hc- 
bertown  and  Columbia,  villages  of 
the  t-ship. 

Hoppe?-''s  or  Ramapotflivn,  on  the 
Ramapo  river,  east  foot  of  the  Rama- 


Hackensack ;  contains  a  tavern,  and 
some  6  or  8  dwellings. 

Hornerstown,  hamlet,  on  Marl 
Ridge,  Upper  Freehold  t-ship,  Mon- 
mouth CO.,  20  miles  S.  W.  of  Free- 
hold court-house,  and  15  S.  E.  from 
Tr-enton  ;  contains  several  dwellings, 
a  grist  mill,  and  saw  mill,  and  fulling 
mill,  upon  the  Lahaway  creek,  a 
branch  of  the  Crosswicks.  The  soil 
on  the  north  side  of  the  creek  is  deep, 
rich  loam ;  and  on  the  south,  barren 
sand.  There  is  here  a  great  deposit 
of  valuable  marl. 

Hospitality,  branch  of  the  Great 
Egg  Harbour  river,  rises  in  Deptford 
t-ship,  Gloucester  co.,  and  flows  S.  E. 
to  the  river  at  Pennypot  Mill,  in  Ha- 
milton t-ship,  about  14  miles  from  its 
source,  receiving  from  the  west,  Fara- 
way, Lake,  and  Cold  branches. 

Howell  township,  Monmouth  co., 
bounded  N.  by  Shrewsbury,  E.  by 
the  Atlantic  ocean,  S.  by  Dover  t-ship, 
and  W.  by  Freehold  t-ship.  Centrally 
distant  S.  E.  from  Freehold  1 1  miles ; 
greatest  length  E.  and  W.  13 ;  breadth 
N.  and  S.  11  miles;  area,  70,000 
acres ;  surface  level ;  soil  sand,  sandy 
loam,  and  clay ;  drained  by  Shark, 
Manasquan,  and  Metetecunk  rivers, 
which  flow  east  to  the  ocean ;  the  first 
on  the  north,  and  the  last  on  the  south 
boundary.  Manasquan,  Squankum, 
and  Howell's  Furnace,  are  post-towns 
of  the  t-ship.  Population  in  1830, 
4141.  In  1832  there  were  in  the 
t-ship  about  800  taxables,  122  house- 
holders, whose  ratables  did  not  exceed 
$30,  and  42  single  men,  11  stores, 
10  saw  mills,  5  grist  mills,  2  fulling 
mills,  4  carding  machines,  26  tan 
vats,  2  distilleries,  1  furnace  in  ope- 
ration, 365  horses  and  mules,  and 
1400  neat  cattle,  3  years  old  and  up- 
wards. 

Howell  Furnace,  p-t.,  Howell 
t-ship,  Monmouth  co.,  12  miles  S. 
E.  of  Freehold,  47  from  Trenton, 
and  212  N.  E.  from  W.  C,  on  the 
left  bank  of  the  Manasquan  river. 
The  manufacture  of  iron  is  extensive- 
ly carried  on  here,  and  for  the  accom- 
modation of  the  workmen,  there  are 


po  mountain,  16  miles  N.  W.  from    from  40  to  50  dwellings,  and  a  store. 


HUN 


160 


HUN 


A  company  was  incorporated  for  con- 
ducting the  works,  the  stock  of  which, 
we  understand,  is  now  in  great  part, 
if  not  wholly,  the  property  of  Mr. 
James  P.  Sairs  of  New  York. 

Hugliesville,  village,  on  the  Muscon- 
ctcong  creek,  about  5  miles  from  its 
mouth,  15  miles  S.  of  Belvidere,  and 
6  S.  E.  from  Philipsville,  in  Green- 
wich t-ship,  Warren  co.,  and  in  a 
narrow  and  deep  valley  ;  it  contains 
a  tavern,  a  store,  a  school  and  from 
15  to  20  dwellings.  Lead  or  zine  ore 
is  said  to  be  found  in  the  mountain 
north  of  the  town ;  but  most  probably 
the  latter,  as  the  hill  is  part  of  the 
range  of  the  Hamburg  or  Wallkill 
mountains,  in  which  that  mineral 
abounds. 

Hunterdon  County,  was  taken 
from  Burlington,  by  act  of  Assembly 
13th  March,  1714,  and  received  its 
name  from  governor  Hunter.  It  has 
been  since  modified  by  the  erection 
of  Somerset,  Morris  and  Warren  cos., 
and  is  now  bounded  N.  E.  by  Morris, 
E.  by  Somerset,  S.  E.  by  Middlesex, 
S.  by  Burlington,  S.  W.  and  W.  by 
the  river  Delaware,  and  N.  W.  by 
the  Musconetcong  river,  which  sepa- 
rates it  from  Warren  co.  Greatest 
length  N.  and  S.  43  miles;  breadth 
26  miles;  area,  324,572  acres,  or 
about  507  square  miles.  Central 
lat.  40°  3'  N. ;  long.  2°  5'  E.  from 
W.  C. 

This  county  borders  S.  on  the 
great  eastern  alluvial  formation.  The 
primitive  rock  is  first  found  in  it  at  the 
falls  of  the  Delaware  river,  near 
Trenton,  and  may  be  traced  from 
the  respective  banks  N.  E.  and  S. 
W.  It  has  in  Jersey,  however,  a 
narrow  breadth,  being  overlaid  by  a 
belt  of  the  old  red  sandstone  which 
stretches  across  the  country  for  about 
20  miles  to  the  low  mountain  ridge 
north  of  FIcmington.  About  12  miles 
north  of  Trenton,  this  formation  is 
broken  by  a  chain  of  trap  hills  which 
cross  the  Dcl.-iwarc  below  New  Hope, 
and  are  known  in  this  county  by  the 
name  of  Rocky  mountain,  6cc.;  but 
this  chain  has  the  sandstone  for  its 
base.    Between  it  and  the  chain  north 


of  Flemington,  lies  a  fertile  valley  of 
red  sandstone.  With  t]ie  hills  north 
of  Flemington,  the  primitive  forma- 
tion is  again  visible,  but  the  valleys 
which  intersect  them  discover  secon- 
dary limestone,  particularly  at  New 
Germantown,  Clinton,  &c.,  in  the 
German  valley,  and  in  the  valley  of 
the  Musconetcong. 

The  surface  of  the  county  S.  and 
S.  E.  of  Flemington,  with  the  excep- 
tion of  the  Rocky  hills  of  which  we 
have  spoken,  may  be  deemed  level ; 
on  the  north  of  Flemington  it  is  moun- 
tainous;   the    ridges,    however,   are 
low  and  well  cultivated  to  the  sum- 
mits.    Many   of  them,    particularly 
those  N.  and  W.  of  Flemington,  pro- 
duce abundance  of  excellent  ship  tim- 
ber.    The  red  shale  of  the  sandstone 
formation,  is  generally  susceptible  of 
beneficial  cultivation,  and  is  grateful 
to   the   careful    husbandman.       The 
limestone  valleys  may  be  made  what- 
ever the  cultivator  pleases,  provided 
he  bounds  his  wishes  by  the  latitude 
and    climate.     And   by    the   use   of 
lime,  the  cold  clay  of  the  primitive 
hills  may  be  converted  into  most  pro- 
ductive  soil.       On    the   whole,    this 
county  may  be  considered  one  of  the 
finest  and  most  opulent  of  the  state. 
It  is  tolerably  well  watered  by  streams, 
part    of    which    seek    the    Raritan, 
whilst  others   flow  to  the  Delaware 
river :  of  the  first,  proceeding    from 
the  north,  are  Spruce  run,  the  main 
south  branch  of  the  Raritan,  Laming- 
ton  river,  Rockaway  creek,  Neshanie 
creek,  and  Stony  brook :  of  the  se-  ' 
cond    are    the    Rlusconetcong   river, 
Hakehokake,  Nischisakawick  Lack- 
atong,    Wickechecoke,    Alexsocken, 
Smith,  Jacob's,  and  Assunpink  creeks. 
The  towns  of  the  county  are  Alexan- 
dria, Baptistown,  Centreville,  Clarks- 
ville,  Clinton,  T'lemington,  Hepborn's, 
Hopewell   Meeting,    Fairvicw,   Lam- 
bortsville,     Lawrcnceville,    Lebanon, 
Mattison's    Comer,    Milford,    Mount 
Pleasant,    New    Germantown,    New 
Hampton,    Pennington,     Pcnnyville, 
Pittstown,    Pofferstown,     Prallsville, 
Quakertown,  Ringoes,  Sergeantsville, 
TRENTON,     Vansyckle's,    White 


IML 


161 


IND 


House,  Woodsville,  &c.,  all  of  which 
are  post-towns.  There  are  beside 
these,  some  small  hamlets  of  little 
note.  The  county  contained  in  1832, 
by  the  assessor's  abstract,  86  mer- 
chants, 17  fisheries,  71  saw  mills,  80 
grist  mills,  13  oil  mills,  9  ferries  and 
toll  bridges,  524  tan  vats,  5  distilleries 
for  grain,  58  for  cider;  1  cotton  ma- 
nufactory, 17  carding  machines,  10 
fulling  mills,  50  stud  horses,  7538 
horses  and  mules,  and  12,492  neat 
cattle,  over  3  years  of  age;  and  it 
paid  poor  tax,  $6850 ;  i-oad  tax, 
$8300;  county  tax,  814,535  84; 
and  state  tax,  $4146  76. 

For  the  dissemination  of  moral  and 


religious  instruction,  there  are  in 
the  county  Bible  and  tract  societies, 
Sunday  schools  and  temperance  so- 
cieties, in  almost  all  thickly  settled 
neighbourhoods ;  and  the  people  ge- 
nerally, are  remarkable  for  their  so- 
ber and  orderly  deportment. 

The  population  of  the  cotmty,  de- 
rived pi'incipally  from  English  and 
German  sources,  by  the  census  of 
1830,  amounted  to  31,060,  of  whom 
14,465  were  white  males;  14,653 
white  females;  869  free  coloured 
males,  and  901  free  coloured  females; 
77  male,  and  95  female  slaves ;  34 
deaf  and  dumb,  all  white;  19  white, 
and  2  blacks,  blind;  210  aliens. 


STATISTICAL  TABLE  OF  HUNTERDON  COUNTY. 


-C 

13 

P 

opulation. 

Townships. 

bD 

a 

0) 

Area. 

Surface. 

CJ 

J 

1810. 

1820. 

1830. 

Alexandria, 

12 

9 

33,000 

mount's,  hilly. 

2271 

2619 

8042 

Amwell, 

16 

15 

77,000 

p'thilly,p'tlevel. 

5777 

6749 

7385 

Bethlehem, 

9 

9 

25,000 

mountainous. 

1738 

2002 

2032 

Kingwood, 

17 

7 

35,312 

hilly. 

2605 

2786 

2898 

Hopewell, 

12 

10 

36,000 

p'tlevel,p't  hilly. 

2565 

2881 

3151 

Lawrence, 

8 

6 

13,093 

level. 

1354 

1430 

Lebanon, 

15 

7 

42,000 

mountainous. 

2409 

2817 

3436 

Readington, 

12 

7^ 

29,558 

generally  level. 

1797 

1964 

2102 

Tewkesbury, 

8 

6l 

23,000 

mountainous. 

1308 

1499 

1659 

Trenton, 

7 

5 

10,609 
324,572 

level. 

3002 

3942 

3925 

23,472 

28,604 

31,060 

Hunt's  Poiid,  a  small  basin  on 
the  N.  W.  line  of  Greene  t-ship,  Sus- 
sex CO.,  supplies  the  Bear  branch  of 
Pequest  creek. 

Hunt''s  Mills.     (See  Clinton.) 

Hurricane  Brook,  a  tributary  of 
the  south  branch  of  Toms'  river,  Do- 
ver t-ship,  Monmouth  co.,  which 
unites  with  Black  run,  in  the  mill 
pond  of  Dover  furnace. 

Imlaytotvn,  post-town  of  Upper 
Freehold  t-ship,  Monmouth  co.,  3 
miles  E.  of  Allentown,  180  N.  E. 
from  W.  C,  and  14  miles  S.  E.  from 
Trenton;  contains  12  or  15  dwell- 
ings, a  grist  and  saw  mill,  tannery,  1 
tavern,  1  store,  wheelwright  and 
smith  sho]).  The  surrounding  coun- 
try is  gently  undulating;  soil,  clay, 


and  sandy  loam,  generally  well  culti- 
vated and  productive. 

Imlaydale,  pleasant  hamlet  on  the 
Musconetcong  creek,  Mansfield  t-ship, 
Warren  co.,  4  miles  S.  of  the  village 
of  Mansfield,  and  within  1  of  New 
Hampton,  in  the  adjacent  county  of 
Hunterdon,  and  12  miles  S.  E.  of 
Belviderc ;  contains  a  mill,  a  store, 
and  3  dwellings. 

Independence  t-ship,  Warren  co., 
bounded  N.  by  Hardwick  t-ship,  E. 
by  Green  t-ship,  Sussex  co.,  S  E.  by 
Roxbury  t-ship,  Morris  co.,  S.  W. 
by  Mansfield,  and  W.  by  Oxford 
t-ship.  Centrally  distant  N.  E.  from 
Belvidere,  the  county  town,  14  miles; 
greatest  length  9  miles  N.  and  S. ; 
breadth  E.  and  W.  8| ;  area,  29,440 


IND 


162 


JAK 


acres;  surface  hilly  on  the  E.  and 
W.,  but  a  valley  runs  centrally  N. 
E.  and  S.  W/ through  the  t-ship 
which  is  drained  by  the  Pequest 
creek,  and  on  which  there  is  a  large 
body  of  meadow  land.  Bacon  creek 
is  a  small  tributary  of  the  Pequest, 
which  unites  with  it  above  the  village 
of  Vienna.  The  Musconetcong  river 
forms  the  S.  E.  boundary,  and  in  its 
valley,  parallel  therewith,  runs  the 
Morris  canal.  Alamuche,  Hackets- 
town,  and  Vienna,  are  post-towns  of 
the  t-ship;  there  is  a  Quaker  meet- 
ing house  in  the  N.  E.  part  of  the 
t-ship.  There  were  in  the  t-ship  in 
1830,  2126  inhabitants;  in  1832, 
429  taxables,  10,000  acres  of  im- 
proved land,  414  horses  and  mules, 
and  1006  neat  cattle,  over  3  years 
of  age;  146  householders,  whose  ra- 
tables  did  not  exceed  $30  ;  8  stores, 
11  pairs  of  stones  for  grinding  grain, 
6  saw  mills,  21  tan  vats,  4  distille- 
ries ;  and  it  paid  in  t-ship  taxes  for  the 
poor  and  roads,  .S900 ;  and  in  county 
and  state  tax,  8880  95.  This  ranks 
among  the  most  valuable  precincts  of 
the  state.  The  valleys  are  of  fertile 
limestone,  and  the  hill  sides  have 
been  subjected  to  cultivation  to  a  very 
great  extent.  The  ridges  which  cross 
the  t-ship  from  the  S.  W.  to  the  N. 
E.  are  metalliferous,  and  upon  the 
"  Jenny  Jump,'"  in  the  N.  W.,  a  gold 
mine  is  said  to  exist.  Preparations 
have  ostensibly  been  made  for  smelt- 
ing the  ore,  but  the  "  wise  ones"  have 
little  confidence  in  the  undertaking, 
and  consider  the  mineral  discovered, 
if  any,  to  be  pyrites  or  fool's  gold. 

Inskccp's  Mill,  at  the  junction  of 
the  N.  E.  branch  of  Gr^^at  Egg  Har- 
bour river,  called  Inskeep's  branch, 
with  the  Squankum  branch  of  said 
river,  neiir  the  south  border  of  Dept- 
ford  t-ship,  rrloucester  county,  about 
33  miles  from  Camden. 

Inland  Ikach,  Delaware  t-ship, 
Monmouth  co.,  extends  N.  12  miles 
on  the  Atlantic  ocean  and  Barncfrat 
bay,  from  Barncgat  inlet  to  what  was 
formerly  Cranberry  inlet ;  it  no  where 
exceeds  half  a  mile  in  breadth. 

Indian  Branch,  a  principal  tribu- 


tary of  the  north  branch  of  the  Rari- 
tan  river,  rising  in  Randolph  t-ship, 
Morris  co.,  on  the  N.  W.  foot  of 
Trowbridge  mountain,  and  flowing  S. 
W.  through  Mendham  t-ship,  giving 
motion  to  several  mills  in  its  course. 

Indian  Run,  branch  of  Doctor's 
creek,  on  the  N.  W.  boundary  of 
Upper  Freehold  t-ship,  Monmouth 
CO.,  flows  S.  W.  by  a  course  of  about 
2  miles,  to  its  recipient,  west  of  Allen- 
town,  giving  motion  to  a  saw  mill. 

Inskeep^s  Branch,  or  rather  the 
main  stem  of  the  Great  Egg  Harbour 
river,  above  Inskeep's  Mill,  about  30 
miles  from  the  mouth  of  the  river, 
rises  in  Gloucester  t-ship,  Gloucester 
CO.,  and  flows  a  S.  E.  course  of  12 
or  14  miles,  to  the  mill,  receiving 
Four  Mile  Branch  and  Squankum 
Branch. 

Jacksonville,  on  the  line  between 
Lebanon  and  Tewkesbury  t-ships, 
Hunterdon  co.,  about  11  miles  N.  of 
Flemington,  and  on  the  turnpike  road 
from  Somerville  to  Easton  ;  contains 
a  tavern,  store,  grist  mill,  and  2  or  3 
dvvellings. 

Jacksonville,  formerly  called  Im- 
lay's  Mills,  on  Rocky  brook,  a  branch 
of  the  Millstone,  in  Upper  Freehold 
t-ship,  Monmouth  co.,  10  miles  E. 
from  Freehold ;  contains  a  grist  and 
saw  mill,  2  stores,  7  dwellings,  and  a 
Presbyterian  church.  There  is  a 
large  body  of  good  bog  ore  at  a  short 
distance  north  of  the  town,  and  some 
indications  of  extensive  mining  opera- 
tions, said  to  have  been  carried  on 
near  it,  many  years  since,  in  j)ursuit 
of  copper. 

Jacksonville,  post-office,  Burling- 
ton CO.,  160  miles  N.  E.  of  W.  C, 
and  17  S.  of  Trenton. 

Jackson  Glass  Works,  post-office, 
Gloucester  co.,  by  post  route  156 
miles  from  AV.  C,  and  48  from  Tren- 
ton. 

Jacobstown,  Hanover  t-ship,  Bur- 
lington CO.,  near  the  Great  Monmouth 
Road,  12  miles  N.  E.  from  Mount 
Holly,  and  9  miles  S.  E.  of  Borden- 
town;  contains  2  taverns,  a  store, 
and  some  12  or  15  dwellings. 

Jake's  Brook,  small  tributary  of 


JEF 


163 


JER 


Toms'  river,  or  rather  of  Toms'  bay, 
with  which  it  unites,  below  the  village 
of  Toms'  River. 

Jefferson,  village,  Orange  t-ship, 
Sussex  CO.,  6  miles  W.  from  Newark, 
at  the  foot  of  the  First  mountain ;  con- 
tains about  30  dwellings,  a  Baptist 
church,  and  school  house. 

Jefferson  t-ship,  Morris  co.,  bound- 
ed N.  W.  by  Hardistone  t-ship,  Sus- 
sex CO.,  N.  E.  by  Pompton  t-ship, 
Essex  CO.,  S.  E.  by  Pequannock 
t-ship,  and  S.  W.  by  Roxbury  t-ship, 
Morris  co.,  and  by  By  ram  t-ship,  Sus- 
sex CO.  Centrally  distant  N.  W.  from 
Morristown  15  miles;  greatest  length 
14,  breadth  3^  miles;  area  25,000 
acres.  The  whole  surface  is  covered 
with  mountains,  save  a  deep  and  nar- 
row valley,  the  lower  part  of  which 
is  called  Berkshire,  and  the  upper 
Longwood,  valley,  bounded  on  the  N. 
W.  by  the  Hamburg  mountain,  and 
on  the  S.  E.  by  Green  Pond  moun- 
tain. Through  this  valley  flows  the 
main  branch  of  the  Rockaway  river, 
which  has  its  source  in  the  Hamburg 
mountain  near  the  county  line;  and 
which,  in  its  course  through  the  vale, 
gives  activity  to  a  dozen  forges  and 
other  mill  works.  On  the  top  of  the 
Hamburg  mountain,  near  the  S.  W. 
line  of  the  t-ship,  lies  Hurd's  pond 
and  Hopatcong  lake.  The  first  re- 
ceives a  small  stream  which  has  a  S. 
W.  course  of  4  or  5  miles,  and  pours 
its  waters  into  the  second.  Hurd's 
pond  is  about  1^  mile  in  length,  by 
1  mile  in  breadth ;  and  the  lake  is  be- 
tween 3  and  4  miles  long,  and  about 
a  mile  broad,  covering  about  3000 
acres.  These  waters  are  remarkable, 
as  well  for  their  place,  as  their  use; 
being  at  the  summit  level  of  the  Morris 
canal,  and  employed  as  its  feeders. 
They  are  the  source  also  of  that  fine 
stream,  the  Musconetcong  creek,  and 
are  much  celebrated  for  their  fish. 
The  mountain  is  rough  and  broken, 
and  the  descent  into  Berkshire  valley 
is  wildly  picturesque :  of  which  cha- 
racter Longwood  also  partakes.  The 
base  of  the  whole  t-ship  is  granitic 
rock,  which  breaks  through  the  sur- 
face ui  every  direction,  in  rude  and 


heavy  masses.  From  a  soil  thus  con- 
stituted, little  fertility  is  expected ;  but 
the  product  of  the  mountain,  in  wood 
and  iron,  is  very  valuable.  The  popu- 
lation in  1830,  was  1551.  In  1832 
the  t-ship  contained  250  taxables,  127 
householders,  whose  ratables  did  not 
exceed  $30  in  value,  6  stores,  2  grist, 
9  saw  mills,  3  distilleries,  and  18 
forges,  206  horses  and  mules,  and 
598  neat  cattle,  over  3  years  of  age; 
and  paid  state  tax,  $139  79  ;  county, 
$312  97;  poor,  $600;  and  road, 
$1000. 

Jenny  Jump,  a  noted  eminence  in 
the  northern  part  of  Oxford  t-ship, 
Warren  co.,  extending  N.  E.  and  S. 
W.  for  about  10  miles,  and  into  Inde- 
pendence t-ship. 

Jersey  City,  lies  on  a  point  of  land 
projecting  into  the  Hudson  river,  op- 
posite to  the  city  of  New  York,  dis- 
tant therefrom,  1  mile,  1  chain,  47 
links,  in  Bergen  t-ship,  Bergen  co., 
13  miles  S.  of  Hackensack,  224  miles 
N.  E.  from  W.  C,  58  from  Trenton, 
and  8  from  Newark.  It  was  first  in- 
corporated Jan.  28,  1820,  compris- 
ing "  All  that  portion  of  the  t-ship  of 
Bergen,  owned  by  the  Jersey  Asso- 
ciates, formerly  called  Powles  Hook, 
constituted  and  surrounded  by  a  cer- 
tain ditch,  as  the  boundary  line  be- 
tween the  Jersey  Associates  and  the 
lands  of  Cornelius  Van  Vorst,  dec'd, 
on  the  W.  and  N.  W.,  and  by  the 
middle  of  the  Hudson  river,  and  the 
bay  surrounding  all  the  other  parts 
of  the  same."  By  the  act  of  Assembly 
the  municipal  government  is  vested  in 
seven  selectmen,  who  are  ex  offcio, 
conservators  of  the  peace,  a  president 
chosen  by  the  board,  a  treasurer,  se- 
cretary, city  marshal,  &c.  The  town 
is  commodiously  laid  out  into  lots,  25 
feet  by  100,  distributed  into  45  blocks, 
each  2  acres,  with  broad  streets,  and 
contains  many  good  buildings.  The 
whole  number  of  dwellings  may  be 
200,  and  the  inhabitants  about  1500. 
There  are  here,  an  Episcopalian 
church  of  wood,  and  a  new  church 
of  stone  being  erected,  and  a  Dutch 
Reformed  church,  2  select  schools, 
and  an  academy,  owned  by  the  pub- 


JOB 


164 


KET 


lie ;  the  Morris  Canal  Banking  Com- 
pany, authorized  to  have  a  capital  not 
exceeding  one  million  of  dollars,  of 
which,  $40,000  only,  have  been  paid 
in;  20  licensed  stores,  5  taverns,  a 
public  garden  on  the  bay,  called  the 
Thatched  Cottage  Garden;  a  wind 
mill,  an  extensive  pottery,  at  which 
large  quantities  of  delfware  are  made, 
in  Ibrm  and  finish  scare  inferior  to 
the  best  Liverpool  ware ;  a  flint  glass 
manufactorv,  employing  from  80  to 
100  hands,  at  $750  the  week  wages, 
yielding  an  annual  product  of  near 
$100,000,  of  the  best  plain  and  cut 
glass  ware.  Both  these  large  manu- 
factories arc  conducted  by  incorpo- 
rated companies.  There  are  2  turn- 
pike roads  running  from  this  city  to 
Newark,  a  rail-road  to  Paterson,  and 
another  through  Newark  to  Bruns- 
wick ;  and  a  basin  in  this  town  is  pro- 
posed to  be  the  eastern  termination 
of  the  Morris  canal,  now  completed 
to  Newark.  Three  lines  of  stages 
run  from  Jersey  City,  to  Newark, 
twice  each  day.  Two  steam-boats, 
belonging  to  the  Associates  of  the 
Jersey  Company,  cross  to  New  York 
every  15  minutes.  This  company 
was  chartered  in  1804,  for  the  sole 
purpose  of  purchasing  the  place  from 
Cornelius  Van  Vorst,  the  former  pro- 
prietor. 

The  city  is  a  port  of  entry,  annex- 
ed to  the  collection  district  of  New 
York,  together  with  all  that  part  of 
the  state  of  New  Jersey,  which  lies 
north  and  east  of  Elizabcthtown  and 
Staten  Island.  An  assistant  collector 
resides  at  Jersey,  who  may  enter  and 
clear  vessels  as  the  collector  of  New 
York  may  do,  acting  in  conlbrmity, 
however,  with  such  instructions  as  he 
may  receive  from  the  collector  of 
New  York.  There  is  a  surveyor 
also  at  this  port. 

JobsviUe,  or  WUkinsmlle,  named 
after  the  proprietor,  Deptford  t-ship, 
Gloucester  co.,  n(;ar  the  mouth  of 
Woodbury  creek,  between  3  and  4 
miles  W.  from  Woodbury;  contains 
some  half  dozen  dwellings. 

Johstown,  p-t.  of  Springfield  t-ship, 
on  the  Great  Monmouth  road,  6  miles 


N.  E.  from  Mount  Holly,  169  from 
W.  C,  and  23  S.  E.  from  Trenton; 
contains  a  tavern,  a  store,  and  8  or 
10  dwellings,  surrounded  by  excellent 
farms.  The  proposed  rail-road  or 
Macadamized  road  from  the  mouth 
of  Craft's  creek  to  Lisbon,  is  designed 
to  pass  by  this  village. 

Johnsonhurg,  p-t.  and  village  of 
Hardwick  t-ship,  Warren  co.;  cen- 
trally situate  in  the  t-ship,  by  post 
route,  218  miles  N.  E.  of  W.  C,  65 
from  Trenton,  and  16  from  Belvidere; 
contains  an  Episcopal  and  a  Presby- 
terian church,  a  church  belonging  to 
the  sect  of  Christ-i-ans,  2  taverns,  2 
stores,  many  mechanic  shops,  a  grist 
mill,  and  from  25  to  30  dwellings. 
The  surrounding  soil  is  of  fertile  lime- 
stone, and  well  cultivated.  A  small 
tributary  of  the  Bear  branch  of  Pe- 
quest  creek,  flows  through  it,  and 
gives  motion  to  the  mill  of  the  town. 

Jones'  Island,  Fairfield  t-ship, 
Cumberland  co.,  formed  by  Cedar 
creek,  Nantuxet  creek,  and  their  tri- 
butaries, and  by  Nantuxet  Cove. 

Jugfown,  small  village,  in  a  valley 
of  the  Musconetcong  mountain,  and 
on  the  road  from  Somerville  to  Phi- 
lipsburg,  about  12  miles  N.  W.  from 
Flemington;  contains  a  tavern,  mill, 
and  some  half  dozen  dwellings. 

JulwstotLm,  p-t.  of  Springfield  t-sp, 
Burlington  co.,  6  miles  N.  E.  of 
Mount  Holly,  163  from  W.  C,  and 
25  S.  E.  from  Trenton;  contains  1 
tavern,  2  stores,  and  from  20  to  30 
dwellings.  A  rail,  or  Macadamized 
road,  from  the  mouth  of  Craft's  creek 
to  Lisbon,  is  designed  to  pass  by  this 
village. 

Jumping  Brook,  one  of  the  sources 
of  Crosswick's  creek.  Freehold  t-ship, 
Monmouth  co.,  which,  after  a  west 
course  of  about  4  miles,  unites  with 
South  Run,  and  forms  the  creek.  It 
is  a  mill  stream. 

Kettle  Run,  small  tributary  of 
Haines'  creek,  Evesham  t-ship,  Bur- 
lington CO.,  unites  with  the  main 
stream  at  Taunton  furnace. 

Kettle  Creek,  Dover  t-ship,  Mon- 
mouth CO.,  rises  by  two  branches, 
north  and  south,  which  flow  east,  the 


KIN 


165 


KNO 


first  about  6,  and  the  second  about  4 
miles.  Their  union  forms  an  arm  of 
Barnegat  bay.  There  is  a  post-office 
in  the  neighbourhood,  named  after  the 
creek,  about  65  miles  from  Trenton. 

Kill  Van  Kuhl,  the  narrow  strait 
between  Staten  island  and  the  south 
shore  of  Bergen  co.,  connecting  New 
York  bay  with  Newark  bay,  and  in 
length  about  5  miles. 

Kingston,  p-t.,  on  the  turnpike  road 
from  Princeton  to  Brunswick,  1 3  miles 
from  the  latter,  180  from  W.  C,  and 
13  from  Trenton,  and  on  the  line  se- 
parating South  Brunswick  t-ship,  Mid- 
dlesex CO.,  from  Franklin  t-ship,  So- 
merset CO.,  so  that  part  of  the  town 
lies  in  each  county,  and  half  way  be- 
tween Philadelphia  and  New  York. 
There  are  here  a  Presbyterian  church, 
an  academy,  3  taverns,  4  stores,  a 
large  grist  mill,  saw  mill,  and  woollen 
factory,  driven  by  the  Millstone  river, 
which  runs  through  the  town.  The 
Delaware  and  Raritan  canal  also 
passes  through  it,  with  a  lock  at  this 
place.  There  are  here  also,  about  40 
dwellings.  The  soil  around  the  town 
is  of  sandy  loam,  upon  red  sandstone, 
fertile,  and  in  a  high  state  of  cultiva- 
tion, and  valued,  in  farms,  at  $60  the 
acre.  This  place  was  once  remark- 
able for  the  number  of  stages  which 
passed  through  it,  for  New  York  and 
Philadelphia,  the  passengers  in  which, 
commonly  dined  at  the  hotel  of  Mr. 
P.  Withington.  Before  the  comple- 
tion of  the  Bordentown  and  Amboy 
rail  road,  49  stages,  loaded  with  pas- 
sengers, between  the  two  cities,  have 
halted  here  at  the  same  time;  when 
more  than  400  harnessed  horses  were 
seen  standing  in  front  of  the  inn.  Mr. 
Withington  has  lately  made  a  very 
large  fish  pond  on  his  lands,  well 
stocked  with  trout,  and  other  fish  of 
the  country,  with  which  he  can,  at 
any  time,  supply  his  table  in  a  few 
minutes. 

KingiDood  t-ship,  Hunterdon  co., 
bounded  N.  E.  by  Lebanon,  S.  E.  by 
Amwell,  W.  by  the  Delaware  river, 
and  N.  W.  by  Bethlehem  t-ship.  Cen- 
trally distant  W.  from  Flemington  7 
miles;  greatest  length  N.  E.  and  S. 


W.  17,  breadth  E.  and  W.  7  miles; 
area,  35,312  acres  ;  surface,  hilly  and 
rolling;  soil,  red  shale,  clay,  and 
loam ;  in  many  places  fertile  and  well 
cultivated.  The  tract  known  as  the 
Great  Swamp,  extends  on  the  top  of 
the  mountain  into  this  t-ship,  and  is 
alike  remarkable  for  its  fine  timber 
and  extraordinary  fertility.  The  t-p.  is 
drained  southwardly  by  the  Laokatong 
creek.  Baptisttown,  Fairview,  Dog- 
town,  Charleston,  and  Milltown,  are 
villages  and  hamlets  of  the  t-ship ;  at 
the  first  there  is  a  post-office,  and 
there  is  another  office  bearing  the 
name  of  the  t-ship.  Population  in 
1830,  2898.  In  1832  there  were  in 
the  t-ship  4  stores,  7  saw  mills,  7  grist 
mills,  and  1  oil  mill,  7  distilleries,  2 
carding  machines,  733  horses  and 
mules,  and  1347  neat  cattle,  above 
the  age  of  3  years ;  and  the  t-ship 
paid  state  and  county  tax,  $1323  75. 

Kinseyville,  p-t.  of  Lower  Penn's 
Neck  t-ship,  Salem  co.,  on  the  Dela- 
ware river,  opposite  to  the  town  of 
Newcastle,  170  miles  from  W.  C, 
58  from  Trenton,  and  7  from  Salem. 
It  is  named  after  James  Kinsey,  the 
proprietor,  and  contains  4  or  5  dwell- 
ings, 2  taverns,  store,  and  ferry  to 
Newcastle. 

Kirkland's  Creek,  through  the 
salt  marsh  of  Lodi  t-ship,  Bergen  co.; 
near  its  head  is  a  saw  mill.  The 
length  of  the  creek  is  about  3  miles. 

Kline''s  Mills,  post-office,  Somer- 
set CO.,  by  post  route  206  miles  N. 
E.  from  W.  C,  and  40  from  Trenton. 

Knowlton,  t-ship,  Warren  cc, 
bounded  N.  by  Pahaquarry  t-ship, 
E.  by  Hardwick  t-ship,  S.  by  Oxford 
t-ship,  and  W.  by  the  Delaware  river. 
Centrally  distant  N.  E.  from  Belvi- 
dere,  10  miles;  greatest  length  10 
miles,  breadth  10  miles;  area  44,800 
acres.  The  Blue  mountain  lies  upon 
the  northern  boundary,  and  the  De- 
laware makes  its  way  through  it  at 
the  celebrated  Water  Gap,  at  the  N. 
W.  point  of  the  t-ship.  The  t-ship  is 
every  where  hilly,  and  is  said  to  de- 
I'ive  its  name  from  its  knolls.  It  is 
centrally  drained  by  Paulinskill,  and 
its  branches;  on  the   south-east  by 


KRO 


166 


LAM 


Beaver  brook,  and  north-east  by  the 
Shawpocussing  creek.  Gravel  Hill, 
Sodom,  Columbia,  Centreville,  Hope, 
and  Ramsaysburg,  are  villages  and 
post  towns  of  the  t-ship.  Population 
in  1830,  2827;  taxables  in  1832, 
630.  There  were  in  the  t-ship,  in 
1832,  132  householders,  whose  rata- 
bles  did  not  exceed  $30,  13  pairs  of 
stones  for  grinding  grain,  7  saw  mills, 
10  tan  vats,  4  distillej-ies,  1  glass 
manufactory,  744  horses  and  mules, 
and  1390  neat  cattle  over  three  years 
of  age;  and  the  t-ship  paid  $1300 
for  t-ship  use,  and  $1550  for  state 
and  county  purposes.  Slate  and  lime 
alternate  throughout  the  t-ship;  the 
hills  are  commonly  of  the  one,  and 
the  valleys  of  the  other. 

A  slate  quarry  above  Columbia  is 
extensively  wrought,  from  whence 
excellent  roof  and  writing  slates  are 
taken.  There  is  1  Presbyterian  and 
1  Episcopalian  church  in  the  t-ship. 

Knowlton,  post  town  and  village  of 
the  above  t-ship,  on  Paulinskill,  2 
miles  from  its  mouth,  and  by  the  post 
route  217  from  W.  C,  64  from  Tren- 
ton, and  10  from  Belvidere;  contains 
1  tavern,  1  store,  a  large  grist  and 
saw  mill,  a  clover  mill,  and  6  or  7 
dwellings.  The  country  around  is 
hilly,  soil  limestone. 

Koughstown,  village,  on  the  line 
between  the  t-ship  of  Hillsborough, 
in  Somerset  co.,  and  the  t-ship  of 
Amweli,  in  Hunterdon  co.  5  miles 
S.  P^  of  Flemington,  contains  a  ta- 
vern and  some  4  or  5  dwellings. 

Koughstown,  small  village  on  the 
line  dividing  Hillsborough  t-ship,  So- 
merset co;  from  Amweli  t-ship,  Hun- 
terdon CO.,  11  miles  ^S.  W.  from 
Somerville,  and  4  miles  S.  E.  from 
Flemington ;  contains  a  tavern,  store, 
Dutch  Reformed  church,  and  several 
dwellings,  i)leasantly  situated  upon 
soil  of  red  shale,  in  the  valley  of  the 
Neshanie  creek. 

Krokacmtll,  small  mill  stream  of 
Saddle  river  t-sliip,  Bergen  co.,  rising 
on  the  N.  border,  and  flowing  by  a 
course  of  about  5  miles,  to  the  Pas- 
saic river,  a  mile  above  the  great 
Falls. 


Lafayette,  post  town  of  Newton 
t-shij),  near  the  north  line  of  the  t-ship, 
on  the  Union  Turnpike  Road,  distant 
by  the  post  route  233  miles  from  W. 
C,  75  from  Trenton,  and  5  miles 
from  Newton;  contains  1  tavern,  1 
store,  a  cupola  furnace,  a  grist  mill, 
with  4  run  of  stones,  driven  by  the 
Paulinskill,  a  Baptist  church,  and 
some  10  or  12  dwellings.  The  pre- 
vailing soil  around  it  is  limestone,  in 
excellent  cultivation. 

Lahaway  Creek,  Upper  Freehold, 
t-ship,  Monmouth  co.,  rises  near  the 
E.  boundary,  and  flows  S.  W.  about 
9  miles,  to  the  Crosswicks  creek,  be- 
low Hornerstown,  giving  motion  to 
some  mills  at  that  place  and  at  Pros- 
pei'town. 

Lake  Branch,  of  Hospitality  creek, 
an  arm  of  the  Great  Egg  Harbour 
river,  Franklin  and  Hamilton  t-ships, 
Gloucester  co. 

Lakers  Bay,  in  the  salt  marsh,  on 
the  Atlantic  ocean.  Egg  Harbour 
t-ship,  Gloucester  co.,  communicates 
by  several  inlets  with  the  ocean;  is 
about  3  miles  long  and  a  mile  and 
a  half  wide. 

Lambertsville,  post  town  of  Am- 
weli t-ship,  Hunterdon  co.,  11  miles. 
S.  W.  from  Flemington,  16  N.  from 
Trenton,  and  170  from  W.  C;  a 
thriving,  pleasant  village,  on  the  bank 
of  the  Delaware  river,  opposite  to  the 
town  of  New  Hope,  containing  1 
Baptist  and  1  Presbyterian  church, 
2  schools,  one  of  which  is  a  boarding 
school,  under  the  care  of  the  Rev. 
Mr.  Studdiford,  and  more  than  30 
dwellings,  many  of  which  are  neat 
and  commodious.  A  turnpike  road 
runs  from  the  town  to  New  Bruns- 
wick, and  a  fine  bridge  is  thrown 
over  the  river  by  a  joint  stock  com- 
pany, with  a  capital  of  $160,000,  in- 
corporated in  1812,  by  the  Legisla- 
tures of  Pennsylvania  and  New  Jer- 
sey; built  in  1814.  It  is  sup})orted 
on  9  stone  piers;  length  between  the 
abutments  1050  feet^  width  33  feet, 
elevation  above  the  water  21  feet; 
roofed.  The  company  for  some  time 
employed  a  ])ortion  of  its  capital  in 
banking  operations. 


LAW 


167 


LEB 


Lamington  River,  tributary  of  the 
north  branch  of  the  Raritan,  rises  in 
Duck  pond,  Roxbury  t-ship,  Morris 
CO.,  and  flows  thence  by  a  S.  W.  and 
S.  course  of  34  miles,  uniting  with  its 
recipient  in  Bedminster  t-ship,  Somer- 
set CO.  It  is  a  large  and  rapid  mill 
stream,  on  which  there  are  many 
mills,  particularly  at  Potter's  Falls ;  in 
the  north  part  of  its  course  it  bears 
the  name  of  Black  river. 

Lamington,  village  of  Bedminster 
t-ship,  Somerset  co.,  on  the  road  from 
Somerville  to  Philipsburg,  10  miles 
N.  W.  of  the  former;  contains  a 
Presbyterian  church,  a  tavern,  and 
3  or  4  dwellings,  situate  in  a  pleasant 
fertile  country. 

Landing  Creek,  Galloway  t-ship, 
Gloucester  co.,  rises  on  the  S.  W. 
line  of  the  t-ship,  and  flows  about  9 
miles  eastwardly,  to  the  Little  Egg 
Harbour  river;  Gloucester  furnace 
lies  upon  it.  It  has  two  branches, 
Indian  Cabin  branch,  and  Elisha's 
creek. 

Laokatong  Creek,  a  fine  mill 
stream  of  Kingwood  t-ship,  Hunter- 
don CO.,  rises  in  the  t-ship  and  flows 
S.  W.  10  or  12  miles  into  the  river 
Delaware;  it  gives  motion  in  its 
course  to  several  mills. 

Lawrenceville,  Knowlton  t-ship, 
Warren  co.,  on  both  banks  of  the 
Paulinskill,  15  miles  N.  E.  of  Belvi- 
dere,  and  3  miles  W.  of  Marksboro' ; 
contains  a  store  and  tavern,  and  10 
or  12  scattering  dwellings.  The 
country  around  it  is  hilly ;  the  soil 
slate  on  the  left,  and  limestone  on  the 
right  side  of  the  creek. 

Lawrence  t-ship,  Hunterdon  co., 
bounded  N.  W.  by  Hopewell,  N.  E. 
by  Montgomery  t-ship,  Somerset  co., 
and  West  Windsor  t-ship,  Monmouth 
CO.,  S.  E.  by  Nottingham  t-ship,  of 
Burlington  co.,  and  S.  W.  by  Tren- 
ton t-ship.  Centrally  distant  from 
Trenton  N.  E.  6  miles ;  greatest 
length  8,  breadth  6  miles;  area,  by 
assessor's  return,  13,093  acres;  sur- 
face, rolling ;  soil,  loam  and  clay, 
generally  well  cultivated ;  drained 
southward  by  some  branches  of  the 
Assunpink  creek,  and  northward  by 


Stony  brook:  Lawrenceville  is  the 
post-town,  and  only  village  of  the 
t-ship.  Population  in  1330,  1430. 
In  1832,  there  were  in  the  t-ship  1 
store,  2  saw  mills,  3  grist  mills,  8  tan 
vats,  339  horses  and  mules,  and  710 
neat  cattle,  above  the  age  of  3  years ; 
and  it  paid  poor  tax,  $500 ;  road  tax, 
$400 ;  state  and  county  tax,  $726  80. 
Two  turnpike  roads  from  Trenton  to 
Brunswick  run  north-easterly  through 
the  t-ship,  one  of  which  leads  by 
Princeton. 

Law?'enceville,  post-town  of  Law- 
rence t-ship,  Hunterdon  co.,  6  miles 
N.  E.  from  Trenton,  18  S.  E.  from 
Flemington,  172  from  W.  C,  situate 
on  a  level  and  fertile  plain,  well  cul- 
tivated in  grain  and  grass,  and  con- 
tains 1  Presbyterian  church,  1  tavern, 
1  store,  a  flourishing  boarding  school 
and  academy,  under  the  care  of  Mr. 
Philips. 

Lawrenceville,  town  of  Hardwick 
t-ship,  Warren  co.,  near  the  western 
t-ship  line,  82  miles  N.  E.  from 
Trenton,  and  15  from  Belvidere. 

Lawrence'' s  Brook,  rises  in  South 
Brunswick  t-ship,  Middlesex  co.,  and 
flows  N.  E.  through  New  Brunswick 
t-ship,  by  a  course  of  about  12  miles 
to  the  Raritan  river,  near  3  miles  be- 
low New  Brunswick. 

Leaming^s,  or  Seven  Mile  Beach,, 
Middle  t-ship,  Cape  May  co.,  extend- 
ing from  Townsend's  inlet  to  Hereford 
inlet,  having  an  average  width  of  half 
a  mile. 

Lebanon  Branch,  of  Maurice  river, 
rises  in  Deerfield  t-ship,  Cumberland 
CO.,  and  flows  eastwardly  to  the  river, 
about  2  miles  above  the  town  of 
Milleville;  it  is  a  mill  stream,  and 
has  a  tributary  called  Chatfield  run* 

Lebanon  t-ship,  Hunterdon  co., 
bounded  N.  E.  by  Washington  t-ship, 
Morris  co.,  E.  by  Readington  and 
Tewkesbury  t-ships,  S.  by  Kingwood 
t-ship,  W.  by  Bethlehem,  N.  W.  by 
Musconetcong  creek,  which  divides  it 
from  Mansfield  t-ship,  Warren  co. 
Greatest  length  N.  and  S.  15  miles; 
breadth  E.  and  W.  7  miles;  area, 
42,000  acres;  surface  mountainous, 
and  generally  hilly;  soil,  clay  and 


LEE 


168 


LIT 


loam  on  the  hills,  with  grey  limestone 
in  the  valleys ;  in  parts  rich  and  well 
cultivated.  The  Musconetcong  moun- 
tain and  its  spurs  cover  the  greater 
part  of  the  northern  part,  and  there 
are  some  high  hills  on  the  S.  E.,  en- 
circling Round  Valley.  It  is  drained 
by  Spruce  run  and  the  south  branch 
of  Raritan  river,  the  latter  forming 
part  of  the  eastern  and  the  south- 
eastern boundary,  and  crossing  the 
t-ship  from  Morris  county.  The 
turnpike  road  from  Somerville  to  Phi- 
lipsburg,  runs  westerly  through  the 
township,  by  the  towns  of  Lebanon 
and  Clinton.  New  Hampton  and 
Sodom,  or  Clarkesville,  are  post- 
towns  of  the  t-ship.  Population  in 
1830,  3436.  The  t-ship  contained 
in  1832,  13  saw  mills,  16  grist  mills, 
2  oil  mills,  87  tan  vats,  1  distillery 
for  grain,  11  distilleries  for  cider,  2 
carding  machines,  2  fulling  mills, 
886  horses,  and  1540  neat  cattle, 
above  the  age  of  3  years ;  and  it  paid 
poor  tax,  $1100;  road  tax,  800;  and 
county  and  state  tax,  $1585  36. 

Lebanon,  post-town  of  Lebanon 
t-ship,  Hunterdon  co.,  centrally  situ- 
ated, upon  the  turnpike  road  leadino- 
from  Somerville  to  Philipsburg;  11 
miles  N.  of  Flemington,  47  from 
Ti-enton,  and  211  from  W.  C. ;  con- 
tains 1  tavern,  1  store,  and  several 
dwellings.  There  is  a  Dutch  Re- 
formed church  in  the  neighbour- 
hood. 

LecfPs  Point,  post-town,  Galloway 
t-ship,  Gloucester  co.,  44  miles  S.  E. 
from  Woodbury,  83  from  Trenton, 
and  191  N.  E.  from  W.  C;  contains 
a  store,  tavern,  and  some  4  or  5 
houses. 

Leeahurg,  village  of  Maurice  River 
t-ship,  (Jiunberland  co.,  on  the  left 
bank  of  Maurice  river,  about  5  miles 
from  its  mouth,  and  20  S.  E.  of 
Bridgetown;  contains  15  or  20  houses, 
1  store,  1  tavern,  and  a  Methodist 
church.  There  is  a  considerable 
quantity  of  ship  building  here,  such 
as  sloops,  schooners,  &c.,  and  much 
trade  in  lumber  and  wood.  The  soil 
in  the  village  and  country  immedi- 
ately around,  is  very  productive ;  it 


is  one  of  the  oldest  settlements  upon 
the  river. 

Libertyville,  p-t.,  of  Wantage  t-sp, 
Sussex  CO.,  on  the  turnpike  road  lead- 
ing to  Milford,  Pennsylvania,  about 
3  miles  E.  of  the  Blue  mountain. 

Liberty  Coimer,  p-t.,  Bernard  t-sp, 
Somerset  co.,  7  miles  N.  E.  of  Somer- 
ville, 209  from  W.  C,  and  43  from 
Trenton,  near  Harrison's  brook  ;  con- 
tains a  tavern,  store,  and  about  20 
dwellings,  inhabited  by  intelligent, 
respectable  families,  in  a  fertile  and 
well  cultivated  valley. 

Lion  Pond,  a  source  of  Lubber 
run,  Byram  t-ship,  Sussex  co.,  lying 
near  the  centre  of  the  t-ship. 

Lisbon,  small  village  of  Hanover 
t-ship,  Burlington  co.,  in  the  forks  of 
the  Slab  Bridge  branch,  and  the  north 
branch  of  the  Rancocus  creek  ;  con- 
tains a  grist  mill,  saw  mill,  store,  ta- 
vern, and  10  or  12  dwellings.  A  rail- 
road or  Macadamized  road,  is  about 
to  be  made  from  this  village  to  the 
mouth  of  Craft's  creek,  upon  the  De- 
laware, about  15  miles,  in  order  to 
bring  to  market  a  quantity  of  excel- 
lent pine  wood,  which  grows  in  the 
vicinity. 

Little  Beach,  Burlington  co.,  Lit- 
tle Egg  Harbour  t-ship,  between  Lit- 
tle Egg  Harbour,  New  Inlet,  and  Old 
Brigantine  Inlet. 

Little  Ease,  village  of  Franklin 
t-ship,  Gloucester  co.,  20  miles  S.  E. 
of  Woodbury,  upon  the  head  waters 
of  Maurice  river ;  contains  a  tavern, 
store,  saw  mill,  and  some  half  dozen 
dwellings;  soil,  sandy. 

Little  Egg  Harbour  River.  (See 
Egg  Harbour  River,  Little.) 

Little  Falls,  of  the  Passaic,  name 
of  the  manufacturing  village  and  post- 
town  which  has  grown  up  here;  (See 
article  Passaic)  and  which  contains, 
on  the  right  bankof  the  creek,  2  saw, 
and  1  grist  mill,  2  cotton  mills,  one 
of  a  thousand,  and  another  of  fourteen 
hundred  spindles,  a  turning  mill,  a 
woollen  carpet  manufactory,  4  stores, 
3  taverns,  a  school  house,  used  also 
as  a  church,  and  47  dwellings.  On 
the  left  bank  there  is  a  saw  mill  and 
turning  mill.     This  is  an  admirable 


LIV 


169 


LOD 


position  for  mill  works  of  all  kinds. 
The  whole  river  inay  be  used  under 
a  head  of  33  feet,  10  of  which  only  arc 
now  employed  to  drive  the  few  works 
above  named,  and  which  would  give 
motion  to  a  much  larger  quantity. 
The  proprietors  of  this  desirable  site, 
Messrs.  Ezekiel  and  Isaac  Miller,  and 
the  heirs  of  Samuel  Bridges,  offer 
mill  seats  for  sale  on  very  advanta- 
geous terms,  and  the  rights  of  the 
former  gentlemen  to  the  right  bank, 
with  half  the  water  power,  have  been 
holden  at  $50,000  only.  The  place 
from  its  elevation  is  very  healthy;  land 
in  the  neighbourhood  sells  at  from 
30  to  60  dollars  the  acre,  and  town 
lots,  100  feet  deep,  at  2  dollars  the  foot, 
front,  in  fee  simple.  The  town  is 
226  miles  N.  E.  from  W.  C,  60  from 
Trenton,  10  from  Newark,  4  from 
Paterson,  and  5^  from  Acquacka- 
nonck  Landing.  It  has  also  the  ad- 
vantage of  the  Morris  canal,  which 
crosses  the  river  by  an  aqueduct  be- 
low the  falls. 

Lamhe'Tton.     See  Trenton. 

Little  Pond,  a  small  basin  of  wa- 
ter in  Newton  t-ship,  Sussex  co., 
distant  about  4  miles  west  of  the  town 
of  Newton,  which  supplies,  in  part,  a 
small  tributary  of  Paulinskill. 

Little  Pond,  on  the  sea  shore, 
Shrewsbury  t-ship,  Monmouth  co., 
about  3  miles  north  of  the  south  boun- 
dary of  the  t-ship. 

Little  X  Roads,  p-t.,  Bedminster 
t-ship,  Somerset  co.,  9  miles  N.  W. 
from  Somerville,  209  from  W.  C, 
and  43  from  Trenton ;  contains  a 
tavern,  store,  and  5  or  6  dwellings, 
in  the  valley  of  the  north  branch  of 
the  Raritan. 

Littletoivn,  p-t.,  Hanover  t-ship, 
Morris  co.,  on  the  turnpike  road  from 
Newark  to  Milford,  5  miles  north  of 
Morristown,  224  from  W.  C,  and  59 
from  Trenton;  contains  1  tavern,  1 
store,  and  4  or  5  dwellings. 

Livingston,  t-ship,  Essex  co., 
bounded"  N.  by  Caldwell,  E.  by 
Orange,  S.  by  Springfield,  and  W. 
by  the  Passaic  river,  which  divides  it 
from  Morris  co.  Centrally  distant, 
N.  W.  from  Newark,  9  miles ;  great- 


est length,  N.  and  S.  5  miles ;  breadth 
E.  and  W.  4^  miles,  area  13,000 
acres;  surface  on  the  east,  moun- 
tainous, elsewhere  rolling,  except 
near  the  river,  where  it  is  level.  It 
is  drained  on  the  N.  by  the  Black 
Rock  Meadow  brook,  and  on  the  S. 
by  Canoe  creek,  which  flow  to  the 
Passaic  by  short  coui-ses,  not  exceed- 
ing three  miles.  Towns,  Centreville, 
Livingston,  post-town,  Northfield, 
Squiretown,  and  Cheapsidc.  Popu- 
lation in  1830,  1150.  In  1832,  the 
t-ship  contained  200  taxables,  65 
householders,  whose  ratables  did  not 
exceed  $30 ;  52  single  men,  .5  mer- 
chants, 1  saw  mill,  1  woollen  factory, 
166  horses  and  mules,  and  637  neat 
cattle  under  three  years  of  age;  and 
it  paid  state  tax,  $120  03;  county 
tax,  $314  04;  poor  tax,  $350;  and 
road  tax,  $525. 

Livingston,  small  village,  and  post 
town  of  preceding  t-ship,  on  the  turn- 
pike road  from  Newark  to  Dover,  10 
miles  N.  W.  from  the  former,  225 
N.  E.  from  W.  C,  and  59  from  Tren- 
ton; contains  a  tavern,  store,  and 
some  8  or  10  dwellings. 

Lockwood,  forge  and  post-office ; 
on  Lubber  run,  Byram  t-ship,  Sussex 
CO. ;  distant  by  post  route  224  miles 
from  W.  C,  61  from  Trenton,  and 
9  south  from  Newton. 

Lodi,  t-ship,  Bergen  co.,  bounded 
N.  by  New  Barbadoes  t-ship,  E.  and 
S.  E.  by  Hackensack  river,  which 
separates  it  from  Bergen  t-ship,  and 
W.  and  S.  W.  by  the  Passaic  river, 
dividing  it  from  Essex  co.  Central- 
ly distant,  S.  W.  from  Hackensack- 
town,  5  miles.  Greatest  length  10, 
greatest  breadth  E.  and  W.  5  miles; 
area  22,000  acres;  surface  level. 
More  than  half  the  t-ship  consists  of 
salt  marsh  and  cedar  swamp.  On 
the  N.  E.  there  arc  about  4000  acres 
of  arable  land,  and  on  the  west  a 
strip  running  the  whole  length  of  the 
t-ship,  and  varying  from  1  to  2  miles 
in  width.  These  are  of  red  shale, 
with  a  margin  of  alluvial,  on  the  Pas- 
saic, well  cultivated,  and  productive. 
Along  the  latter  river  are  strewed 
many  handsome  country  seats,  and 


LON 


170 


LON 


about  a  mile  S.  E.  of  Belleville  lies 
the  well  known  Schuyler  copper  mine. 
Population  of  t-ship,  in  1830,  1356. 
In  1832  it  contained  527  taxables, 
57  householders,  whose  ratables  did 
not  exceed  $30;  21  single  men,  1 
store,  5  grist  mills,  4  saw  mills,  2 
toll  bridges,  and  291  horses  and 
mules,  and  931  neat  cattle,  above  the 
age  of  3  years.  And  it  paid  state 
tax,  $208  87  ;  county  $427  69 ;  poor, 
$400  ;  road,  $500.  There  are  seve- 
ral creeks  through  the  marsh,  such 
as  Berry's,  Kirkland's,  and  Saw-mill 
creeks. 

Lcgtotvn,  small  hamlet  of  Lower 
AUoway's  creek  t-ship,  Salem  co., 
7  miles  S.  of  Salem-town,  and  2  from 
Hancock's  bridge. 

LogansvUlc,  6  miles  S.  W.  of 
Morristown,  Morris  t-ship,  Morris  co., 
a  fine  settlement  on  Primrose  creek, 
called  after  the  owner,  who  has  a 
large  estate  here. 

Logtown,  on  Mine  mountain,  Ber- 
nard t-ship,  Somerset  co.,  at  the  head 
of  Mine  brook,  12  miles  N.  of  So- 
mervillc,  contains  a  mill  and  3  or  4 
dwellings. 

Longacomlng,  p-t.  of  Glouces- 
ter CO.,  on  the  line  dividing  the 
t-ship  of  Gloucester  and  Waterford, 
14  miles  S.  E.  from  Woodbury,  45 
from  Trenton,  and  153  N.  E.  from 
Washington;  surrounded  by  pine  fo- 
rest, soil  sandy,  and  naturally  barren, 
but  improving  by  the  application  of 
marl.  The  village  contains  from  20 
to  30  dwellings,  2  taverns,  2  stores, 
and  a  Methodist  church. 

Long  Beach,  upon  the  Atlantic 
ocean,  Stallbrd  t-ship,  Monmouth  co., 
extending  about  11  miles  from  the 
inlet  to  Little  Egg  Harbour  bay,  to 
Barncgat  inlet.  There  are  several 
houses  on  this  beach,  one  of  which 
was  erected  by  a  Philadelphia  com- 
pany, for  the  accommodation  oft  hem- 
selves  and  friends  in  sca-bathinfj. 

Long  Branch,  m\\\  stream  and  tri- 
butary of  Shrewsbury  river,  Shrews- 
bury t-ship,  Monmouth  co. ;  has  a 
course  of  about  4  miles  N.  W.  There 
is  a  small  village  of  12  or  15  houstis, 
1  tavern,  and  2  stores,  east  of  this 


stream,  and  between  it  and  the  At- 
lantic, to  which  the  name  of  Long 
Branch  is  given. 

Long  Bi-anch,  well  known  and 
much  frequented  sea-bathing  place, 
on  the  Atlantic  ocean,  75  miles  from 
Philadelphia,  and  45  from  New  York, 
in  Shrewsbury  t-ship,  and  Monmouth 
CO.,  which  has  its  name  from  the 
stream  and  hamlet  above.  The  in- 
ducements to  the  invalid,  the  idle,  and 
the  hunters  of  pleasure,  to  spend  a^^ 
portion  of  the  hot  season  here,  ar6 
many.  Good  accommodations,  oblig- 
ing hosts,  a  clean  and  high  shore, 
with  a  gently  shelving  beach,  a  fine 
prospect  seaward,  enlivened  by  the 
countless  vessels  passing  to  and  from 
New  York,  excellent  fishing  on  the 
banks,  3  or  4  miles  at  sea,  good  gun- 
ning, and  the  great  attraction  of  all 
watering  places,  much,  and  changing 
and  fashionable  company.  During 
the  season,  a  regular  line  of  stages 
runs  from  Philadelphia,  and  a  steam- 
boat from  New  York,  to  the  boarding 
houses  here,  of  which  thei-e  are  seve- 
ral ;  Warden's,  Renshaw's,  and  Sear's 
are  the  most  frequented.  Many  re- 
spectable farmers  also  receive  board- 
ers, who,  in  the  quiet  of  rural  life, 
enjoy  in  comfort  and  ease,  their  sea- 
son of  relaxation,  perhaps  more  fully 
than  those  at  the  public  hotels.  Along 
the  beach  at  Long  Branch  is  a  strip 
of  fertile  black  sand,  several  miles  in 
length,  and  exceeding  more  than  a 
mile  in  width.  The  land  adjacent  to 
the  ocean  rises  perpendicularly  from 
the  beach,  near  20  feet.  The  board- 
ing houses  arc  20  rods  from  the  water, 
with  lawns  in  the  intermediate  space. 
The  high  banks  are  formed  by  strata 
of  sand,  clay,  and  sea  mud. 

Long  Bridge,  over  Pequcst  creek. 
Independence  t-ship,  Union  co.,  at  the 
head  of  the  Great  Meadows,  16  miles 
N.  E.  from  B(>lvidcre.  There  is  a 
hamlet  here  of  6  or  8  dwellings,  and 
the  neighbourhood  is  settled  by  mem- 
bers of  the  society  of  Friends,  who 
have  a  meeting  house  \\'ithin  2  miles 
of  the  Bridge.  The  soil  of  the  vici- 
nity is  limestone,  naturally  fertile, 
and  sufe'ceptiblc   of  improvement,  as 


LOW 


171 


MAN 


may  be  supposed  from  the  character 
of  its  cultivators ;  for  "Friends"  of  all 
vanities,  dislike  most,  vain  labour. 

Long  Pond,  a  small  sheet  of  water 
in  the  Blue  mountains,  in  Walpack 
t-ship,  Sussex  co.,  whence  Vancamp 
creek  has  its  source. 

Long  Pond,  Frankford  t-ship,  Sus- 
sex CO.,  at  the  east  foot  of  the  Blue 
mountain,  the  extreme  S.  W.  source 
of  the  W.  branch  of  Paulinskill. 

Long  Pond,  Newton  t-ship,  Sus- 
sex CO.,  five  miles  S.  E.  of  Newton. 

Long  Pond,  or  Grcemoood  Lake, 
crosses  the  state  boundary  from 
Orange  co.,  New  York,  into  Pomp- 
ton  t-ship,  Bergen  co. ;  it  is  about  4^ 
miles  long  by  near  a  mile  wide,  but 
only  a  mile  of  its  length  is  within 
this  state.  It  sends  forth  a  stream 
called  Long  Pond  river,  which,  emp- 
ties into  Ringwood  river,  near  Board- 
ville. 

Long  Pond,  Shrewsbury  t-ship, 
Monmouth  co.,  upon  the  sea-shore,  6 
miles  S.  of  Long  Branch  Boarding 

TT 

Houses,  communicates  with  the  sea 
by  a  narrow  inlet. 

Longwood  Valley,  Jefferson  t-ship, 
Morris  co.,  lying  between  the  Ham- 
burg and  Greenpond  mountains,  ex- 
tending longitudinally  N.  E.  and  S. 
W.  about  10  miles;  narrow,  deep, 
and  stony,  with  soil  not  very  fertile; 
it  is  drained  S.  W.  by  a  principal 
branch  of  the  Rockaway  river,  on 
wliich  are  sevei'al  forges  for  making 
iron,  the  ore  and  fuel  for  which  are 
supplied  abundantly  by  the  adjacent 
hills ;  Berkshire  Valley  is  the  name 
given  to  the  S.  W.  portion  of  this 
vale.  The  scenery  here  is  wild,  rude, 
and  picturesque.  Newfoundland  is 
the  post-office  of  Longwood  Valley. 

Lopatcong  Creek,  rises  in  the 
southern  part  of  Oxford  t-ship,  Warren 
CO.,  and  flows  thence  by  a  S.  W. 
course  of  9  or  10  miles  through 
Greenwich  t-ship,  to  the  river  Dela- 
ware, 3  or  4  miles  below  Philipsburg, 
giving  motion  to  several  mills  in  its 
course,  and  draining  a  fertile  valley 
of  primitive  limestone. 

Lower  t-ship.  Cape  May  co.,  bound- 
ed N.  by  Middle  t-ship,  E.  and  S.  by 


the  Atlantic  ocean,  and  W.  by  the 
Delaware  bay.  It  is  the  most  south- 
ern t-ship  of  the  state,  nearly  one- 
half  consists  of  sea  beach  and  salt 
marsh,  and  the  remainder  of  clay,  co- 
vered with  oak  forest.  Centrally 
distant  from  Cape  May  Court  House, 
S.  9  miles ;  length  N.  and  S.  8, 
breadths  miles;  area,  21,000  acres, 
Pond  creek.  New  England  creek,  and 
Cox  Hall  creek,  are  short  streams, 
which  flow  westerly  into  the  Dela- 
wai'O  bay.  Cape  May,  Cape  May 
island,  and  the  Cape  May  light-house, 
are  in  the  t-ship.  Population  in 
1830,  995.  In  1832,  there  were  in 
the  t-ship  about  200  taxables,  91 
householders,  whose  ratables  did  not 
exceed  $30 ;  3  grist  mills,  7  stores, 
136  horses,  380  neat  cattle,  over  3 
years  of  age;  it  paid  t-ship  tax, 
$51  92;  state  tax,  $129;  county 
tax,  $399  38. 

Ludlam's  Beach,  extends  upon 
the  ocean  about  6  miles  from  Car- 
son's to  Townsend's  inlet,  partly  in 
Middle,  and  partly  in  Dennis  t-ship. 
Cape  May  co. 

Lumherton,  town  of  Northampton 
t-ship,  Burlington  co.,  on  the  south 
branch  of  Rancocus  creek,  3  miles 
S.  W.  from  Mount  Holly ;  contains 
2  stores,  2  taverns,  a  steel  furnace, 
and  from  25  to  30  dwellings,  sur- 
rounded by  very  good  farms. 

Mackepin  Pond,  Pompton  t-ship, 
Bergen  co.,  about  2  miles  in  length, 
by  half  a  mile  in  breadth ;  lies  among 
the  mountains,  and  sends  forth  a 
small  tributary  to  the  Pequannock 
creek. 

Malaga,  p-t.  of  Franklin  t-ship, 
Gloucester  co.,  23  miles  S.  E.  from 
Woodbury,  at  the  angle  of  junction 
of  Salem,  Cumberland  and  Glouces- 
ter counties ;  on  the  head  waters  of 
Maurice  river,  58  miles  S.  from 
Trenton,  and  N.  E.  164  from  W.  C. ; 
contains  1  tavern,  2  stores,  a  glass 
manufactory,  employed  on  window 
glass,  30  dwellings  and  a  grist  mill. 

Mamapaqve  Brook,  an  arm  of  the 
south  branch  of  Toms'  river,  Dover 
t-ship,  Monmouth  co. 

Manahocking     River,      Stafford 


MAN 


172 


MAN 


t-ship,  Monnioutli  co.,  flows  S.  E. 
about  9  miles  into  Little  Egg  Harbour 
bay,  giving  motion  to  a  mill,  at  tho 
town  of  Manahocking. 

Manahocldng,  p-t.  of  Stafford 
t-ship,  Monmouth  co.,  38  miles  S.  E. 
of  Freehold,  73  from  Trenton,  and 
197  N.  E.  from  W.  C,  upon  tho 
creek  of  the  same  name,  about  4 
miles  from  Little  Egg  Harbour  bay, 
contains  a  saw  and  grist  mill,  2  ta- 
verns, several  stores,  and  from  20 
to  30  dwellings,  a  Friends'  meeting 
house,  a  Baptist  and  a  Methodist 
church.  There  is  a  considerable 
trade  carried  on  here  in  wood  and 
lumber,  and  cedar  rails,  supplied  by 
the  swamps  of  the  neighbourhood. 

Manalapan  Brook,  or  South  Ri- 
ver, rises  in  Upper  Freehold  t-ship, 
Monmouth  co.,  near  Paint  Island 
spring,  and  flows  by  a  devious,  but 
generally,  N.  E.  course,  through 
South  Amboy  t-ship,  (forming  in 
part  the  line  between  it  and  South 
Brunswick)  a  distance  of  about  28 
or  30  miles,  to  the  Raritan  river, 
about  4  miles  below  New  Brunswick, 
receiving  from  the  south,  several 
considerable  tributaries.  When  the 
passage  to  New  York  was  made  by 
the  town  of  Washington  on  this  river, 
a  canal,  of  about  a  mile  in  length, 
was  cut  through  the  marshes,  that  by 
turning  the  river  into  it  the  steam-boat 
might  avoid  some  detours  of  the  Ra- 
ritan, and  shorten  her  course.  The 
project,  wc  believe,  was  not  success- 
fully executed. 

Mnnaway  Creek,  Milleville  t-ship, 
(Jumberland  co.,  a  tributary  of  Mau- 
rice river. 

Manantico  Creek,  a  considerable 
branch  of  Maurice  river,  rising  near 
the  S.  W.  border  of  Gloucester  co., 
and  flowing  S.  W.  about  14  miles, 
uniting  with  the  river  about  two  miles 
above  Port  Elizabeth;  it  turns  seve- 
ral mills;  it  receives  two  tributaries, 
Bcrryman's  and  Panther  branches. 

Manasqvan  Rirer,  mill  stream  of 

Moinnouth  co.,  rises  by  several  small 

branches   in   Fret 'hold  t-ship,  which 

unite  on  the  boundary  line  between 

iehold    and    Howell    townships; 


thence  the  river  flows  by  a  S.  E.  di- 
rection 18  miles  through  the  latter 
township  to  the  ocean,  by  Manas- 
quan  inlet.  The  tide  water  of  the 
river,  about  3  miles  above  the  mouth, 
is  crossed  by  Squan  bridge. 

Mannington  t-ship,  Salem  co., 
bounded  N.  by  Salem  river,  which 
divides  it  from  Upper  Penn's  Neck 
creek,  and  Pilesgrove  township,  E. 
by  Pilesgrove,  S.  by  Upper  Alloways 
township,  and  Salem  township,  and 
W.  by  Salem  river,  which  here  sepa- 
rates it  from  Lower  Penn's  Neck 
township.  Centrally  distant  N.  E. 
from  Salem,  G  miles;  length  N.  and 
S.  9 ;  breadth  E.  and  W.  8  miles ; 
area,  about  90,000  acres,  of  which 
more  than  18,000  arc  improved;  sur- 
face, level ;  soil,  heavy  rich  loam,  well 
cultivated  in  wheat  and  grass.  The 
townshij)  is  drained  by  Salem  river, 
bounding  it  on  the  N.  and  W.  and 
by  Mannington  creek,  which  has  its 
whole  course  within  it,  and  is  a  tri- 
butary of  the  former.  Near  the  vil- 
lage of  Mannington  Hill,  which  is 
the  post-town  of  the  township,  is  a 
noted  nursery  of  fruit  and  ornamental 
trees,  planted  by  Mr.  Samuel  Reeves, 
who  sold  from  it  during  the  year 
1832,  1.5,000  peach  trees  alone.  The 
poor-house  of  th<^  county  lies  near  the 
eastern  line  of  the  township,  in  which 
from  80  to  120  paupers  are  annually 
relieved.  Population,  in  1830,  1726. 
In  1832,  there  \\ere  in  the  township 
1  Methodist  and  1  Baptist  church, 
102  householders,  whose  ratablesdid 
not  exceed  $30;  1  store,  2  distilleries, 
3.53  taxable  inhabitants ;  and  the 
to^vnshil)  paid  for  township  pur- 
poses, $1000;  for  county  purposes, 
$1085  34  ;  and  state  tax,  $339  64. 

Mannington  Hill,  p-t.,  and  small 
village  of  Mannington  t-ship,  Salem 
CO.  Centrally  situate  in  the  town- 
ship, upon  Mannington  creek.  It 
contains  6  or  8  houses  and  a  store. 
It  is  about  175  miles  from  W.  C,  60 
from  Trenton,  and  5  N.  E.  of  Salem. 

Mannington  Creek,  a  small  tribu- 
tary of  Salem  river,  which  rising  on 
tho  S.  W.  border  of  Mannington 
township,  Salem  county,  flows  west- 


MAN 


173 


MAN 


erly  by  a  meandering  course  of  8 
miles  to  its  recipient.  It  is  not  a  mill 
stream,  but  along  its  banks  are  some 
valuable  meadows. 

Mansfield  t-ship,  Warren  co., 
bounded  N.  E.  by  Independence,  S. 
E.  by  the  Musconetcong  river,  which 
separates  it  from  Morris  and  Hunter- 
don COS.,  S.  W.  by  Greenwich  t-ship, 
and  N.  W.  by  Oxford  t-ship.  Cen- 
trally distant  from  Belviderc,  the 
county  town,  9  miles ;  greatest  length 
on  the  river  15  miles;  breadth  6^ 
miles;  area,  33,000  acres;  surface, 
mountainous;  drained  by  the  Mus- 
conetcong and  Pohatcong  creeks, 
which,  divided  by  a  chain  of  lofty 
hills,  run  parallel  to  each  other,  but 
at  a  distance  of  nearly  4  miles  apart. 
There  is  a  mineral  spring,  a  chaly- 
beate, in  the  S.  W.  part  of  the  t-ship, 
much  frequented.  Population  in  1830, 
3303.  In  1832  there  were  800  taxa- 
bles,  169  householders,  whose  ratable 
estates  did  not  exceed  830 ;  1 1  stores, 
12  pairs  of  stones  for  grinding  grain, 
8  carding  machines,  5  saw  mills,  1 
furnace,  1  fulling  mill,  36  tan  vats,  7 
distilleries,  862  horses  and  mules, 
and  1407  neat  cattle  in  the  t-ship; 
and  the  t-ship  paid  $1200  road  and 
poor  tax ;  and  $1659  42  state  and 
county  tax.  The  Morris  canal  winds 
through  the  hills  the  whole  length  of 
the  t-ship.  This  is  one  of  the  richest 
t-ships  of  the  state,  having  a  large 
proportion  of  valley  land  underlaid 
with  limestone.  Large  quantities  of 
wheat  are  raised,  and  some,  farmers 
sell  as  many  as  3000  bushels  annu- 
ally. Iron  ore  abounds  in  the  hills, 
and  silver  is  said  to  have  been  dis- 
covered near  the  spring,  but  most 
probably  this  is  iron  pyrites. 

Mansfield,  small  village  of  Mans- 
field t-ship,  Burlington  co. ;  centrally 
situated  in  the  t-ship  8  miles  N.  of 
Mount  Holly,  and  4  miles  S.  of  Bor- 
dentown ;  contains  a  Friends'  meeting 
house  and  4  or  5  dwellings. 

Mansfield  or  Washington,  p-t.  of 
Mansfield  t-ship,  Warren  co.,  founded 
in  1811,  on  the  turnpike  road  leading 
from  Philipsburg  to  Schooley's  moun- 
tain ;  by  the  post  route  202  miles  from 


W.  C.,and  46  from  Trenton,  and  Si- 
miles S.  E.  of  Belvidere,  the  county 
town,  30  from  Morristown,  12  from 
Easton,  and  3  miles  from  Musconet- 
cong creek;  contains  1  tavern,  2 
stores,  from  35  to  40  dwellings,  1 
Methodist  and  1  Presbyterian  church, 
and  1  school.  Iron  ore  abounds  in 
Scott's  mountain  north  of  the  village. 
Around  the  town  the  soil  is  limestone, 
fertile  and  well  cultivated,  and  valued 
at  from  20  to  50  dollars  the  acre. 
The  town  is  supplied  with  excellent 
water  fi'om  a  spi'ing  on  the  south, 
which  is  distributed  by  4  public  foun- 
tains. 

Mansfield  t-ship,  Burlington  co., 
bounded  N.  E.  by  Chesterfield  t-ship, 
S.  by  Springfield,  W.  by  Burlington 
t-ship,  and  N.  W.  by  the  river  Dela- 
ware. Centrally  distant  from  Mount 
Holly  N.  7  miles ;  greatest  length  E. 
and  W.  10  miles;  breadth  N.  and  S. 
65  miles;  area,  about  21,000  acres; 
surface,  level;  soil,  various,  sand, 
loam,  and  clay ;  generally  well  cul- 
tivated, and  productive.  It  is  drained 
north-westerly  by  Black's,  Ci-aft's, 
and  Assiscunk  creeks,  all  of  which 
flow  to  the  Delaware  river.  Along 
the  river  are  some  noted  clay  banks, 
from  which  clay  is  taken  for  the  ma- 
nufacture of  fire  bricks,  and  for  other 
purposes  requiring  great  resistance 
to  heat.  The  towns  are  White  Hill,, 
Georgetown,  Mansfield,  Bustletown, 
Columbus  or  Black  Horse,  the  last 
of  which  is  a  post-town.  Population 
in  1830,  2083.  In  18.32  the  t-ship 
contained  432  taxables,  216  house- 
holders, whose  ratables  did  not  ex- 
ceed $30;  65  single  men,  1390  neat 
cattle,  and  548  horses  and  mules, 
above  3  years  old,  4  stores,  2  saw 
mills,  3  grist  mills,  1  fishery,  1  fur- 
nace, 1  fulling  mill,  31  tan  vats,  1 
carding  machine,  5  distilleries  of 
cider,  4  coaches  and  chariots,  3  phae- 
tons and  chaises,  49  dearborns,  and 
84  covered  wagons,  3  chairs  and 
curricles,  and  18  gigs  and  sulkies; 
and  it  paid  state  tax,  $345  88; 
county  tax,  $1212  38 ;  and  t-ship 
tax,  $1100. 

Mantua    Creek,    Gloucester   co., 


MAR 


174 


MAT 


rises  on,  and  forms  the  line  between 
Deptfbrd  and  Greenwich  t-ships,  and 
flows  N.  W.  by  a  course  of  15  miles 
to  the  Delaware  river,  above  Maiden 
island.  It  is  navigable  for  sloops  7 
or  8  miles  to  Carpenter's  Landing, 
above  which  it  gives  motion  to  seve- 
ral mills. 

Maple  Island  Creek,  sets  in  from 
Newark  bay  about  1  i^  or  2  miles  into 
the  salt  marsh,  on  the  S.  E.  of  New- 
arktown. 

Mapletoicn,  hamlet  on  Millstone 
river,  a  short  distance  above  the 
mouth  of  Stony  Brook,  2  miles  S.  E. 
of  Princeton,  15  from  Now  Bruns- 
wick; contains  a  fine  grist  and  saw 
mill,  and  fulling  mill,  and  4  or  5 
dwellings.  North  of  the  hamlet  on 
the  river,  are  some  excellent  quarries 
of  freestone;  a  fine  grey,  with  por- 
tions of  red,  standstone,  streaked  with 
small  veins  of  quartz.  It  works  well 
under  the  hammer,  and  has  been  used 
in  the  erection  of  the  locks  of  the  De- 
laware and  Raritan  canal. 

Mare  Run,  small  tributary  of  the 
Great  Egg  Harbour  river,  flowing 
from  the  west  to  its  recipient,  in  Ha- 
milton t-ship,  Gloucester  co.,  about 
3  miles  above  May's  Landing. 

Marksboro\  p-t.  and  village  of 
Hardwick  t-ship,  Warren  co.;  cen- 
trally situate  in  the  t-ship,  and  by 
post  route  distant  from  W.  C.  240, 
from  Trenton  82,  from  Belvidere  15 
miles,  10  from  Newton,  and  12  from 
Columbia,  and  on  the  south  bank  of 
the  Paulinskill ;  contains  a  Presbyte- 
rian church,  a  grist  mill,  a  cotton 
manufactory  making  1500  lbs.  of 
yarn  per  week,  a  clover  mill,  1  law- 
yer, 1  physician,  and  about  20  dwell- 
ings. The  town  itself  lies  on  a  slate 
ridge,  which  is  fertile  and  well  culti- 
vated, but  the  soil  on  the  north  side 
of  the  creek  is  secondary  limestone ; 
the  most  valuable  slate  lands  rate, 
at  about  $30,  and  the  lime,  at  about 
$40  the  acre.  The  celebrated  White 
Pond  lies  about  1  mile  north  of  the 
town.  Its  shores  and  bottom  an; 
covered  with  vast  quantities  of  snail 
shells,  and  its  waters  afford  abun- 
dance of  white  perch  and  other  fish. 


Marsh s^ bog,  town  of  Howell  t-ship, 
Monmouth  co.,  9  miles  S.  E.  of  Free- 
hold ;  contains  2  taverns,  2  stores, 
and  10  or  12  dwellings ;  the  surround- 
ing country  is  sterile,  but  there  is 
considerable  business  done  in  the  vil- 
lage. 

Marshall  ville,  or  Cumberland 
Wo7'ks,  on  Tuckahoe  creek,  Maurice 
Creek  t-ship,  Cumberland  co.,  at  the 
eastern  extremity  of  the  co.,  28  miles 
S.  E.  of  Bridgeton;  contains  from 
30  to  40  houses,  some  extensive  glass 
works  belonging  to  Randall  Marshall, 
Esq.,  at  which  much  window  glass  is 
manufactured,  1  tavern,  and  2  stores. 
There  is  much  ship  building  carried 
on  here  in  vessels  of  from  50  to  100 
tons;  soil,  sandy. 

Martha  Furnace,  Washington 
t-ship,  Burlington  co.,  on  the  Oswego 
branch  of  Wading  river,  about  4 
miles  above  the  head  of  navigation ; 
there  are  here  also  a  grist  and  saw 
mill.  The  furnace  makes  about  750 
tons  of  iron  castings  annually,  and 
employs  about  60  hands,  who,  with 
their  families,  make  a  population  of 
near  400  souls,  requiring  from  40  to 
50  dwellings ;  there  are  about  30,000 
acres  of  land  appurtenant  to  these 
works. 

Martinsville  post-office,  Somerset 
CO.,  203  miles  N.  E.  from  W.  C, 
and  37  from  Trenton. 

Mafchaponix  Brook,  fine  mill 
stream,  which  has  its  source  in  Up- 
per Freehold  t-ship,  Monmouth  co., 
and  flows  about  10  miles  N.  W.  by 
Englishtown,  through  South  Amboy 
t-ship,  to  its  recipient,  the  South  river, 
near  Spotswood. 

Matourhin,  p-t.  of  Woodbridge 
t-ship,  Middlesex  co.,  at  the  intersec- 
tion of  the  turnpike  roads  leading, 
one  from  New  Brunswick  to  Eliza- 
bethtown,  and  the  other  from  Perth 
Amboy  towards  Bound  Brook,  5 
miles  from  New  Brunswick,  6  miles 
from  Perth  Amboy,  31  from  Tren- 
ton, and  198  from  W.  C. ;  contains 
a  Presbyterian  church,  store,  2  ta- 
verns, and  10  or  12  dwellings,  sur- 
rounded by  a  fertile  country  of  red 
shale. 


MAU 


175 


MED 


Mattison's  Corner,  post-office  Hun- 
terdon CO.,  by  post-route  185  miles 
from  W.  C,  and  26  from  Trenton. 
Mauricetotcn,  p-t.  on  Maurice  ri- 
ver, 10  or  12  miles  from  its  mouth, 
87    miles   S.   of  Trenton,   18    from 
Bridgeton,   and    184   from     W.  C; 
contains   some   20   dwellings,  store, 
tavern,  an  academy,  and   Methodist 
church.     The   town   is  handsomely 
situated  upon  a  high  belt  of  rich  land, 
and   some   of  the   dwellings    are  of 
brick,  very  neat  and  pleasant,   and 
surrounded    by   valuable    meadows. 
Maurice  River  t-ship,  Cumberland 
CO.,  bounded  N.  by  Hamilton  t-ship, 
Gloucester   co.,    E.    by    Weymouth 
t-ship,  of  same  co.,  S.  by  Upper  and 
Dennis  t-ships,  of  Cape  May  co.,  and 
by  the  Delaware  bay,  and  W.  by 
Maurice  river,  from  its  source  to  its 
mouth,  separating  it  from  Downe  and 
Milleville    t-ships,    Cumberland    co. 
Centrally  distant  S.  E.  from  Bridge- 
ton,   20    miles;    greatest  length   19, 
breadth  11  miles;  area,  79,360  acres; 
surface,  level ;  soil,  generally  sandy 
except    along    the    margin    of    the 
creeks,  where  loam  and  clay  prevail. 
It  is  drained  E.  by  Tuckahoe  creek 
and  its  tributaries,  and  S.  by  Tarkill 
creek.     Population   in    1830,   2724. 
In  1832,  there  were  in  the  t-ship  525 
taxables,    117    householders,    whose 
ratables   did    not    exceed   $30  ;    11 
stores,  6  pairs  of  stones  for  grinding 
grain,    1    blast    furnace    and    forge, 
6  saw  mills,  2  glass  manufactories,  1 
at  Port  Elizabeth,  and  the  other  at 
Marshallville,  or  Cumberland  Works, 
295    horses,   and    1810   neat  cattle, 
above  3  years  old;  there  are  some 
very  valuable  meadows  on  Maurice 
river,  commencing  5  miles  from  the 
mouth,    and    extending     nearly    to 
Milleville,  15  miles.     Port  Elizabeth, 
Bricksboro',   Dorchester,    Leesburg, 
and  Marshallville,  are  villages  of  the 
t-ship ;   all,  except  the  last,  upon  or 
near  the  east  bank  of  Maurice  ri\er, 
and  the  last  upon  Tuckahoe  creek. 

Maurice  Riiier,  Prince,  rises  by 
several  small  branches  in  Deptford 
and  Franklin  t-ships,  Gloucester  co., 
which  uniting  above  Fork  Bridge  on 


the  line  between  the  S.  E.  boundary 
of  Salem  co.  and  Cumberland  co., 
form  a  considerable  stream,  which 
there  gives  motion  to  several  mills. 
About  8  miles  below  this  point,  the 
river  receives  from  Salem  co.  a  large 
tributary,  called  Muddy  run,  above 
the  head  of  the  dam  of  the  Milleville 
works.  From  this  dam,  which  checks 
the  whole  river,  a  canal  of  near 
3  miles  in  length,  supplies  the  works 
at  Milleville.  From  this  town  the  ri- 
ver is  navigable  for  20  miles  to  the 
bay,  for  vessels  of  80  or  100  tons, 
and  to  within  5  miles  of  its  mouth,  its 
shores  are  lined  with  valuable  em- 
banked meadows.  It  receives  in  its 
course  a  number  of  considerable  tri- 
butaries, on  either  hand.  The  oys- 
ters taken  at  the  mouth  of  this  river, 
are  famed  for  their  excellent  quality. 

ManVs  Bridge,  over  the  Maurice 
river,  between  Salem  and  Cumber- 
land counties. 

May^s  Landing,  p-t.  of  Hamilton 
t-ship,  Gloucester  co.,  upon  the  Great 
Egg  Harbour  river,  at  the  head  of 
sloop  navigation,  16  miles  from  the 
sea,  35  miles  S.  E.  from  Woodbury, 
73  from  Trenton,  and  181  N.  E. 
from  W.  C. ;  built  on  both  sides  of  the 
river,  including  the  village  of  Hamil- 
ton, and  contains  3  taverns,  4  stores, 
a  Methodist  church,  and  25  or  30 
dwellings ;  a  considerable  ti-ade  in 
cord-wood,  lumber,  and  ship  building, 
is  carried  on  at  this  place. 

Mead's  Basin,  post-oifice,  Bergen 
CO.,  240  miles  from  W.  C,  and  74 
from  Trenton,  N.  E. 

Meel-endam  Creek,  small  tributary 
of  Little  Egg  Harbour  river,  uniting 
with  it  about  4  miles  below  Pleasant 
Mills. 

Mcchcscalaxin  Creek,  tributary  of 
Atsion  river,  rises  in  Hereford  t-ship, 
Gloucester  co.,  and  by  a  course  of 
13  miles  S.  E.,  unites  with  Atsion 
rivei-,  near  Pleasant  Mills,  in  Gallo- 
way t-ship. 

Medford,  p-t.  Evcham  t-ship,  Bur- 
lington CO.,  on  Haines' creek,  7  miles 
S.  W.  from  Mount  Holly,  16  miles 
E.  from  Camden,  29  S.  E.  from 
Trenton,  and  154  N.  E.  from  W.  C. ; 


MET 


176 


MID 


contains  a  large  Quaker  meeting 
house,  2  taverns,  4  stores,  and  from 
30  to  40  dwellings,  surrounded  by  a 
pleasant  fertile  country. 

Mendham  t-ship,  Morris  co., 
bounded  N.  by  Randolph,  E.  by 
Morris,  S.  by  Bernard,  and  Bedmin- 
ster  t-ships,  of  Somerset  co.,  and  W. 
by  Chester  co.  Centrally  distant,  W. 
from  Morristown,  7  miles;  greatest 
length,  E.  and  W.  6;  breadth,  N. 
and  S.  4^  miles;  area,  14,000  acres; 
surface  generally  hilly,  and  on  the 
N.  mountainous;  soil  clay,  loam 
and  grey  limestone;  the  last  fer- 
tile and  well  cultivated ;  drained 
southwardly,  by  arms  of  the  north 
branch  of  the  Raritan,  and  E.  by 
Whippany  river.  Mendham  is  the 
post-town.  Population  in  1830,  1314. 
In  1832,  the  township  contained  270 
taxables,  48  householders,  whose 
ratables  did  not  exceed  830 ;  30  single 
men,  5  stores,  4  saw  mills,  3  grist 
mills,  1  cotton  manufactory,  2  full- 
ing mills,  2  wool  carding  machines, 
26  tan  vats,  7  distilleries  and  1  forge, 
273  horses  and  686  neat  cattle,  above 
the  age  of  three  years ;  and  paid 
state  tax,  $176  03;  county  tax,  394 
12;  poor  tax,  -1250;  road  tax,  $800. 
Sulphur  was  reported  to  be  found,  in 
this  township,  in  large  quantities, 
during  the  revolutionary  war. 

Mendhani,  p-t.  of  the  preceding 
tfiwuship,  on  the  Morris  and  Easton 
turupikcsroad,  6  miles  W.  of  the  for- 
mer, 221  N.  E.  from  W.  C,  and  55 
from  Trenton ;  contains  a  Presbyte- 
rian church,  a  boarding  school  for 
boys,  in  much  repute,  under  the  care 
of  Mr.  Fairchild,  1  grist  mill,  1  ta- 
vern, three  stores,  and  between  40 
and  50  dwellings.  Circumjacent 
country  rolling,  soil  limestone,  well 
cultivated  and  fertile. 

Merr'itfa  Branch  of  Pohatcong 
Creek,  rises  in  Oxn)rd  t-ship,  War- 
ren CO.  and  flows  S.  through  Green- 
wich township,  to  its  recipient,  hav- 
ing a  course  of  about  7  miles. 

Metetecunk  River,  Monmouth  co., 
rises  bv  two  branches,  the  N.  and  S. 
in  Freehold  township,  and  flowing 
S.  E.  about  16  miles,  uniting  in  the 


pond  of  Butcher's  works,  on  the  line 
of  Dover  and  Howell  townships, 
about  4  miles  above  the  north  end  of 
Barnegat  bay,  into  which  the  river 
empties.  Each  branch  gives  motion 
to  several  mills.  The  main  river  is 
navigable  to  Butcher's  works. 

Middle  t-ship.  Cape  May  co., 
bounded  N.  by  Dennis'  creek  t-ship, 
E.  by  the  Atlantic  ocean,  S.  by  Low- 
er t-ship,  and  W.  by  the  Delaware 
bay;  greatest  length,  N.  and  S.  12, 
breadth,  10  miles;  area,  60,000 
acres ;  surface,  level ;  soil,  sand  and 
marsh;  Dennis'  creek  runs  on  the 
N.  W.  border  of  the  township  ;  Lea- 
ming's  and  Seven  Mile  beaches  lie  on 
the  Atlantic,  between  which,  is  Here- 
ford's inlet,  admitting  the  sea  to  the 
marshes  and  lagunes,  which  extend 
westerly,  fl^r  about  four  miles.  On 
the  bay  there  is  also,  a  strip  of  marsh 
from  half  a  mile  to  two  miles  in 
width,  through  which  flow  Goshen, 
Dyer's,  Green  and  Fishing  creeks. 
The  interval  land  between  the 
marshes,  is  a  stiff*  clay,  covered 
with  oak  forest,  through  which  arc 
interspersed  some  arable  lands.  The 
population  is  chiefly  seated  along  the 
edge  of  the  marshes,  and  consisted, 
in "l 830,  of  1366  souls.  In  18.32, 
the  township  contained  about  320  tax- 
ables, 207  householders,  whose  rata- 
bles did  not  exceed  $30 ;  1  grist  mill, 
3  saw  mills,  218  horses,  650  neat 
cattle  over  3  years  of  age,  8  stores, 
and  paid  township  taxes,  $101  3; 
county  do.  $630  47 ;  and  state  tax, 
$203  53.  There  are  two  villages  in 
the  township ;  one  at  Cape  May  Court 
House,  and  the  other  called  Goshen. 

Middle  Run,  Weymouth  t-ship, 
Gloucester  co.,  a  marsh  creek,  which 
empties  into  Great  Egg  Harbour 
bay. 

Middlehrooli,  Warren  and  Bridge- 
water  t-ships,  Somerset  co.,  rises  in 
and  flows  through  a  mountain  valley 
by  a  S.  W.  and  S.  course  of  about  9 
miles,  and  emptying  into  the  Raritan 
near  the  village  of  Middlebrook  in 
the  latter  township. 

Middlebrook,  village.  See  Bound 
Brook. 


MID 


177 


MID 


Middlesex  co.,  was  first  erected 
by  an  act  of  Assembly  under  the 
proprietary  government  in  1682.  Its 
boundaries  have  been  settled  by  the 
acts  of  1709,  1713  and  1790.  It 
is  now  bounded  N.  by  Essex  coun- 
ty; N.  E.  by  Arthur's  Kill  or  Staten 
Island  Sound;  E.  by  Raritan  bay; 
S.  E.  by  Monmouth  county ;  S.  W. 
by  Burlington,  and  Huntingdon  coun- 
ties ;  and  W.  and  N.  W.  by  Somer- 
set county;  greatest  length,  N.  E. 
and  S.  W.  35  miles ;  greatest  breadth, 
17  miles;  area,  in  acres,  21,700,  or 
about  339  square  miles.  Central  lat. 
40°  25'  N. ;  long,  from  W.  C.  2°  34' 
east. 

Geologically  considered,  the  coun- 
ty is  based  upon  the  primitive  and 
old  red  sandstone  formations.  The 
former  is,  in  many  places,  covered 
by  the  latter,  and  appears  most  con- 
spicuously in  the  S.  W.  portion  of 
the  county.  The  red  and  gi'ey  free- 
stone from  the  quarries  of  West 
Windsor  township,  S.  E.  of  Prince- 
ton, and  the  redstone  near  New 
Brunswick,  and  in  many  other  parts 
of  the  county,  are  admirably  adapt- 
ed for,  and  have  been  extensively 
used  in  building ;  the  former  especi- 
ally in  the  locks  of  the  Delaware  and 
Raritan  canal.  The  sand  of  this 
stone  is  mingled  in  various  portions 
with  other  constituents  of  the  soil, 
forming  in  some  places,  deep  sand, 
in  others,  loam,  of  diverse  consist- 
ence, from  the  light  sandy,  to  the 
heavy  clay.  Generally,  however, 
the  soil  is  of  improvable  quality, 
and  is  in  many  places  highly  culti- 
vated. The  surface  is  as  various  as 
the  soil ;  on  the  S.  E.  it  is  generally 
level,  and  on  the  N.  and  N.  E.  is 
undulating,  but  cannot  any  where  be 
deemed  hilly ;  except  at  the  sand  hills, 
a  few  miles  E.  of  Kingston. 

Copper  ore  is  found  in  the  red 
sandstone  near  New  Brunswick. 
Mines  were  opened  and  worked  many 
years  ago,  but  all  operations  therein 
have  long  been  suspended. 

The  river  Raritan  divides  the  coun- 
ty into  two  unequal  parts,  flowing  by 
a  general  but  serpentine  easterly 
z 


course  of  12  or  14  miles  through  it, 
into  the  Raritan  bay ;  receiving  from 
the  south,  Lawrence's  brook  and  the 
South  river,  whose  many  branches 
water  the  country  on  the  S.  E. ;  and 
from  the  N.  some  inconsiderable  tri- 
butaries. The  Millstone  river  cross- 
es the  S.  W.  portion  of  the  county 
in  a  N.  W.  direction,  and  is  di- 
vided from  the  Assunpink  creek,  by  a 
neck  of  land  from  four  to  five  miles 
wide.  The  one,  bending  to  the  north, 
seeks  the  Raritan  river,  in  Somerset 
county ;  and  the  other  turning  to  the 
S.  W.  runs  to  the  Delaware,  on  the 
line  between  Burlington  and  Hunter- 
don counties.  The  Rahway  river 
courses  the  N.  E.  line,  and  Green- 
brook  the  N.  W.  boundary,  both 
of  which  receive  tribute  from  the 
county.  The  bay  of  the  Raritan 
affords  an  excellent  harbour,  com- 
municating at  all  times  by  a  single 
tide,  with  the  ocean;  and  by  Staten 
Island  Sound,  with  the  bay  of  New 
York. 

Perth  Amboy  was  originally  the 
seat  of  justice  of  the  county,  which 
has  long  since  been  removed  to  the 
city  of  New  Brunswick. 

Besides  these  cities,  the  county 
contains  the  following  towns,  viz. 
Bridgetown,  Samptown,  Brooklyn, 
New  Market,  New  Durham,  Wood- 
bridge,  Matouchin,  Bonhamtown, 
Piscataway,  Washington,  Old  Bridge, 
Spotswood,  Kingston,  Princeton, 
Williamsburg,  Cranberr)^,  Hights- 
town,  Millford,  Edinburg,  Centre- 
ville,  &c. 

A  turnpike  road  from  Trenton 
runs  by  Princeton,  along  the  western 
boundary  of  the  county,  to  New 
Brunswick;  and  thence  a  like  road 
passes  to  New  York ;  a  second  runs 
from  Trenton,  by  a  straight  line,  N. 
W.,  to  New  Brunswick  ;  and  a  third 
from  Bordentown  to  Amboy,  which 
last  two  places  are  also  connected  by 
the  Bordentown  and  Amboy  rail-road. 
The  New  Jersey  rail-road,  now  in 
progress,  will  unite  the  cities  of  Jer- 
sey and  New  Brunswick.  The  Dela- 
ware and  Raritan  canal  runs  a  very 
considerable    distance    through    the 


MID 


178 


MID 


county,  and  communicates  with  the 
Raritan  at  New  Brunswick. 

The  population,  by  the  census  of 
1830,  was  23,157  :  of  whom  10,523 
were  white  males ;  10,487  white  fe- 
males ;  904  free  coloured  males ;  914 
free  coloured  females;  130  male 
slaves;  179  female  slaves;  174 
aliens;  12  whites,  deaf  and  dumb,  7 
blind,  and  3  blacks  blind. 

The  business  of  the  county  is  chief- 
ly agricultural,  but  considerable  trade 
is  carried  on  from  New  Brunswick. 
In  1832  the  county  contained  about 
4500  taxables,  841  householders, 
whose  ratables  did  not  exceed  $30; 
477  single  men,  99  stores,  20  saw 
mills,  42  run  of  stones  for  grinding 
grain,  2  plaster  mills,  2  woollen  facto- 
ries, 7  carding  machines,  39  distille- 
ries, and  3684  horses  and  mules,  and 
7675  neat  cattle  over  3  years  of  age ; 
and  it  paid  state  tax,  $3253  26 ; 
county,  $4000;  poor,  $5850;  road, 
3600. 

The  provisions  for  moral  improve- 
ment, in  the  county,  consist  of  the 
following  religious  associations:  viz. 


Presbyterian,  Episcopalian,  Baptist, 
Seventh-day  Baptist,  Dutch  Reform- 
ed, and  Methodist ;  one  college,  and 
one  theological  institution  belonging  to 
Presbyterians,  several  academies  and 
boarding  schools,  at  Princeton ;  a  col- 
lege and  theological  seminary  per- 
taining to  the  Dutch  Reformed,  a 
grammar  school,  and  other  schools, 
at  New  Brunswick ;  two  academies 
at  Rahway,  and  common  schools,  at 
which  the  rudiments  of  an  English 
education  are  given  in  every  popu- 
lous vicinity ;  a  county  bible  society, 
Sunday  schools,  in  almost  every  vil- 
lage, and  temperance  societies  which 
are  spreading  over  the  county. 

The  public  buildings  in  addition  to 
the  churches  and  seats  of  literature, 
consist  of  the  court-house,  public  of- 
fices, and  prison,  at  New  Brunswick. 

The  following  are  post-towns  of 
the  county :  Amboy,  Cranberry, 
riightstown,  Kingston,  New  Bruns- 
wick, New  Market,  Rahway,  Six 
Mile  Run,  South  or  Washington, 
Spotswood,  and  Woodbridge. 


STATISTICAL  TABLE  OF  MIDDLESEX  COUNTY. 


^ 

13 

P 

opulation. 

Townships,  &c. 

c 

cs 

0) 

Area. 

Surface. 

1810. 

1820. 

1830. 

Perth  Amboy, 

2,577 

rolling. 

815 

798 

879 

South  Amboy, 

18 

6 

64,000 

partly  rolling. 

3071 

3406 

3782 

North  Brunswick, 

9 

7 

23,000 

level. 

3980 

4275 

5274 

South  Brunswick, 

10 

7 

36,000 

do. 

2332 

2489 

2557 

East  Windsor, 

12 

6 

24,000 

do. 

1747 

1710 

1903 

West  Windsor, 

7 

5 

19,000 

do. 

1714 

1918 

2129 

Piscataway, 

9 

7^ 

27,000 

do. 

2475 

2648 

2664 

Woodbridge, 

9 

9 

24,000 

do. 

4247 

4226 

3969 

219,577 

20,381 

21,470 

23,157 

MifJdlctown  t-ship,  Monmouth  co., 
boundi.-d  N.  by  Raritan  b.ay  and 
Sandy  Hook,  E.  by  the  Atlantic 
ocean,  S.  by  Shrewsbury  t-ship,  and 
W.  by  South  Amboy  t-ship,  Middle- 
sex CO.  Centrally  distant  N.  I'i.  from 
Freehold  10  miles;  greatest  length  K. 
and  VV.  16,  breadth  N.  and  S.  10 
miles;  area,  50,000  acres;  surface, 
on  the  east  and  centre,  hilly,  else- 


where, level;  soil,  loam,  sand,  and 
clay,  not  naturally  of  the  first  quality, 
but  highly  improved,  in  places,  by 
the  u.se  of  marl,  which  has  become 
common.  Sandy  I  look  bay  runs  south 
into  the  t-ship  from  the  Raritan,  and 
is  bounded  on  the  S.  W.  by  the  pro- 
montory of  the  highlands  of  Nevi- 
sink,  and  on  the  E.  by  the  sand 
beach,   forming   Sandy  Hook,   run- 


MID 


179 


MIL 


ning  6  miles  north  from  Shrewsbury 
Inlet;  upon  the  north  point  of  which 
stands  Sandy  Hook  Light-house.  The 
t-ship  is  drained  on  the  S.  E.,  S.  and 
S.  W.  by  Swimming  and  Nevisink 
rivers;  on  the  N.  W.  by  Middletown 
creek ;  N.  by  Waycake,  and  N.  E.  by 
Watson's  and  Shoal  Harbour  creeks. 
Middletown,  Middletown  Point,  Bap- 
tisttown,  or  Holmdel  and  Mount  Plea- 
sant are  villages,  the  two  first  post- 
towns,  of  the  t-ship.  Population  in 
1830,  5128.  In  1832  the  t-ship  con- 
tained about  1000  taxables,  277 
householders,  whose  ratables  did  not 
exceed  $30;  169  single  men,  27  stores, 
5  saw  mills,  13  run  of  stones  for  grind- 
ing grain,  1  fulling  mill,  36  tan  vats, 
11  distilleries,  956  horses  and  mules, 
and  2286  neat  cattle,  above  3  years 
of  age;  and  paid  state  and  county 
taxes,  $2620  20.  Good  lands  will 
bring  in  this  t-ship  an  average  price 
of  $60  the  acre. 

In  1682  Middletown  contained 
about  1 00  families ;  several  thousand 
acres  had  been  collected  for  the  town, 
and  many  thousand  for  out-planta- 
tions. John  Browne,  Richard  Harts- 
horne,  and  Nicholas  Davis,  had  well 
improved  settlements  here;  and  a 
court  of  sessions  was  holden  twice 
or  thrice  a  year,  for  Middletown, 
Piscataway  and  their  jurisdictions. 

Middletown,  post-town  of  Middle- 
town  t-ship,  Monmouth  co.,  13  miles 
N.  E.  from  Freehold,  56  from  Tren- 
ton, and  221  from  W.  C,  situate  in 
a  rolling  and  fertile  country,  based 
on  marl;  contains  an  Episcopal,  a 
Dutch  Reformed,  and  a  Baptist  church, 
2  stores,  2  taverns,  and  from  20  to 
25  dwellings,  among  which,  there 
are  several  very  neat  and  commo- 
dious. 

Middletown  Point,  port  of  delivery 
of  Perth  Amboy  district,  and  post- 
town  of  Middletown  t-ship,  Monmouth 
CO.,  upon  Middletown  creek,  about  3 
miles  from  the  Raritan  bay,  11  miles 
N.  of  Freehold,  47  N.  E.  from  Tren- 
ton, and  213  from  W.  C;  lies  on  a 
bank  elevated  about  50  feet  above  the 
stream,  fronting  a  marsh  on  the  op- 
posite side;  contains  a  Presbyterian 


church,  from  75  to  100  dwellings, 
many  of  which  are  very  good  build- 
ings, 8  or  10  stores,  4  taverns,  and  a 
grist  mill.  This  is  the  market  of  an 
extensive  country,  and  large  quanti- 
ties of  pork,  rye,  corn,  cord  wood, 
and  garden  truck,  are  thence  sent  to 
New  York.  The  soil  immediately 
around  the  town  is  sandy.  There  is 
a  bank  here,  incorporated  in  1830, 
with  a  capital  of  $50,000,  of  which 
$10,000  only  were  paid  in,  in  1833. 

Middleville,  Orange  t-ship,  Essex 
CO.,  5  miles  S.  W.  of  Newark,  con- 
tains a  tavern,  a  store,  a  grist  mill, 
saw  mill,  and  Universalist  church. 

Mill  Broolc,  a  small  stream  of 
Montague  t-ship,  Sussex  co.,  flowing 
N.  E.,  a  course  of  about  6  miles,  to 
the  Nevisink  river,  in  the  state  of 
New  York,  about  1  mile  north  of  the 
boundary,  giving  motion  to  several 
grist,  and  other  mills. 

Mill  Creek,  a  tributary  of  Cohan- 
sey  creek,  flowing  southward  into  it, 
and  forming  the  S.  W.  boundary  of 
Greenwich  t-ship,  Salem  co.;  length 
between  3  and  4  miles. 

Mill  Creek,  another  tributary  of 
Cohansey  creek,  rising  in  Fairfield 
t-ship,  Cumberland  co.,  and  flowing 
S.  W.  about  4  miles,  by  the  village 
of  Fairton,  to  its  recipient,  giving 
motion  to  two  mills. 

Millford,  E.  Windsor  t-ship,  Mid- 
dlesex CO.,  on  Rocky  Brook,  17  miles 
S.  W.  from  New  Brunswick,  on 
Rocky  Brook ;  contains  a  Presbyte- 
rian church,  a  grist  mill,  and  some 
10  or  12  farm  houses,  and  dwellings 
of  mechanics.  Soil  light,  and  not 
productive. 

Millford,  village  of  Alexandria 
t-ship,  Hunterdon  co.,  on  the  river 
Delaware,  at  the  confluence  of  a  small 
creek  with  that  stream,  13  miles  N. 
W.  from  Flemington,  and  40  from 
Trenton;  contains  a  tavern,  store, 
grist  mill,  2  saw  mills,  and  from 
15  to  20  dwellings,  a  Presbyterian 
church,  and  a  church  of  Unitarians, 
which  styles  itself  Christian,  and 
which  admits  females  to  participate 
in  the  ministry.     This  is  a  place  of 


MIL 


180 


MIN 


considerable  business,  particularly  in 
the  lumber  trade. 

Millhill,  village  of  Nottingham 
t-ship,  Burlington  co.,  on  the  S.  side 
of  the  Assunpink  creek ;  contains  2 
cotton  manufactories,  several  taverns 
and  stores,  a  market  house,  and  about 
80  dwellings.  (See  T/tw^o/i,  of  which 
it  is  a  suburb.) 

Millingto/i,  post-ofRre,  Somerset 
CO.,  219  miles  N.  E.  from  W.  C,  and 
48  from  Trenton. 

Millstone  River,  rises  near  Paint 
Island  spring,  Upper  Freehold  t-ship, 
Monmouth  co.,  and  flows  thence  by 
a  N.  course  of  about  5  miles,  to  the 
line  between  Monmouth  and  Mid- 
dlesex COS. ;  thence  N.  W.  13  or 
14  miles,  through  Middlesex  to  the 
mouth  of  Stony  Brook,  thence  N.  E. 
by  Kingston,  into  Somerset  co.,  16 
miles  to  the  river  Raritan.  It  is  a 
strong  and  rapid  stream,  receiving 
the  waters  of  an  extensive  country, 
including  that  drained  by  Stony 
Brook;  and  runs,  in  many  places, 
through  very  narrow  valleys,  and 
consequently  is  subject  to  sudden  and 
great  overflows.  The  Delaware  and 
Raritan  canal  enters  the  valley  of 
this  river,  with  Stony  Brook,  and  fol- 
lows it  to  the  Raritan.  The  whole 
length  of  the  Millstone  may  be  about 
35  miles,  by  comparative  courses. 

Millstone,  post-town  of  Hillsbo- 
rough t-ship,  Somerset  co.,  on  the 
left  bank  of  the  Millstone  river,  194 
miles  N.  E.  of  W.  C,  28  from  Tren- 
ton, 5  S.  of  Somerville;  contains  2 
taverns,  3  stores,  a  Dutch  Reformed 
church,  and  between  30  and  40  dwell- 
ings, in  a  level,  fertile,  red  shale 
country.  Some  of  the  dwellings  are 
very  neat  and  commodious. 

Milltown,  a  small  village  in  the 
southern  part  of  Kingwood  t-ship, 
Hunterdon  co.,  on  the  Laokatong 
creek,  10  miles  S.  W.  from  Fleming- 
ton;  contains  a  mill,  store,  and  8  or 
10  dwellings. 

Millmlle  t-shij)  Cumberland  co., 
bounded  N.  by  (iloucester  and  Salem 
COS.,  and  by  Depfdird  t-ship,  S.  E.  by 
Maurice  Kiver  t-ship,  S.  by  Downe, 
and  W.  by  Fairfield   f-ships.     Cen- 


trally distant  E.  from  Bridgeton,  12 
miles;  length  N.  and  S.  16  miles; 
breadth  E.  and  W.  15;  area,  73,000 
acres ;  surface,  level ;  soil  sandy,  and 
generally  not  very  productive.  It  is 
drained  by  Maurice  river  and  its  tri- 
butaries, of  which  Manantico  creek 
is  here  the  chief.  Millville  and  Buck- 
shutem,  are  towns  of  the  t-ship;  the 
first  a  post-town.  Population  in  1880, 
1561.  In  1832,  there  were  in  the 
t-ship  349  taxables,  136  householders, 
whose  ratables  did  not  exceed  $30 ; 
7  stores,  6  run  of  stones  for  grinding 
grain,  1  carding  machine,  1  blast  fur- 
nace, 8  saw  mills,  2  glass  manufac- 
tories ;  and  it  paid  road  tax,  $800, 
and  county  and  state  tax,  $553  58. 

Millville,  p-t.  of  Millville  t-ship, 
Cumberland  co.,  on  the  left  bank  of 
Maurice  river,  20  miles  from  its 
mouth,  11  miles  S.  E.  of  Bridgeton, 
79  from  Trenton,  and  176  N.  E.  from 
W.  C. ;  contains  about  60  dwellings, 
2  taverns,  4  or  5  stores,  a  furnace 
belonging  to  Mr.  D.  C.  Wood,  and 
extensive  glass  works  belonging  to 
Messrs.  Burgin  and  Pearsall ;  con- 
sistintT  of  2  factories,  1  containino;  an 
8,  and  the  other  a  7  pot  furnace,  em- 
ployed chiefly  in  the  manufacture  of 
bottles,  demijohns,  carboys,  and  the 
various  kinds  of  vials  used  by  drug- 
gists and  apothecaries,  giving  em- 
ployment to  from  75  to  100  work- 
men. The  town  lies  near  the  head 
of  sloop  navigation. 

Milton,  post-town  of  Morris  co., 
242  miles  N.  E.  from  W.  C,  and 
79  from  Trenton,  and  15  N.  of  So- 
merville. 

Minisink  Island,  formed  by  the 
Delaware  river,  and  making  the  ex- 
treme S.  W.  part  of  Montague  t-ship, 
Sussex  CO. 

Mine  Mountain,  composed  of  trap 
rock,  Bernard  t-ship,  Somerset  co., 
extends  from  the  north  branch  of  the 
Raritan,  6  miles  to  the  Passaic  river, 
and  is  intersected  by  tributaries  of 
the  respective  rivers ;  the  chief  of 
which  is 

Mine  Brook,  rising  near  Logtown, 
on  the  summit  of  the  mountain,and  run- 
nine  6  miles  S.  W.  to  the  north  branch 


MON 


181 


MON 


of  the  Raritan.  It  is  a  mill  stream 
of  great  fall,  and  studded  with  mills. 

Miry  Run,  tributary  of  the  As- 
sunpink  creek,  rises  in  East  Windsor 
t-ship,  Middlesex  co.,  and  flows  N. 
W.  through  Nottingham  t-ship,  Bur- 
lington CO.,  by  a  course  of  8  miles, 
giving  motion  to  several  mills. 

Mi?'y  Run,  small  stream  of  Egg 
Harbour  t-ship,  Gloucester  co.,  flow- 
ing westerly  about  3  miles  to  the 
Great  Egg  Harbour  river,  having  a 
mill  at  its  mouth. 

Monroe,  p-t.  Hardiston  t-ship,  Sus- 
sex CO.,  at  the  cross-roads  N.  W.  of 
Pimple  Hill,  236  miles  from  W.  C, 
78  from  Trenton,  and  9  from  New- 
ton; contains  a  mill,  store,  and  seve- 
ral dwellings.  It  is  surrounded  by 
soil  of  primitive  limestone. 

Monroe,  village  of  Hanover  t-ship, 
Morris  co.,  near  the  Whippany  river, 
3  miles  N.  E.  of  Morristown  ;  con- 
tains a  store,  5  or  6  dwellings,  and  an 
extensive  paper  mill.  It  is  surround- 
ed by  soil  of  loam  and  gravel,  well 
cultivated. 

Monmouth  County ;  the  bounds  of 
this  county  were  established  by  the 
Acts  of  21st  January,  1709-10,  and 
15th  march,  1713-14;  and  it  is  now 
limited  on  the  N.  by  Raritan  bay; 
E.  and  S.  E.  by  the  Atlantic  ocean; 
S.  W.  and  W.  by  Burlington  co. ; 
and  N.  W.  by  Middlesex ;  greatest 
length  65,  breadth  33  miles;  area, 
665,000  acres,  or  about  1030  square 
miles.  Central  lat.  40°  5'  N.,  long, 
from  W.  C.  2°  42'  E.  The  whole  coun- 
try belongs  to  the  alluvial  formation, 
and  consists  of  clay  mingled  with 
sand,  gravel,  and  in  low  places  vege- 
table mould.  In  many  parts  there 
are  large  beds  of  marl,  varying  in 
quality  from  that  composed  almost 
altogether  of  shells,  already  highly 
indurated,  to  that  of  blue  clay  and 
sand,  in  which  the  shells  are  finely 
broken  and  sparsely  strewed.  In  the 
N.  part  of  the  county,  marl  is  gene- 
rally used  as  manure,  and  with  the 
greatest  advantage.  It  has  restored 
many  tracts  of  worn-out  land  to  fer- 
tility, and  preserved  much  more  from 
exhaustion  and  abandonment. 


The  surface  of  the  county,  except 
in  Middletovvn  t-ship,  is  generally 
level,  and  a  large  portion  of  it  cover- 
ed with  pine  forest ;  N.  of  Manasquan 
inlet  the  sea-coast  is  high,  bold,  and 
clean ;  S.  of  that  channel  commences 
a  series  of  sand  beaches,  formed  into 
islands,  by  Barnegat  and  Little  Egg 
Harbour  inlets,  having  a  width,  va- 
rying from  half  a  mile  to  a  mile, 
and  which  extend  in  this  county  to 
Little  Egg  Harbour  inlet,  a  distance, 
southwardly  of  full  40  miles.  Be- 
hind the  beach,  a  bayou,  continues, 
nominally  divided  into  two,  under  the 
names  of  Little  Egg  Harbour,  and 
Barnegat  bays,  which  also  varies 
much  in  width,  being  from  ^  a  mile 
to  4  miles  broad ;  with  a  broad  bor- 
der of  salt  marsh,  on  the  west. 

The  county  is  well  watered,  by 
many  small  streams,  most  of  which 
flow  E.,  to  the  ocean.  The  princi- 
pal of  these  are  Manasquan,  Mete- 
tecunk.  Kettle,  Cedar,  Oyster,  Ma- 
nahocking,  and  Westecunk  creeks, 
Nevisink,  Shrewsbury,  Toms',  and 
Forked  rivers.  From  the  N.  the 
Millstone  and  South  rivers  flow  to  the 
Raritan,  and  the  W.  sends  forth  the 
Assunpink,  the  Crosswick's,  and  the 
Rancocus,  tributaries  of  the  Dela- 
ware. 

The  post-towns  of  the  county  are, 
Allentown,  Barnegat,  Cedar  Creek, 
Colts'  Neck,  Eatontown,  English- 
town,  Freehold,  the  seat  of  justice, 
Holmdel,  Howel  Furnace,  Manohock- 
ing,  Manasquan,  Middletown,  Middle- 
town  Point,  New  Egypt,  Shrewsbury, 
Squankum,  and  Toms'  River.  There 
are  several  other  less  considerable 
villages. 

The  business  of  the  county  is 
chiefly  agricultural,  but  many  per- 
sons are  employed  in  cutting  and 
sawing  timber,  and  in  preparing  and 
carying  cord  wood  to  market,  large 
quantities  of  which  are  sent  from 
Toms'  river,  and  large  quantities  of 
the  finest  pork  are  annually  raised  for 
exportation.  Iron  is  also  made  in 
the  central  parts  of  the  county,  at 
Phcenix,  Dover,  and  other  furnaces. 

The    population,   originally   com- 


MON 


182 


MON 


posed  of  a  few  Dutch,  and  some  New 
England  men,  who  removed  from 
Long  Island,  prior  to,  and  about,  tiie 
year  1664,  amounted  in  1830,  to 
29,233:  of  whom  there  were,  white 
free  males,  13,900;  free  white  fe- 
males, 13,304;  male  slaves  97;  fe- 
male slaves,  130;  free  coloured  males, 
1794;  free  coloured  females,  978. 
There  were  also,  19  deaf  and  dumb, 
and  14  blind,  of  the  whites;  1  deaf 
and  dumb,  and  1  blind,  of  the  colour- 
ed population. 


By  returns  of  the  assessors  of  1832, 
there  were  in  the  county,  about  6000 
taxables,  1385  householders,  whose 
ratables  did  not  exceed  $30 ;  603  sin- 
gle men,  103  stores,  52  saw  mills, 
67  run  of  stones  for  grinding  grain, 
6  fulling  mills,  17  caiding  machines, 
5  furnaces,  238  tan  vats,  46  distille- 
ries for  cider,  4942  horses  and  mules, 
and  12,068  neat  cattle,  over  the  age 
of  3  years ;  and  it  paid  county  and 
state  taxes,  $15,492  80. 


STATISTICAL  TABLE  OF  MONMOUTH  COUNTY. 


'■*' 

4 

Population. 

Townships,  &c. 

fcD 

a 

rt 

Area. 

Surface. 

1810. 

1820. 

1830. 

Dover, 

24 

22 

200,000 

level. 

1882 

1916 

2898 

Upper  Freehold, 

16 

10 

90,000 

do. 

3843 

4541 

4826 

Lower  Freehold, 

23 

11 

104,000 

do. 

4784 

5146 

5481 

Howell, 

13 

11 

70,000 

do. 

2780 

3354 

4141 

Middletown, 

16 

10 

.50,000 

part  hilly. 

3849 

4369 

5128 

Shrewsbury, 

13 

13 

64,000 

do. 

3773 

4284 

4700 

Stafford, 

18 

12 

87,000 

do. 

1239 

1428 

2059 

665,000 

22,1.50 

25,038 

29,233 

Montague,  N.  W.  t-ship  of  Sussex 
CO.,  bounded  on  the  N.  E.  by  the  state 
of  New  York,  S.  E.  by  tke  Blue 
mountains,  S.  W.  by  Sandistone 
t-ship,  and  on  the  N.  W.  by  the  river 
Delaware.  Centrally  distant  from 
Newton,  16  miles ;  greatest  length  8^, 
breadth  7  J  miles ;  area,  21,620  acres ; 
surface  on  the  S.  E.  mountainous,  on 
the  N.  W.  line,  river  alluvion.  Po- 
pulation in  1830,  990.  There  were 
in  the  t-ship  in  1832,  85  household- 
ers, whose  ratables  did  not  exceed 
$30;  6  store  kof'j)crs,  3  pair  of  mill 
stones,  3  saw  mills,  208  horses  and 
mules  above  3  years  old,  843  neat 
cattle,  above  that  age ;  1 1  tan  vats,  1 
distillery.  The  t-ship  paid  a  school 
tax  of  $150;  state  and  county  tax, 
$364  89;  poor  tax,  100;  and  road 
tax,  $500.  It  is  drained  N.  E.  by 
Mill  brook,  W.  by  Chamber's  Mill 
brook,  and  S.  W.  by  Big  and  Little 
Flat  Kills.  There  is  a  post-office 
here,  bearing  the  name  of  the  t-shij) ; 


distant  245  miles  from  W.  C,  87 
from  Trenton,  and  17  from  Newton. 
Two  turnpike  roads  run  through  the 
t-ship,  and  unite  at  the  Delaware,  op- 
posite Milford  bridge;  this  bridge, 
completed  in  1826,  cost  $20,000.  Be- 
tween the  Blue  mountain  and  Dela- 
ware river,  the  space  is  six  miles, 
through  which  runs  a  vein  of  transi- 
tion limestone,  bordered  by  an  exten- 
sive river  flat.  The  soil  is  fertile  and 
well  cultivated,  producing  much 
wheat.  The  t-ship  Avas  originally 
settled  by  the  Dutch,  some  years 
prior  to  1680. 

Montgomery  t-ship,  Somerset  co., 
bounded  N.  by  Hillsborough,  E.  and 
S.  E.  by  Millstone  river,  which  sepa- 
rates it  from  Franklin  t-ship,  W.  by 
Lawrence  and  Hopewell  t-ships,  Hun- 
terdon CO.  Centrally  distant  S.  W. 
from  Somerville  1 2  miles ;  greatest 
length  N.  and  S.  8,  breadth  E.  and 
W.  8  miles;  area,  36,500  acres; 
surface,  hilly;  soil,  clay,  sandy  loam, 


MOR 


188 


MOR 


and  red  shale.  Beden's  Brook  and 
its  tributaries,  Rock,  Pike,  and  No- 
pipe  Brooks  flow  eastwardly  through 
the  t-ship  to  the  Millstone  river,  and 
Stony  Brook  crosses  the  S.  W.  angle. 
Rock  mountain  or  the  Nashanic, 
forms  the  N.  W.  angle,  and  Rocky 
hill  spreads  itself  over  the  south. 
Princeton,  the  northern  side  of  the 
main  street.  Rocky  Hill,  Stoutsville, 
Harlingen,  and  Plainville,  are  towns 
of  the  t-ship.  Population  in  1830, 
2834.  In  1832  the  t-ship  contained 
about  600  taxables,  170  householders, 
whose  ratables  did  not  exceed  $30; 
and  66  single  men,  15  stores,  5  saw 
mills,  5  grist  mills,  1  fulling  mill,  54 
tan  vats,  5  distilleries,  743  horses 
and  mules,  1295  neat  cattle,  3  years 
old  and  upwards;  and  paid  state  tax, 
$352  72  ;  county  tax,  $900  94. 

Montiiille,  village  of  Pequannock 
t-ship,  Morris  co.,  lying  in  a  deep 
valley,  through  which  passes  the 
Morris  canal,  by  two  inclined  planes ; 
the  town  lies  between  10  and  11 
miles  N.  E.  from  Morristown,  and 
contains  a  grist  mill,  saw  mill,  2 
stores,  1  tavern,  and  from  10  to  15 
dwellings,  and  a  Dutch  Reformed 
church. 

Moorestown,  p-t.,  Chester  t-ship, 
Burlington  co.,  on  the  great  road  from 
Camden  to  Monmouth,  10  miles 
from  the  former,  and  8  S.  W.  of 
Mount  Holly,  30  miles  from  Trenton, 
and  147  from  W.  C.  This  is  a  very 
pleasant  town,  situated  on  a  fertile 
plain  of  sandy  loam,  extremely  well 
cultivated,  near  the  north  branch  of 
Pensaukcn  creek ;  contains  a  large 
Quaker  meeting  house,  a  Methodist 
church,  a  school,  3  taverns,  4  or  5 
stores,  and  between  50  and  60  dwell- 
ings, most  of  which  are  neat  and 
commodious,  some  large  and  elegant. 
The  town  has  communication  by 
stages,  daily,  with  Camden  and  Mount 
Holly. 

Morris  County,  was  taken  from 
Hunterdon,  by  act  of  Assembly  of 
15th  March,  "l738-9,  directing  "that 
the  portion  of  "  said  county  lying  to 
the  northward  and  eastward  of  a  well 
known  place,  being  a  fall  of  water, 


in  part  of  the  north  branch  of  the 
Raritan,  called  in  the  Indian  language 
AUamatonck,  to  the  north-eastward 
of  the  north-east  end  of  the  lands 
called  the  New  Jersey  Society  Lands, 
along  the  line  thereof,  crossing  the 
south  branch  of  the  said  river,  and 
extending  westerly  to  a  certain  tree 
marked  with  the  letters  L  M,  stand- 
ing on  the  north  side  of  a  brook 
emptying  itself  into  the  said  south 
bi'anch,  by  an  old  Indian  path  to  the 
northward  of  a  line  to  be  run  north- 
west from  the  said  tree  to  a  branch  of 
Delaware  river  called  Musconetcong, 
and  so  down  the  said  branch  to  Dela- 
ware river."  It  was  named  from 
Lewis  Morris,  then  Governor  of  the 
province.  These  ample  limits  were 
contracted  by  the  erection  of  Sussex 
county,  8th  June,  1753,  from  which 
Warren  was  subsequently  taken. 
Morris  county  is  now  bounded  on 
the  N.  W.  by  Sussex,  N.  jE.  by  Ber- 
gen, E.  and  S.  E.  by  Essex,  S.  by 
Somerset,  S.  W.  by  Hunterdon,  and 
W.  by  Warren.  Greatest  length  N. 
E.  and  S.  W.  about  30  miles. ;  breadth 
27  miles;  area,  292,900  acres;  cen- 
tral latitude  40°  53'  N.;  longitude 
2°  28"  E.  from  W.  C. 

The  county  is  divided  between  the 
transition  and  primitive  formations, 
two-thirds  of  it  on  the  south  being  of 
the  latter,  but  even  in  it,  the  primitive 
appears  in  the  hills  as  in  the  Trow- 
bridge mountain,  and  the  ridge  on  the 
north-west  of  Morristown.  The  tran- 
sition also  appears  in  the  range  most 
generally  primitive,  as  in  the  grau- 
wacke  of  the  Copperas  mountain,  and 
the  grey  limestone  at  its  southern  base; 
a  bed  of  which,  probably,  underlays 
the  country  from  Potter's  Falls  on 
the  S.  W.,  to  Charlottesburg  on  the 
N.  E.,  upon  Pequannock  creek. 
Trap  rocks  are  scattered  over  the 
county  in  various  places,  as  in  the 
Pompton  Hills,  Long  Hill,  and  else- 
where. 

The  northern  portion  of  the  coun- 
ty is  mountainous  and  divided  into 
several  ridges,  whose  continuity  is 
broken  as  they  extend  south  and 
east.     Schooley's,  or  the  Hamburg 


I 


MOR 


184 


MOR 


mountain,  which  is  a  continuation  of 
the  Musconetcong,  continues  in  an 
unbroken  mass  across  the  county, 
varying  from  three  to  six  miles  in 
width.  On  the  north-east,  longitu- 
dinal divisions  are  formed  by  the 
branches  of  Rockaway  river,  in  the 
Green  Pond  and  Copperas  mountains ; 
whilst  Pequannock  t-ship  is  covered 
with  short  ridges  and  rounded  knolls. 
The  Trowbridge  mountain  is  a  con- 
siderable eminence  near  the  centre  of 
the  county,  varying  in  breadth  from 
one  to  three  miles,  and  having  a 
length  of  fifteen  miles.  South  and 
east  of  this  ridge  the  county  is  level, 
or  at  most,  undulating  with  a  soil 
in  which  red  shale  predominates ;  it 
may  be  deemed  the  valley  of  the 
Passaic.  On  the  south-east  border 
of  the  county,  however,  rises  another 
hill,  around  whose  western  extremity 
the  Passaic  turns,  to  follow  its  base 
north-eastwardly. 

The  county  is  rich  in  iron  ore, 
and  we  believe  that  the  great  bed  of 
red  oxide  of  zinc,  found  in  the  Ham- 
burg mountain  near  Sparta,  in  the 
adjacent  county,  extends  into  this. 
Iron  ore  is  indeed  here  very  abundant. 
and  is  chiefly  of  the  magnetic  cha- 
racter. The  great  bed  first  worked  in 
Franconia,  near  the  White  Hills  in 
New  Hampshire,  extends  in  the  di- 
rection of  the  stratification,  into  this 
county,  and  which  is  said  by  Mr. 
M'Clure,  to  lose  itself  near  Black- 
water;  but  which  most  probably  ex- 
tends indefinitely  S.  W.;  since  iron  of 
the  saino  character  is  abundant  near 
the  spring  at  Schooley's  mountain. 
The  mine  of  the  Hon.  Mr.  Dickerson, 
on  the  head  waters  of  the  Black  river, 
is  one  of  tlie  best  and  most  extensive- 
ly wrought  of  the  district.  (See 
Randolph  t-ship.) 

The  county  is  a!)undantly  watered; 
a  line  drawn  almost  due;  south  and 
north  from  the  village  of  Mendham, 
to  Drakesville,  determines  the  course 
of  the  streams  east  and  west.  Thus 
the  Rockaway  with  its  tributaries, 
the  Parcippany  and  VV^hippany  rivers, 
seek  the  first;  whilst  the  tributaries 
of  the  north  and  south  branches  of 


the  Raritan  river,  have  a  westerly  in- 
clination. The  Passaic  river  has  its 
source  in  a  swamp  near  the  village  of 
Mendham,  and  forms  a  natural  boun- 
dary between  this  and  the  county  of 
Somerset  on  the  south,  and  the  county 
of  Essex  on  the  S.  E.,  receiving  the 
Rockaway  west  of  the  village  of 
Frankhn,  and  the  Pequannock,  or 
Pompton  river,  north  of  the  village  of 
Fairfield.  The  last  stream  forms 
the  N.  E.  boundary  of  the  county, 
separating  it  from  Bergen. 

The  chief 'villages  and  post-towns 
of  the  county  are  Berkshire  Valley, 
Bottle  Hill,  Chatham,  Chester,  Den- 
ville,  Dover,  Flanders,  Hanover,  Ha- 
nover Neck,  Littleton,  Mendham,  Mil- 
ton, Montville,  Morristown,  the  seat 
of  justice.  Mount  Freedom,  New- 
foundland, New  Vernon,  Parsippany, 
Pompton,  Powerville,  Rockaway, 
Schooley's  Mountain,  Stockholm, 
Suckasunny,  Washington,  &c. 

The  provisions  for  moral  improve- 
ment in  the  county,  consist  in  church- 
es of  the  Presbyterians,  the  Dutch 
Reformed,  the  Methodists,  and  the 
Episcopalians ;  a  county  Bible  Socie- 
ty, a  county  Sunday  school  union, 
and  several  Sunday  schools  and 
temperance  societies  in  various  parts 
of  the  county;  several  academies  in 
the  larger  villages,  where  the  rudi- 
ments of  the  classics  and  mathe- 
matics are  taught,  and  common  Eng- 
lish schools  in  almost  every  vicinity. 

By  the  census  of  1830,  the  popula- 
tion consisted  of  23,666  souls,  of 
whom  1 0,7 1 9  were  white  males ;  1 1 08 
white  females;  77  male  slaves;  88 
female  slaves;  438  free  coloured 
males  ;  364  coloured  free  females  : 
and  of  whom  there  were  20  whites, 
and  4  blacks,  deaf  and  dumb;  11 
whites,  and  1  black,  blind;  and  497 
aliens. 

In  1832,  the  county  contained 
4836  taxables,  1083  househ(jlders, 
whose  ratables  did  not  exceed  $30  in 
value;  528  single  men,  83  stores,  71 
saw  mills,  56  grist  mills,  215  tan 
vats,  53  distilleries,  5  paper  mills,  5 
four  horse  stages,  43  forges  and  2 
furnaces,  9  rolling  and  slitting  mills, 


MOR 


185 


MOR 


13  fulling  mills,  11  carding  ma- 
chines, 1  plaster  mill  and  6  cotton 
mills,  4056  horses  and  mules,  and 
11,821  neat  cattle,  above  3  years 
old  ,•  and  it  paid  state  tax,  |i3171  23 ; 
county  tax,  $7100;  poor  tax,  $10,900.  | 

The  courts  of  common  pleas,  or-  ; 
phans'  coui't,  and  quarter  sessions,  are 
holden  at  Morristown,  on  the  follow- 
ing Tuesdays ;  3d  December,  3d 
March,  1st  July,  and  4th  September ; 
and  the  circuit  courts,  on  the  3d 
Tuesdays  in  March,  and  4th  of  Sep- 
tember. 

This  county  abounds  with  copper, 
iron,  zinc,  plumbago,  copperas,  man- 
ganese, ochres  of  various  colours, 
excellent  brick  clay,  freestone,  lime- 
stone, precious  marbles,  oil  stone,  &c. 
&c.  With  such  metallic  resources,  the 
pioneers  in  the  settlement  of  this  por- 
tion of  New  Jersey,  were  rather  ma- 
nufacturers than  agriculturists;  and 
the  narrow  valleys  of  the  mountain 
region,  which  contain  many  and  ex- 
cellent mill  seats,  were  only  partially 
tilled  for  the  subsistence  of  wood 
cutters  and  bloomers.  The  foi'ge 
was  uniformly  the  precursor  of  the 
farm.  The  iron  master  occupied 
large  tracts  of  land,  which,  when 
stripped  of  timber,  were  subdivided 
among  agricultural  successors,  ope- 
rating on  the  smallest  scale.     As  the 


country  was  cleared,  the  makers  of 
iron  gradually  retired  to  the  remote, 
rough,  and  almost  inaccessible  re- 
gions, where  the  cost  of  transporta- 
tion of  the  ores,  and  of  the  metal  to 
market,  rendered  their  operations 
very  unprofitable.  Relief  in  this  re- 
spect will  be  obtained  from  the  com- 
pletion of  the  Morris  canal,  which 
has  been  created  in  a  great  measure 
with  that  view. 

A  region  abounding  so  much  in 
metallic  ores,  necessarily  produces 
mineral  springs ;  but  that  of  Schoo- 
ley's  mountain,  is  the  only  one  which 
has  yet  attained  celebrity.  A  few 
years  since,  the  county  was  famed 
for  its  apple  orchards,  its  cider, 
and  apple  whiskey ;  of  the  last,  large 
quantities  were  annually  made  for 
market.  The  annual  average  pro- 
duct of  the  Morris  orchards  was  esti- 
mated at  800,000  bushels.  But  a 
succession  of  bad  crops,  for  some 
years,  has  discouraged  the  cultivation. 
Few  new  orchards  are  planted,  and 
the  old  ones  are  frequently  neglected. 
Attempts  have  been  made  to  cultivate 
the  foreign  grape  upon  the  hill  sides, 
but  without  success,  the  frosts  prov- 
ing too  severe.  It  is  possible  that  some 
indigenous  qualities  might  be  planted 
with  profit. 


STATISTICAL  TABLE  OF  MORRIS  COUNTY. 


^ 

T3 

Population. 

Townships.         i 

bo 

B 

Area. 

Surface. 

4) 

1810. 

1820. 

1830, 

Chatham, 

9 

5 

13,400 

various. 

2019 

1832 

1865 

Chester, 

9 

6i 

18,000 

rolling. 

1175 

1212 

1338 

Jefferson, 

14 

3 

25,000 

mountainous. 

1281 

1231 

1551 

Hanover, 

12 

^i 

35,000 

various. 

3843 

3503 

3718 

Mendham, 

6 

4^ 

14,000 

do. 

1277 

1326 

1314 

Morris, 

13 

6 

33,000 

hilly. 

3753 

3524 

3536 

Pequannock, 

16 

11 

74,000 

mountainous. 

3853 

3820 

4451 

Roxbury, 

12 

10 

35,000 

do. 

1563 

1792 

2262 

Randolph, 

7 

5 

18,000 

do. 

1271 

1252 

1443 

Washington, 

8 

n 

27,500 

do. 

1793 

1876 

2188 

292,900 

21,828 

21,368 

23,666 

2A 


MOR 


186 


MOU 


Morris  t-ship,  Morris  co.,  bounded 
N.  and  N.  E.  by  Hanover  t-ship ;  E. 
by  Chatham;  S.  E.  by  New  Provi- 
dence t-ship,  of  Bergen  co. ;  S.  and 
S.  W.  by  Somerset  co. ;  and  W.  by 
Mendham  and  Randolph  t-ships,  Mor- 
ris CO.  Greatest  length  N.  and  S. 
13  miles;  breadth  E.  and  W.  6  miles ; 
surface,  on  the  north,  centre,  and 
south,  hilly;  elsewhere,  generally 
rolling,  with  occasional  plains ;  soil, 
clay  and  sandy  loam;  drained  on  the 
W.  and  S.  by  the  Passaic  river  (and 
its  tributaries)  which  courses  its  boun- 
dary ;  and  on  the  N.  E.  by  the  Whip- 
pany  river.  The  Elizabethtown  and 
Morris,  Newark  and  Morris,  Morris 
and  Easton,  Morris  and  Milford  turn- 
pike roads  cross  the  t-ship.  Morris- 
town,  Logansville,  New  Vernon, 
Morris's  Plains,  are  villages  of  the 
t-ship.  Morristown  is  the  seat  of 
justice  for  the  county.  Population 
in  1830,  3536.  In  1832  there  were 
in  the  t-ship  780  taxables,  21  stores, 
6  saw  mills,  4  gi'ist  mills,  11  distille- 
ries, 1  pa})er  mill,  1  fulling  mill,  1 
carding  machine,  and  546  horses,  and 
1674  neat  cattle,  above  the  age  of  3 
years.  The  t-ship  paid  state  tax, 
558  85;  county  tax,  1251  19;  poor 
tax,  $600  ;  and  road  tax,  $2000. 

Morristown,  Morris  t-ship,  post- 
town  and  seat  of  justice  of  Morris  co., 
on  the  Whippany  river,  by  post-route 
221  miles  N.  E.  of  W.  C,  71  from 
Trenton,  17  from  Newark  and  Eliza- 
bethtown, and  26  from  New  York ; 
pleasantly  seated  on  a  high  plain, 
built  upon  several  streets,  with  a  large 
area  or  public  ground  in  the  centre 
of  the  town ;  on  which,  front  the  Pres- 
byterian church,  many  of  the  best 
houses,  and  most  of  the  places  of  bu- 
siness. The  town  contains  1  Pres- 
byterian, 1  Episcopalian,  1  Baptist, 
and  1  Methodist  church ;  an  academy 
in  which  the  classics  and  mathema- 
tics are  taught;  a  very  large  and 
handsome  court-house,  newly  built 
of  brick,  with  the  prison  in  the  base- 
ment story ;  a  grist  mill,  saw  mill, 
and  2  paper  mills;  a  bank  with  a 
capital  of  $50,000,  which  may  be  ex- 
tended to  $100,000,  incorporated  by 


act  of  28th  January,  1812,  and  con- 
tinued by  act  19th  February,  1820 ;  5 
taverns,  18  stores,  4  practising  attor- 
neys, and  3  physicians,  2  printing 
offices,  from  each  of  which  a  weekly 
newspaper  is  issued,  viz.  The  Jersey- 
man  and  The  Palladium  of  Liberty ; 
a  county  bible  society,  Sunday  school 
union,  and  temperance  societies.  This 
is  a  beautiful  town.  The  houses  are 
generally  well  built,  neatly  painted, 
surrounded  with  garden  plots,  and  im- 
press upon  the  visiter  the  conviction, 
that  comfort  at  least,  reigns  here. 
The  town  is  supplied  by  water  from 
a  fine  spring  a  mile  and  a  half  distant, 
and  disti'ibuted  by  subterraneous  pipes. 
A  stage  runs  to  Elizabethtown  daily ; 
one  every  other  day  to  Easton  and 
Jersey  City,  and  one  to  Oswego  in 
New  York,  three  times  a  week.  It 
was  a  noted  station  of  the  American 
army  during  the  revolutionary  war, 
and  the  ruins  of  a  small  fort,  over- 
grown by  stately  trees,  still  crown 
the  hill  which  commands  the  town. 

Morris  Plains,  hamlet  and  level 
land,  lying  S.  E.  of  Trowbridge 
mountain,  with  a  tolerable  soil  of 
sandy  loam,  watered  by  a  branch  of 
Whippany  river.  The  hamlet  is  on 
the  line  between  Morris  and  Hanover 
t-ships,  2  miles  north  of  Morristown, 
and  contains  a  half  dozen  dwellings. 

Moses'  Pond,  small  sheet  of  water 
on  the  Pochuck  mountain,  Vernon 
t-ship,  Sussex  co.,  which  sends  forth 
westerly,  an  inconsiderable  tributary 
to  the  Wallkill  river. 

Mount  Bethel,  hamlet,  on  Stony 
Hill,  Warren  t-ship,  Somerset  co., 
7  miles  N.  E.  of  Somerville ;  contains 
a  Baptist  church,  tavern,  store,  and  4 
or  5  dwellings. 

Mount  Carmel,  a  mountain  ham- 
let of  Amwell  t-ship,  Hunterdon  CO., 
3  miles  N.  W.  Irom  Flemington; 
contains  a  tavei-n  and  some  4  or  5 
dwellings,  and  a  store.  The  soil 
around  it  is  clay,  cold,  and  at  present 
not  very  productive,  but  it  is  improv- 
able by  the  use  of  lime. 

Mount  Clinton,  a  village  laid  out 
on  the  Palisade  rocks  on  the  North 
river,  in  Hackcnsack  t-ship,  Bergen 


MOU 


187 


MUD 


CO.,  5  miles  N.  E.  of  Hackensack- 
town. 

Mount's  Creek,  a  small  tributary 
of  the  Cohansey  river,  near  the  S. 
W.  border  of  Hopewell  t-ship,  Salem 
county. 

Mount  Ephraim,  village,  of  Glou- 
cester t-ship,  Gloucester  co.,  5  miles 
S.  E.  from  Camden,  and  the  same 
distance  N.  E.  of  Woodbury ;  con- 
tains a  store,  tavern,  and  some  20  or 
30  dwellings.  The  hill  from  which 
it  has  its  name  is,  for  this  country, 
elevated,  and  afibrds  an  extensive 
view  of  the  vicinity,  even  to  the  De- 
laware. 

Mount  Freedom,  p-t.,  Morris  co., 
227  miles  N.  E.  from  W.  C.,  and 
61  from  Trenton ;  contains  a  Pres- 
byterian church,  and  some  10  or  12 
dwellings. 

Mount  Holly,  p-t.,  Northampton 
t-ship,  and  seat  of  justice  of  Burling- 
ton CO.,  on  the  road  from  Camden  to 
Freehold,  and  at  the  head  of  tide  and 
navigation,  on  the  north  branch  of 
Rancocus  creek,  20  miles  N.  E.  from 
the  city  of  Camden,  6  S.  E.  from 
Burlington,  21  from  Trenton,  156 
from  W.  C,  and  18  from  Philadel- 
phia, has  its  present  name  from  a 
mount  of  sand  and  sandstone  near  it, 
and  some  holly  trees  about  its  base. 
It  was  formerly  called  Bridgetown; 
and  this  name  was  recognised  in  a 
charter  for  a  library  company  here, 
so  early  as  1765.  At  the  period  of 
the  revolutionary  war,  the  town  con- 
tained 200  dwellings,  and  at  present, 
1833,  has  not  more  than  230  ;  many 
of  which  are  good  brick  buildings, 
erected  on  7  streets.  It  contains  a 
court-house  of  brick,  about  40  by  60  ft., 
two  stories  high,  with  cupola  and  bell ; 
a  stone  prison,  1  Episcopal,  1  Metho- 
dist, 1  Baptist  churches,  and  2  Qua- 
ker meeting  houses ;  1  boarding  school 
for  young  ladies,  4  day  schools,  5 
taverns,  8  stores,  1  grist  mill,  1  saw 
mill,  1  fulling  mill,  woollen  factory, 
plaster  mill,  and  a  paper  mill,  of  the 
latest  and  most  improved  construc- 
tion, where  paper  of  fine  quality  is 
made  by  machinery,  and  from  40  to 
50    hands    are    employed. — 10,000 


reams  of  paper  may  be  manufactured 
in  this  mill  yearly.  The  country 
around  is  flat;  soil,  sandy  loam,  ge- 
nerally of  good  quality,  well  culti- 
vated, and  worth  from  40  to  120 
dollars  the  acre,  in  extensive  farms ; 
corn,  rye,  and  oats,  are  the  chief  pro- 
ducts. A  bank  was  established  here 
in  1816,  with  authority  to  possess 
capital  to  the  amount  of  $200,000; 
of  which  $100,000  only  have  been 
paid  in.  There  run  from  the  village, 
2  stages  twice  a  day  to  Burlington,  1 
to  Camden,  1  to  Trenton,  1  to  Pem- 
berton,  1  to  Vincenttown,  1  to  New 
Egypt;  and  2  to  Manahocking,  tri- 
weekly. There  are  2  newspapers 
printed  here,  weekly ;  viz.  the  Herald, 
and  New  Jersey  Mail. 

Mount  Misery,  hamlet  of  North- 
ampton t-ship,  Burlington  co.,  15 
miles  S.  E.  from  Mount  Holly,  in 
the  pine  forest;  contains  a  tavern, 
saw  mill,  and  4  or  5  dwellings. 

Mount  Pleasant,  p-t.,  Alexandria 
t-ship,  Hunterdon  co.,  9  miles  N.  W. 
from  Flemington,  43  from  Trenton, 
and  196  from  W.  C,  on  the  Hake- 
hokake  creek;  contains  a  church, 
grist  mill,  store,  and  some  half  dozen 
dwellings. 

Mount  Pleasant,  small  village  and 
forge,  Pequannock  t-ship,  Morris  co., 
on  the  t-ship  road  leading  from  Mor- 
ristown,  N.  W.  10  miles;  there  are 
here  a  grist  mill,  and  some  half  do- 
zen houses,  and  very  valuable  iron 
mines,  extensively  wrought. 

Mount  Pleasant,  village  of  Middle- 
town  t-ship,  Monmouth  co.,  on  Mid- 
dletown  creek,  10  miles  N.  of  Free- 
hold; contains  from  12  to  15  dwell- 
ings, a  grist  mill,  a  tavern  and  store. 
The  ground  around  it  is  sandy,  but 
high;  elevated  at  least  50  feet  above 
the  waters. 

Muddy  Creek,  a  small  marsh 
stream  of  Lower  Alloways  Creek 
t-ship,  Salem  co.,  which  has  a  course 
of  a  mile  or  two;  and  empties  into 
the  Delaware,  between  Stow  and 
Deep  creeks. 

Muddy  Run,  a  branch  of  the  Mor- 
ris river,  running  near  to,  and  form- 
ing in  part,  the  S.  W.  boundary  of 


NAN 


188 


NEV 


Pittsgrove  t-ship,  and  the  line  be- 
tween Salem  and  Cumberland  cos. 

Mud  Pond,  a  small  basin  in  the 
Wallkill  mountains,  Vernon  t-ship, 
Sussex  CO.,  which  sends  forth  a  tri- 
butary to  the  Wallkill  river. 

Mullica  Hill,  p-t.  and  village  of 
Gloucester  co.,  on  the  line  separating 
Greenwich  from  Woolwich  t-ships, 
and  on  Raccoon  creek,  7  miles  S.  E. 
from  Woodbury,  and  5  E.  from 
Swedesboro';  47  S.  from  Trenton, 
and  153  N.  E.  from  W.  C. ;  contains 
a  Friends'  meeting  house,  an  Episco- 
pal church,  2  taverns,  2  stores,  and 
between  50  and  60  dwellings.  The 
country  around  the  village  is  much 
improved  by  the  use  of  marl  which 
abounds  here,  and  in  some  places  is 
found  in  an  indurated  state,  assum- 
ing the  character  of  limestone. 

Muscojietcong  Creek,  or  River, 
issues  from  the  Hopatcong  pond,  or 
lake,  in  Jefferson  t-ship,  Morris  co. ; 
and  flows  by  a  course  S.  W.  and 
nearly  straight,  through  a  longitudi- 
nal valley  of  the  South  mountains,  for 
nearly  forty  miles.  This  valley  is 
bounded  S.  E.  by  the  Musconetcong 
and  Schooley's  mountains,  and  on 
the  N.  W.  by  a  southern  continua- 
tion of  the  Hamburg  hills ;  it  is  nar- 
row and  deep,  and  has  throughout  its 
whole  length  a  limestone  base.  The 
stream  has  a  large  volume,  and  gives 
motion  to  a  very  great  number  of 
mills  for  various  purposes. 

Musketoe  Cove,  an  arm  of  Barne- 
gat  bay,  Dover  t-ship,  Monmouth 
CO.,  which  makes  about  two  miles 
inward  through  the  marsh,  between 
Toms'  bay  and  Kettle  creek. 

Nacote  Creek,  a  tributary  of  Lit- 
tle Egg  Harbour  river,  rises  by  two 
branches,  Clark's  mill,  and  Moss 
branch,  which  unite  at  Wrangle- 
boro',  in  Galloway  t-ship,  Gloucester 
CO. ;  the  whole  length  of  the  stream 
is  about  9  miles. 

Nantuxct  Creek,  said  to  be  more 
properly  called  Anhixct,  Cumberland 
CO.,  rises  on  the  boundary  line  be- 
tween Fairfield  and  Downe  t-ships, 
and  flows  along  the  boundary,  about 
9  miles  to  Nantuxet  cove,  in  the  De- 


laware; it  is  navigable  near  four 
miles  to  Nantuxet,  or  Newport  Land- 
ing.^ 

Nantuxet  Village.  (See  iVe?«- 
port.) 

Nantuxet  Cove,  inlet  to  Nantuxet 
creek,  from  the  Delaware  bay. 

Nashanic  Creek,  a  tributary  of 
the  south  branch  of  the  Raritan  river, 
rises  by  several  branches  at  the  foot 
of  a  range  of  hills  on  the  N.  W. 
line  of  Amwell  t-ship,  Hunterdon  co., 
and  flows  by  an  easterly  course  to  its 
recipient  in  Hillsborough  t-ship,  So- 
merset CO.,  giving  motion  to  several 
mills.  It  is  a  large  stream,  and 
with  its  several  tributaries  drains  the 
easterly  part  of  the  wide  valley  be- 
tween the  Nashanic  or  Rock  moun- 
tain, and  Mount  Carmel. 

Nashanic  Mountain,  or  Rock 
Mountain,  part  of  the  chain  of  trap 
hills  which  extends  from  below  Lam- 
bertsville,  on  the  Delaware,  to  the 
Raritan  river,  near  Somerville :  it  is 
the  largest  and  most  prominent  of  the 
chain;  is  about  11  miles  long  and 
about  3  miles  over  at  its  widest  part. 
Rock  brook,  a  tributary  of  Beden's 
brook,  almost  passes  through  it. 

Nashanic,  small  stream  on  the 
N.  W.  foot  of  the  Nashanic  moun- 
tain, 7  miles  S.  W.  from  Somerville ; 
contains  a  Dutch  Reformed  church, 
a  store  and  tavern,  and  10  or  12 
dwellings;  soil,  clay,  sandy  loam, 
and  red  shale. 

Nesochcaque  Creek,  tributary  of 
Atsion  river,  rises  by  several  branches 
in  Gloucester,  Hereford,  and  Gallo- 
way t-ships,  Gloucester  co.,  and  unites 
with  the  river,  at  Pleasant  Mills,  in 
the  last  named  t-ship. 

Nevisink  Hills,  on  the  Atlantic 
coast,  and  extending  across  the  noi'th- 
ern  part  of  the  county  of  Monmouth. 
Adjacent  to  the  ocean  these  hills  are 
between  300  and  400  feet  high.  They 
consist  in  the  higher  strata  of  sandy 
earth,  coloured  by  oxide  of  iron,  and 
imbedding  reddish  brown  sand  and 
pudding  stone,  cemented  by  iron,  rest- 
ing on  banks  of  oyster  shells  and 
other  marine  relics,  blended  with 
clay  and  sea  mud.     A  small  portioji 


NEW 


189 


NEW 


of  these  hills  only,  is  cultivated, 
being  rough,  broken  and  generally 
covered  with  wood.  (See  Introduc- 
tory Chapter,  Ibl.  1  and  2.) 

Nevisink  or  Carpenter's  Point,  a 
small  neck  of  land  formed  by  the  De- 
laware and  Nevisink  rivers,  at  the 
extreme  northern  point  of  the  state. 

Nevisink  River,  called  above  tide 
water  Swimming  river,  rises  by  seve- 
ral  branches   in   Freehold,   Shrews- 
bury, and  Middletown  t-ships,  Mon- 
mouth CO.     The  main  stream  flows 
about  13  miles  to  the  salt  water  estua- 
ry or  arm  of  Sandy  Hook  bay ;  which 
is  about  5  miles  long,  to  the  S.  E. 
base  of  the  Nevisink  hills,  varying  in 
breadth  from   f  to   1^.     Swimming 
river  and  its  north  and  south  branches 
are  mill  streams,  on  which  are  seve- 
ral mills.    The  Nevisink  is  separated 
from   the    Shrewsbury   river,   by    a 
neck  of  land  about  2  miles  in  breadth. 
Newark,  p-t.,  and  seat  of  justice, 
Newark   t-ship,   Essex   co.,   on   the 
right  bank  of  the  Passaic  river,  be- 
tween 4  and  5  miles  by  the  course  of 
the  stream  from  Newark  bay,  9  miles 
a  little  N.  of  W.  from  New  York, 
215  N.  E.  from  W.  C,  and  49  from 
Trenton ;  stands  upon  a  plain  of  fer- 
tile loam,  resting  on  old   red  sand- 
stone, bounded  westward   by  rising 
ground  which  was  probably  the  pri- 
mitive bank  of  the  river.     Lat.  40° 
44'  N.,  long.  2°  44'  E.  from  W.  C. 
This  is,  perhaps,  the  most  flourishing 
town  of  the  state.     In  1830  its  popu- 
lation, t-ship   included,  amounted  to 
10,953,  and  in  November,  1833,  it  is 
ascertained  to  be  nearly  15,000;  the 
increase  having  been  greater  during 
the  last  three  years  than  in  the  ten 
preceding.     There  are   1712   dwell- 
ings, of  which  1518  are  wooden,  and 
194  stone  and  brick.    109  dwellings 
were  built  in  1832,  and  as  many  in 
1833;  many  of  them  large  and  ele- 
gant.    The  town  is  remarkable  for 
its  manufactures,  with  which  it  sup- 
plies the  market  throughout  the  United 
States ;  and  in  which  the  great  pro- 
portion  of  the   inhabitants   are   en- 
gaged. The  principal  of  these  are  sad- 
dlery and  harness,  carriages,  shoes, 


and  hats.     Sixteen  extensive  manl?- 
factories  of  saddlery  and  harness,  em- 
ploy   272    hands,   and   a    capital  of 
$217,300,  yielding  an   annual  pro- 
duct of  $346,280,  and  paying  wages 
$70,000  annually.     These  are  inde- 
pendent  of    the    coachmakers    who 
make  their  own  saddlery  and  harness. 
Ten  carriage  manufactories  have  779 
workmen,   an    aggregate   capital   of 
$202,500,    and    produce    $593,000 
annually.    These  establishments,  ge- 
nerally, do  all  their  work,  including 
plating,  lamp  making,  &c.    Eighteen 
shoe     manufactories     engage     1075 
hands,  to  whom  they  pay  $175,000 
yearly    wages;    have    a    capital  of 
$300,000,  whose  annual  product  is 
estimated  at  $607,450 :  they  cut  up 
annually,  $400,000  worth  of  leather. 
The   amount  of  sales  of  boots  and 
shoes,  in  1832,  was  $900,000;  the 
balance,  over  the  product  of  the  town, 
having  been  procured  abroad,  in  or- 
der to  supply  the  orders.    This  large 
amount   is  exclusive  of  the    manu- 
facture for  home  consumption,  which, 
it  is  supposed,  employs  225  additional 
hands.     Nine  hat  manufactories  em- 
ploy 487  hands,  a  capital  of  $1 06,000 ; 
pay  $142,000  in  yearly  wages,  and 
make  an  annual  return  of  $551,700. 
Thirteen  tanneries  employ  103  hands, 
a  capital  of  $78,000,  and  return  an- 
nually, $503,000.     Beside  these  pro- 
minent manufactories,  there  are  others 
of  less,  though  great  consideration. — 
Thus,  there  are  two  soap  and  can- 
dle manufactories,  with  a  capital  of 
$21,000,    whose    gross    product    is 
$165,000;  7  iron  and  brass  founde- 
ries,  employing  125  men;  2  exten- 
sive founderies  of  malleable  iron,  em- 
ploying 60  men ;  2  coach  spring  fac- 
tories, employing  50  hands ;  besides 
2  others  connected  with  the  carriage- 
making  establishments;  5  tin,  sheet 
iron,  and  stove  factories  ;  1  hardware 
manufactory,   employing    50    work- 
men; and  2  patent  leather  manufac- 
tories.    There  are,  also,  more  than 
350  tailors  engaged  in  making  gar- 
ments   for   the   home  and   southern 
markets ;  140  carpenters,  26  sash  and 
blind  makers,  100  masons,  60  cabi- 


NEW 


190 


NEW 


netmakers,  51  coach  lace  weavers, 
25  chairmakers,  42  trunkmakers,  9 
looking  glass  manufacturers,  12  stone 
and  marble  cutters,  10  iron  turners, 
50  jewellers,  and  many  other  species 
of  handicrafts,  of  which  we  are  unable 
to  give  particular  details,  such  as 
smitheries,  wagon-making,  manufac- 
tories of  saddle  trees,  watches  and 
clocks,  segars,  silver  plating;  planes, 
locks,  guns,  whips,  brushes,  cooper- 
ing, ploughs,  pumps,  &c.;  with  the 
usual  number  of  butchers,  bakers, 
confectioners,  painters,  glaziers,  book 
binders,  &c.  &c. 

There  are  here  also,  2  breweries, 
2  grist  mills,  1  extensive  steam  saw 
mill,  5  saw  mills  driven  by  horses,  1 
distillery,  2  rope  walks,  1  pottery, 
and  2  dyeing  establishments. 

Four  printing  offices  employing  22 
hands,  from  which  3  weekly  and  1 
daily  newspapers  are  issued;  40 
schools  with  1669  scholars;  and 
about  1500  scholars  receive  instruc- 
tion in  the  Sunday  schools  ;  4  Pres- 
byterian churches  with  large  congre- 
gations, beside  a  small  Presbyterian 
congregation  of  coloured  persons. 
The  first  Presbyterian  church  was 
founded  in  1787,  by  the  Rev.  Alex- 
ander M'Whorter,  D.  D.,  who  pre- 
sided over  the  congregation  from 
1759  until  his  death  in  1807,  nearly 
a  half  a  century;  public  worship 
was  first  offered  in  it  1st  Jan.  1794: 
The  second  Presbyterian  church  in 
1808;  the  third,  in  1824;  and  the 
fourth,  in  1831, 1832.  One  Episcopal 
church,  with  a  large  and  increasing 
congregation,  which  was  commenced 
about  1734,  by  Col.  Isaiah  Ogden  and 
others,  who  left  the  Congrcgation- 
alists  in  consequence  of  the  rigour 
with  which  his  conduct,  in  saving 
his  grain  in  a  wet  harvest,  by  labour- 
ing on  the  Sabljath,  was  condemned. 
The  present  house  for  worship  was 
erected  in  1808,  on  a  site  occupied 
by  a  first  and  older  building:  Two 
Baptist  churches ;  the  congregation  of 
the  first  was  constituted  in  1801,  and 
the  church  built  in  1804,  was  rebuilt 
in  1810;  the  second  church  was  con- 
structed in  1833:  1  Dutch  Reformed 


congregration,  recently  organized, 
with  a  settled  minister :  2  large  Me- 
thodist Episcopal  churches  ;  the  first 
congregation  was  organized  in  1806, 
and  the  first  chapel  built  in  1810; 
the  second  chapel  was  built  in  1832: 
1  Primitive  Methodist  church,  and  1 
African  Episcopal  Methodist  chapel, 
built  in  1810:  a  Roman  Catholic 
church,  built  in  1824.  Of  these 
churches  the  first  and  second  Pres- 
byterian, the  Episcopal  and  the  Catho- 
lic, are  of  stone;  the  third  Presbyte- 
rian, of  brick;  the  others  of  wood: 
the  fourth  Presbyterian,  second  Bap- 
tist, and  second  Methodist  Episcopal 
churches  are  remarkably  large,  and 
some  of  them  have  great  architectu- 
ral beauty. 

Beside  the  churches,  the  only  pub- 
lic building  of  the  town,  of  much  im- 
portance, is  the  court-house  and  pri- 
son, of  brick,  under  the  same  roof — 
in  which  the  keepers'  apartments  and 
cells  of  the  prisoners  are  on  the  ground 
floor;  the  court  room,  jury  rooms, 
and  sheriff's  ofiice,  on  the  second; 
and  the  apartment  for  insolvents  on 
the  third.  The  offices  of  the  clerk 
and  surrogate  are  also  in  the  same 
building.  An  election  in  1807  for  de- 
termining the  location  of  the  court- 
house, is  still  remembered  by  the  in- 
habitants, as  the  most  exciting  re- 
corded in  their  annals.  The  contest 
was  between  Newark  and  Day's  Hill. 
By  a  construction  given  to  the  state 
constitution,  the  women  were  then 
suffered  to  vote,  and  they  seem  to 
have  been  so  delighted  with  this  pri- 
vilege of  exercising  their  wills,  that 
they  were  unwilling  to  circumscribe 
it  within  the  legal  limit;  many  ladies 
voting,  we  arc  told,  7  or  8  times,  un- 
der various  disguises. 

Of  literary  institutions  in  addition 
to  the  schools,  we  may  name  an  ap- 
prentices' library,  a  circulating  libra- 
ry, and  the  mechanics'  association  for 
literary  and  scientific  improvement, 
which  possesses  a  valuable  library 
and  pliilosoi)hical  apparatus.  It  is 
to  the  credit  of  the  town,  that  the 
New  Jersey  college  was  located  here 
for  several  years  subsequent  to  1747, 


NEW 


191 


NEW 


under  the  charge  of  its  second  presi- 
dent, the  Rev.  Aaron  Burr,  father  of 
the  ex-vice  President  of  the  United 
States;  who  was  in  1736,  called  to 
the  pastoral  charge  of  the  first  Pres- 
byterian church,  and  was  highly  dis- 
tinguished for  his  learning,  energy, 
and  public  spii'it,  which  contributed 
much  to  the  growth  and  prosperity  of 
the  town. 

The  commerce  of  Newark,  alrea- 
dy considerable,  rapidly  increases. 
It  is  a  port  of  delivery,  and  eiibrts 
are  used  to  make  it  a  port  of  entry. 
It  employs  65  vessels,  averaging 
100  tons,  in  the  coasting  trade ; 
8  or  9  of  which  are  constantly  en- 
gaged in  transporting  hither  various 
building  materials.  The  Morris  ca- 
nal, which  runs  through  the  town,, 
gives  it  man)^  advantages  for  internal 
trade,  for  which  purpose  25  canal 
boats  are  supplied  by  the  inhabitants. 
The  facilities  for  communication  with 
New  York,  render  the  town  a  suburb 
of  that  great  city.  A  steam-boat 
plies  twice  a  day  between  the  two 
places,  carrying  an  average  of  75 
passengers  each  trip,  each  way  ;  two 
lines  of  stages  communicate  between 
them  almost  hourly,  conveying  at 
least  800  passengers  a  week  ;  and 
this  communication  will  be  still  more 
frequent  and  facile,  when  the  New 
Jersey  Rail-road,  now  rapidly  pro- 
gressing, shall  have  been  completed. 
The  Directors  of  the  Rail-road  Com- 
pany have  not  only  run  the  road 
through  part  of  the  town,  but  have 
opened  a  splendid  avenue  of  120  feet 
wide,  by  its  side,  and  propose  to  cross 
the  Passaic  river,  about  the  centre  of 
the  town,  upon  a  wooden  bridge  on 
stone  abutments,  which  will  give  an 
additional  trait  of  beauty  to  the  place. 

There  are  three  banks  here,  viz. 
"T/te  Neioarh  Banking  and  Insu- 
rance Company^''''  incorporated  in 
1804,  with  an  authorized  capital  of 
8800,000,  of  which  $350,000  have 
been  paid  in;  '■'■The  State  Bank  at 
NerimrJe,''^  incorporated  in  1812,  with 
an  authorized  capital  of  $400,000,  of 
which  §280,000  have  been  jiaid  in ; 
and  "TAe  Mechanics  Bank  at  Neiv- 


ark"  incorporated  in  1831,  with  an 
authorized  capital  of  $250,000,  of 
which  $200,000  have  been  paid  in. 
During  the  year  1833,  the  business 
of  the  town,  manufacturing  and  com- 
mercial, has  greatly  increased,  and 
consequently  the  demand  for  banking 
capital ;  to  meet  which,  one  of  the 
banks  has  called  in  a  further  instal- 
ment, and  another  has  availed  itself 
of  the  privilege  given  by  charter,  to 
double  its  capital.  The  rise  in  the 
value  of  real  estate,  the  sure  indica- 
tion of  prosperity,  has  been  astonish- 
ingly great — a  remarkable  instance 
of  which  is  given  us  in  November, 
1833;  where  a  property  was  sold  at 
public  auction  for  $10,000,  which 
but  five  years,  previously,  was  pur- 
chased by  the  late  vendor  for  $60! 
A  whaling  and  sealing  company  has 
been  incorporated,  (October,  1833) 
which  is  vigorously  prosecuting  its 
object. 

The  town  is  laid  out  upon  broad 
streets,  and  has  a  great  and  salu- 
brious ornament,  in  the  greens  or 
commons,  which  are  shaded  by  noble 
trees,  and  bounded  by  the  principal 
avenues.  It  is  abundantly  supplied 
with  wholesome  water,  by  a  joint 
stock  company,  from  a  fine  and  steady 
spring,  about  a  mile  distant ;  and  se- 
ven miles  of  iron  pipes  have  already 
been  laid  for  the  accommodation  of 
the  inhabitants.  The  present  style 
of  building,  copied  fi-om  that  of  the 
great  cities,  is  costly,  elegant,  and 
commodious.  Granite  basement  sto- 
ries, in  the  places  of  business,  admit 
of  convenient  stores,  whilst  lofty  edi- 
fices give  accommodation  to  families. 
Houses  designed  for  private  residence 
are  now  generally  of  brick,  neat,  and 
frequently  splendid. 

We  close  this  interesting  account 
of  this  thriving  town,  for  which  we 
are  indebted  to  a  committee*  of  the 
Young  Men's  Society,  &c.,  with  a 
brief  historical  notice,  much  of  which 
has  been  abstracted  from  the  town 
records. 

*  Consisting  of  Messrs.  A.  Armstrong, 
C.  H.  Halsey,  S.  H.  Pennington,  D.  A. 
Hays,  and  J.  B.  Congar. 


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192 


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Soon  after  the  arrival  of  Governor 
Carteret,  in   1665,  he  published   in 
New   England,    and  elsewhere,    the 
"  Concessions"  of  the  proprietaries, 
and  invited  settlers  to  the  new  colony. 
Tlie  first  fruit  of  this  measure  was 
the  settlement  of  Elizabethtown.     In 
the  succeeding  year,  agents  were  des- 
patched  from    Guilford,    Brandford, 
and  Milford,  in  Connecticut,  to  sur- 
vey the  country,  and  to  ascertain  the 
state  of  the  IncUans  who  inhabited  it. 
Upon  their  favourable  report,  particu- 
larly, of  that  district   "  beyond   the 
marshes  lying  to  the  north  of  Eliza- 
bethtown," they  were  empowered  to 
contract  for  a  township,  to  select  a 
proper  site  for  a  town,  and  to  make 
arrangements  for  an  immediate  set- 
tlement.    Thirty   families    from    the 
above  named  towns  and  New  Haven, 
embarked  in  the  same  year,  and  after 
a  passage,  as  long  and  tedious  as  a 
voyage  in  the  present   time   across 
the  Atlantic,  arrived  in  the  Passaic 
river.     Their   landing  was  opposed 
by  the  Hackensack  tribe  of  Indians, 
who  claimed  the  soil  which  the  go- 
vernor had  granted  to  the  emigrants, 
and  insisted  on  a  full  compensation 
therefor,  previous  to  its  settlement. 
The  governor  not  being  able  to  re- 
move  this  obstacle,  the  discouraged 
voyagers  prepared  to  return ;  but  were 
at  length,  by  the  solicitation  of  the 
governor  and  others,  induced  to  hold 
a  council   with    the    Indians,   from 
whom  they  eventually  purchased  a 
tract  of  country  on  the  west  side  of 
the    Passaic    river,   extending    from 
WoquakicJc  (or  Bound)  creek,  on  the 
south,    to    its    fountain    head;    and 
thence  westerly  about  seven  miles  to 
the   ridge   of   the   Great   mountain, 
called  by  the  Indians  (Wacchung) ; 
thence  by  the  said  ridge  north  to  the 
line  of  Acquackanonck  t-ship;  thence 
east   by  that    line  to  the  mouth  of 
(  Yantokah)  Third  river ;  thence  down 
the   Passaic   river   and    bay    to   the 
place   of  beginning.      These    limits 
formed  the  original  t-ship  of  Newark, 
comprehending  the  present  t-ship  of 
that  name,  and  the  t-ships  of  Spring- 
field, Livingston,  Orange,  Bloomfield, 


and  Caldwell.  The  price  of  this 
purchase  was  £130  New  Er^^land 
currency,  12  Indian  blankets,  aid  12 
Indian  guns.  The  title  thus  derived 
from  the  aborigines,  was  subsequent- 
ly set  up  against  that  of  the  proprie- 
taries, and  was  the  source  of  much 
litigation  and  forcible  contention, 
which  for  many  years  disturbed  the 
peace  of  East  Jersey. 

The  settlers  at  first  segregated 
themselves  according  to  the  towns 
whence  they  came ;  but  the  sense  of 
mutual  danger  soon  induced  a  change 
in  this  respect.  On  the  21st  May, 
1666,  delegates  from  the  several 
towns  resolved  to  form  one  t-ship, 
to  provide  rules  for  its  government, 
and  "  to  be  of  one  heart  and  hand, 
in  endeavouring  to  carry  on  their 
spiritual  concernments,  as  well  as 
their  civil  and  town  atfairs,  accord- 
ing to  God  and  godly  govern- 
ment." And  for  the  more  speedy 
accomplishment  of  their  desires,  "  a 
committee  of  eleven  were  appointed 
to  order  and  settle  the  concernments 
of  the  people  of  the  place."  These 
rules  had  a  full  proportion  of  the  pu- 
ritanical spirit  of  the  people  who  made 
them,  and  of  that  religious  intolerance 
which  was  the  distinguishing  trait 
of  the  inhabitants  of  Massachusetts, 
whence  they  were  originally  derived ; 
contrasting  strongly  with  the  liberality 
of  the  "  Concessions"  of  Berkeley  and 
Carteret,  to  which  these  emigrants 
were  indebted  for  the  very  soil  on 
which  they  had  alighted.  "  No  per- 
son could  become  a  freeman  or  bur- 
gess of  their  town,  or  vote  in  its  elec- 
tions, but  such  as  was  a  member  of 
some  one  of  the  Congregational 
churches : — nor  be  chosen  to  the  ma- 
gistracy, nor  to  any  other  military  or 
civil  office.  "  But  all  others  admitted 
to  be  planters,  were  allowed  to  in- 
herit and  to  enjoy  all  other  privileges, 
save  those  above  excepted."  With 
a  singular  disregard  of  the  rifirhts  of 
the  proprietaries  of  New  Jersey,  and 
apparently  with  a  resolution  of  dis- 
claiming all  fealty  towards  them,  and 
of  depending  on  their  Indian  grants, 
they,  also,  resolved  "  to  be  ruled  by 


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193 


NEW 


such  officers  as  the  town  should  an- 
nually choose  from  among  them- 
selves, and  to  be  governed  by  the 
same  laws  as  thej^  had,  in  the  places 
from  whence  they  came."  At  this 
period,  (1667,)  there  were  65  effi- 
cient men  in  the  settlement,  beside 
women  and  children. 

At  the  first  distribution  of  land, 
each  man  took  by  lot  six  acres  as  a 
homestead  ;  and  as  the  families  from 
each  of  the  several  original  towns, 
had  established  themselves  at  short 
distances  from  those  of  other  towns, 
the  allotments  were  made  to  them  in 
their  respective  quarters  of  the  new 
settlement.  Seven  individuals,  select- 
ed for  the  purpose,  assessed  on  each 
settler  his  portion  of  the  general 
purchase  money.  The  lands  were 
eventually  divided  into  three  ranges  ; 
each  range  into  lots,  and  parcelled 
by  lottery;  first  setting  apart  certain 
portions,  called  tradesmen's  lots ;  one 
of  which  was  to  be  given  to  the  first 
of  every  trade,  who  should  settle  per- 
manently in  the  place ;  reserving 
also,  the  present  Upper  Green  of 
the  town  for  a  market  place,  and  the 
Loiccr  Green  for  a  military  parade; 
and  that  part  of  the  town  in  and  adja- 
cent to  Market  street,  where  the  tan- 
neries now  are,  then  a  swamp,  for  a 
public  watering  place  for  cattle.  This 
last  portion  having  been  sold  by 
the  town,  is  altogether  in  possession 
of  individual  owners. 

In  1767,  the  Rev.  Abraham  Pier- 
son,  the  first  minister,  commenced 
his  official  duties  here.  He  is  said 
to  have  been  "  episcopally  ordained" 
at  Newark,  in  South  Britain,  and  to 
have  named  this  town  after  that  of 
his  ordination ;  by  which  name  it 
was  sometimes  called  abroad,  but 
was  known  at  others  by  that  of  Mil- 
ford.  In  the  next  year,  the  first 
"meeting  house,"  26  feet  wide,  34 
long,  and  13  between  the  joists,  was 
erected;  the  town  voting  £30,  and 
directing  that  every  individual  should 
perform  such  labour  as  a  committee 
of  five  might  require,  towards  its 
completion. 

Robert  Treat,  and  Jasper  Crane, 

2  B 


were  chosen  the  first  magistrates,  In 
1668;  and  representatives  to  the  first 
assembly  of  New  Jersey,  convened  at 
Elizabcthtown,  26th  May,  of  the 
same  year ;  by  whicli  the  first  state 
tax,  £12  sterling,  of  which  the  pro- 
portion of  Newark  was  40s.,  was 
laid.  Mr.  Treat  was  also  chosen  first 
recorder  or  town  clerk;  and  after  a 
residence  here  of  many  years,  return- 
ed to  Connecticut,  where  he  became 
governor,  and  died.  The  town  also 
established  a  court  of  judicature,  hold- 
ing annually  one  session,  on  the  last 
Wednesday  of  February,  and  another 
on  the  2d  Wednesday  of  September; 
having  cognizance  of  all  causes  with- 
in its  limits.  On  the  24th  May,  1669, 
the  first  selectmen,  five  in  number, 
were  chosen.  The  number  was  sub- 
sequently increased  to  seven,  who 
continued  to  administer  affairs  until 
1736,  when  the  present  township  offi- 
cers were  created  by  law.  And  in 
this  year  Indian  hostility  appears  to 
have  displayed  itself  in  petty  robbe- 
ries and  depredations,  the  increase 
of  which,  in  1675,  induced  the  towns- 
men to  fortify  their  church  as  a  place 
of  refuge,  in  case  of  general  attack, 
and  to  take  proper  measures  of  watch 
and  ward. 

On  the  23d  October,  1676,  a  war- 
rant was  granted  by  the  Governor, 
for  200  acres  of  land  and  meadow, 
for  parsonage  ground,  and  also,  for 
so  much  as  was  necessary  for  land- 
ing places,  school  house,  town  house, 
market  place,  &c.;  and  in  1696,  a 
patent  from  the  proprietaries  to  the 
town,  covered  all  the  lots,  in  various 
parts  of  the  township,  called  "  Parson- 
age Lands;"  which  have  been  since 
divided,  with  some  difficulty  and  con- 
tention, among  five  churches:  viz. 
the  three  Presbyterian,  and  the  Epis- 
copal, at  Newark,  and  the  First  Pres- 
byterian church,  at  Orange. 

In  1721,  the  first  freestone  was 
quarried  for  market ;  and  this  article, 
celebrated  for  its  excellent  quality, 
has  long  been  exported  in  great  quan- 
tities. 

At  the  commencement  of  the  revo- 
lutionary war,  the  town  was  much 


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194 


NEW 


dividod  upon  the  questions  agitating 
the  country ;  and  on  the  Declaration 
of  Independence,  by  the  State,  seve- 
ral families,  among  whom  was  Mr. 
Brown,  pastor  of  the  Episcopal  church, 
who  had  ministered  from  its  founda- 
tion, joined  the  royalists  in  New 
York.  From  its  vicinage  to  that 
strong  hold  of  the  enemy,  the  town 
suffered  greatly,  by  his  visitations, 
made  by  regular  troops  and  marau- 
ders. On  the  night  of  the  25th  of 
January,  1780,  a  regiment  of  50U 
men,  commanded  by  Colonel  Lumm, 
came  from  New  York,  following  the 
river  on  the  ice,  and  burned  the  aca- 
demy, then  standing  on  the  upper 
green.  This  was  a  stone  building, 
two  stories  high,  with  apartments  for 
the  teacher.  On  the  same  night  an- 
other British  party,  unknown  to  the 
first,  fired  the  Presbyterian  church, 
at  Elizabethtown,the  light  from  w^hich 
affrighted  the  incendiaries  at  Newark, 
and  caused  their  hasty  retreat.  They 
carried  away  with  them  Joseph  Hod- 
dens, Esq.,  an  active  whig,  who  had 
zea,lously  opposed  their  previous  de- 
predations ;  dragging  him  from  a 
sick  bed,  and  compelling  him  to  follow, 
with  no  other  than  his  night  cloth- 
ing. The  party  returned  by  the 
route  by  which  they  came;  and  a 
soldier,  more  humane  than  his  fel- 
lows, gave  Mr.  H.  a  blanket,  a  short 
time  before  they  reached  Paules 
Hook.  At  this  place  Mr.  H.  was 
confined  in  a  sugar  house,  where 
he  perished  in  a  few  days,  in  conse- 
quence of  the  sufferings  from  that 
dreadful  night. 

The  prosperity  of  this  enterprising 
and  industrious  town,  is  deservedly 
great ;  and  being  founded  on  the 
indispensable  manufactures  of  the 
country,  will  necessarily  progress 
with  the  general  population,  and  with 
such  increased  momentum  as  the 
highly  stimulated  spirit  of  its  inhabi- 
tants will  not  fill  to  give  it. 

Newark,  t-ship,  Essex  co.,  bound- 
on  the  N.  by  P)l()omfield  t-ship;  N. 
E.  by  the  Passaic  river,  which  sepa- 
rates it  from  Bergen  co. ;  E.  by  New- 
ark bay ;  S.  by  Elizabeth  and  Union 


t-ships;  and  W.  by  Orange  t-ship. 
Greatest  length,  E.  and  W.  7  miles; 
breadth,  N.  and  S.  6  miles;  ar^a, 
about  1"2,000  acres;  surlace  lev  .; 
soil  marsh  and  red  shale ;  a  lar  ^e 
proportion  of  this  t-ship  lying  N.  of 
Boundbrook,  and  E.  of  the  turnpike 
road  from  Elizabethtown  to  Newark, 
is  salt  marsh ;  the  remainder  consists 
of  well  improved  land.  Population, 
in  18.30,  including  the  town  of  New- 
ark, 10,953.  In  1832,  there  were 
2500  taxables,  1114  householders, 
whose  ratables  did  not  exceed  #30 ; 
527  single  men,  95  •  merchants,  4 
grist  mills,  3  saw  mills,  3  furnaces, 
1  fulling-mill,  26  tan  vats,  1  wool 
factory,  and  1  distillery.  The  t-ship 
paid  in  state  tax,  $933  72 ;  county, 
S2443  92 ;  poor  tax,  $2500 ;  road  tax, 
$500. 

Newark  Bay,  a  large  sheet  of 
water,  of  7  miles  in  length,  and  2  in 
breadth,  between  Bergen  and  Essex 
COS.,  and  separated  from  the  New 
York,  by  a  strip  of  land  one  mile 
wide,  but  communicating  therewith, 
by  the  Kill-van-Kuhl.  The  Passaic 
and  Hackensack  rivers  debouch  in 
this  bay.  Its  easterly  shore  is  bold 
and  clean,  but  its  westerly,  has  a 
broad  margin  of  salt  marsh. 

New  Barhadoes,  t-ship,  Bergen 
CO.,  bounded  N.  by  Harrington;  E. 
and  S.  E.  by  Hackensack  ;  S.  W.  by 
Lodi,  and  W.  by  Saddle  river  t-ships. 
Greatest  length,  N.  and  S.  7 ;  breadth, 
E.  and  W.  4  miles;  area,  11,500 
acres;  surface  generally  level,  but 
towards  the  N.  there  is  some  undu- 
lating ground ;  soil,  sandy  loam,  and 
red  shale,  extremely  well  cultivated, 
and  productive  in  grass  and  vegeta- 
bles for  the  New  York  market.  The 
farms  are  generally  small,  and  re- 
markable for  their  neatness.  Most 
of  the  dwellings  arc  built  in  the  sim- 
ple Dutch  cottage  style,  with  a  single 
story,  high  gal)le  ends,  and  project- 
ing pcnt-lifHises.  The  t-ship  is  drain- 
ed on  the  E.  boundary,  by  the  Hack- 
ensack river,  on  which  are  the  post- 
towns  of  New  Milf()rd,  and  the  ham- 
lets of  Old  and  N<w  Bridge;  and  on 
the  W.  line,  by  Saddle  river.     The 


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195 


NEW 


town  of  Hackensack,  the  county  seat 
of  justice,  lies  in  the  S.  E.  angle. 
Population  in  1830,  1693.  In  1832, 
there  were  in  the  t-ship,  440  taxables, 
85  householders,  whose  ratablcs  did 
not  exceed  $30 ;  40  single  men,  15 
mei'chants,  5  grist  mills,  5  saw  mills, 
2  carding  machines,  1  fulling  mill, 
1  wool  factory,  28  tan  vats,  315 
horses,  and  548  neat  cattle,  under  3 
years  old ;  and  paid  taxes,  state, 
$188  90;  county,  $339  97;  poor, 
$500;  school,  $100 ;  road,  $1000. 

New  Bargaintown,  Howell  t-ship, 
Monmouth  co.,  upon  Manasquan 
river,  9  miles  S.  E.  of  Freehold ; 
contains  a  grist  mill,  and  some  half 
dozen  dwellings,  surrounded  by  a 
sandy  soil,  and  pine  forest. 

Newhold's  Island,  in  the  Dela- 
ware river,  about  2  miles  below  Bor- 
dentown,  and  ^  a  mile  from  White 
Hill,  in  Mansfield  t-ship,  Burlington 
CO.;  has  a  fertile  alluvial  soil,  and  a 
fine  fishery. 

New  Bridge,  hamlet,  of  Hacken- 
sack t-ship,  Bergen  co.,  on  the  Hack- 
ensack river,  2  miles  above  Hacken- 
sack town ;  contains  a  grist  and  saw 
mill,  a  store,  tavern,  and  10  or  12 
dwellings.  Surrounding  country, 
level ;  soil,  fertile  loam. 

New  Brunswick,  p-t.  and  city,  and 
seat  of  justice  for  Middlesex  co.,  lying 
on  the  right  bank  of  the  river  Rari- 
tan,  15  miles  from  the  head  of  the 
bay  at  Amboy,  40  miles  by  water 
and  25  by  land  S.  W.  from  New 
York,  26  N.  E.  from  Trenton.  The 
city  is  partly  in  Nortli  Brunswick 
t-ship,  Middlesex  co.,  and  partly  in 
Franklin  t-ship,  Somerset  co.,  the 
post-road  or  Albany  street  forming 
the  line  between  the  t-ships  and  coun- 
ties. 

.  At  the  close  of  the  seventeenth 
century,  the  place  where  the  city 
now  stands,  was  covered  with  woods, 
and  called  after  the  name  of  its  pro- 
prietor, "  Prigviore^ s  Swamp.''''  The 
first  inhabitant,  of  whom  any  account 
is  preserved,  was  one  Daniel  Cooper, 
who  resided  where  the  post-road 
crossed  the  river,  and  kept  the  ferry 
which  afterwards,  in  1713,  when  the 


county  line  was  drawn,  was  called 
Inian's  Ferry.  This  ferry  was  grant- 
ed by  the  proprietors,  2d  Nov.  1697, 
for  the  lives  of  Inian  and  wife,  and 
the  survivor,  at  a  rent  of  5  shillings 
sterling  per  annum.  One  of  the  first 
houses  is  said  to  be  still  standing,  at 
the  foot  of  Town  lane;  and  some 
other  buildings,  erected  at  an  early 
period,  may  be  distinguished  by  their 
antique  structure,  in  Burnet  and  Al- 
bany streets.  The  first  inhabitants 
of  Eui'opean  origin,  were  from  Long 
Island.  About  1730  several  Dutch 
families  emigrated  from  Albany, 
brinmno;  with  them  their  building 
materials,  in  imitation  of  their  ances- 
tors, who  imported  their  bricks,  tiles, 
&c.  from  Holland.  Some  of  them 
built  their  houses  upon  the  present 
post-road,  which  thence  acquired  the 
name  of  Albany  street;  though  origi- 
nally it  was  called  French  street,  in 
honour  of  Philip  French,  Esq.  who 
held  a  large  tract  of  land  on  the  north 
side  of  it.  About  this  time  the  name 
of  New  Brunswick  was  given  to  the 
place,  which  had,  hitherto,  been  dis- 
tinguished as  "  The  River." 

The  city  was  incorporated  in  1784, 
and  is  now  divided  into  five  wards. 
The  old  market,  called  Coenties'  mar- 
ket, was  of  ancient  date,  and  stood  in 
Commerce  Square;  the  present  was 
built  in  1811.  The  court-house  was 
erected  in  1793 ;  the  bridge,  original- 
ly, in  1796,  and  was  rebuilt  by  a  joint 
stock  company  in  1811,  at  the  cost 
of  $86,687.  It  is  a  wooden  structure 
about  1000  feet  in  length,  divided  into 
two  carriage  ways  by  a  wood  parti- 
tion, and  rests  on  eleven  stone  piers 
and  abutments. 

A  portion  of  the  town  lying  imme- 
diately on  the  river,  is  low,  and  the 
streets  are  narrow,  crooked,  and  lined 
principally  with  small  frame  houses, 
extending  for  near  half  a  mile  from 
the  bridge  to  the  landings  for  steam- 
boats. Albany  street  is  a  broad,  well 
paved  thoroughfare,  ornamented  with 
some  excellent  buildings,  and  the 
streets  upon  the  upper  shelving  bank, 
are  generally  wide,  and  the  houses 
neat  and  commodious ;  many  of  them 


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196 


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expensively  built,  and  surrounded  by 
gardens.  The  streets  generally,  are 
paved  with  boulders.  Those  unpaved 
are,  in  the  rainy  season,  scarcely 
passable,  the  red  sandy  loam  of  the 
soil,  being  easily  wrought  into  deep 
paste.  From  the  top  of  the  hill  or 
bank,  especially  from  the  site  of  Rut- 
gers' college,  there  is  a  wide  prospect 
of  miles,  terminating  on  the  north  by 
the  Green  Brook  mountains,  and  on 
the  east  by  the  Raritan  bay. 

The  tide  in  the  river  extends  to 
Raritan  Landing,  about  two  miles 
above  the  town ;  but  immediately 
above  the  bridge,  at  the  town,  the 
river  is  fordable.  At  this  point  the 
ice,  when  broken  up  in  the  spring, 
sometimes  lodging,  forms  a  dam, 
which  raising  the  water  many  feet 
above  its  usual  level,  causes  it  to 
overflow  the  lower  streets.  The  De- 
laware and  Raritan  canal  has  its  out- 
let here,  by  a  lock  of  12  feet  lift,  into 
a  basin  200  feet  wide,  made  in  the 
bed  of  the  river,  and  extending  a  mile 
and  a  quarter  in  front  of  the  town, 
where  vessels  of  200  tons  burden 
may  lie.  From  the  canal  a  very  im- 
portant hydraulic  power  will  be  ob- 
tained, under  a  fall  of  14  feet,  with 
all  the  water  of  the  Raritan  river, 
and  all  the  surplus  water  of  the  canal. 
Consequently,  New  Brunswick  may, 
at  no  distant  period,  claim  considera- 
tion among  the  manufacturing  towns 
of  the  United  States. 

The  city  contains  between  5  and 
6000  inhabitants,  about  750  dwell- 
ings, 120  large  stores,  among  which 
are  12  extensive  grain  stores;  20  ta- 
verns, 12  practising  attorneys,  and  rt 
physicians ;  1  Methodist  church,  built 
in  1811,  and  another  belonging  to 
blacks  of  the  same  denomination :  A 
Dutch  Reformed  church,  the  present 
house  being  the  third  pertaining  to 
that  profession  ;  the  first  was  built  on 
the  corner  of  Schuremem  and  Burnet 
streets,  before  the  year  1717;  the 
second,  on  the  site  of  the  present,  be- 
tween the  years  1750  and  1783,  dur- 
ing the  ministry  of  the  Rev.  Johan- 
nes Leydt ;  and  the  present,  com- 
menced   in  1812,  was  mmpleted  in 


1828,  by  the  construction  of  a  brick 
stuccoed  steeple — a  Presbyterian  con- 
gregation occupying  their  second 
house  lor  worship;  their  first  wa^ 
built  before,  or  during  the  ministry 
of  the  Rev.  Gilbert  Tennent,  who  be- 
came their  pastor  in  1726,  in  Burnet 
street,  below  Lyell's  Brook  ;  and  was 
wantonly  destroyed  by  the  British 
soldiers  in  1776  or  1777;  the  pre- 
sent edifice  was  erected  in  1784  ; — 
The  Episcopal  church,  called  Christ 
church,  was  built  in  1743,  the  steeple 
in  1773  ;  but  the  latter  was  burned  to 
the  stone  basement  in  1802,  and  re- 
built in  the  same  year:  the  Baptist 
church  was  erected  in  1810,  and  a 
small  Catholic  chapel  in  1832.  There 
are  in  the  town  a  college  called  Rut- 
gers' college,  and  grammar  school 
connected  with  it ;  2  academies ;  an 
extensive  boarding  and  day  school  for 
young  ladies;  a  Lancasterian  school, 
incorporated  and  endowed  with  about 
$4000,  and  several  common  schools. 

The  town  has  an  extensive  trade. 
The  enterprising  inhabitants  have 
opened  a  ready  communication  with 
Easton  and  the  valley  of  the  Dela- 
ware, by  the  Jersey  turnpike  road ; 
and  have  made  it  the  depot  of  the 
produce  from  a  large  tract  of  fertile 
country ;  its  business  will  be  greatly 
increased  by  the  trade  of  the  Dela- 
ware and  Raritan  canal.  There  are 
now  12  sloops  employed  in  its  com- 
merce, and  300,000  bushels  of  Indian 
corn,  and  50,000  bushels  of  rye  arc 
annually  expoi'ted.  Two  lines  of 
stages  connected  with  steam-boats 
hero  and  at  Lamberton,  on  the  Dela- 
ware, run  daily  from  the  town,  and 
stages  depart  hence  daily  to  various 
parts  of  the  country ;  and  communi- 
cation is  had  four  times,  daily,  by 
steam-boats,  with  New  York.  There 
are  now  two  banks  established  here : 
the  Stale  Bank  incorporated  in  1812, 
with  an  authorized  capital  of  $400,000 
of  which  88,000  have  been  called  in; 
and  the  New  Brunswick  Bank,  incor- 
porated in  1807,  with  a  capital  of 
$200,000,  90,000  of  which  have  been 
paid. 

There  is  .i  voin  of  cropper  ore  adj?i- 


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197 


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cent  to  the  town,  which  was  formerly 
very  extensively  wrought,  but  which 
has  been  for  many  years  abandoned. 
For  an  account  of  this  mine,  see  pre- 
fatory chapter,  page  10. 

New  Dm-liam,  village  on  the  turn- 
pike-road leading  from  Hoboken  to 
Hackensack,  Bergen  t-ship,  Bergen 
CO.,  3  miles  from  the  one  and  seven 
from  the  other  ,•  contains  2  taverns,  a 
store,  and  some  10  or  12  dwellings. 

NeiD  Durham,  small  village  of 
Piscataway  t-ship,  Middlesex  co.,  5 
miles  east  of  north  from  New  Bruns- 
wick, and  on  the  turnpike  road  lead- 
ing from  Perth  Amboy  toward  Bound 
Brook ;  contains  a  tavern,  store,  and 
some  half  dozen  dwellings. 

New  Egypt,  p-t.  of  Upper  Free- 
hold t-ship,  Monmouth  co.,  on  the 
Crosswicks  creek,  23  miles  S.  W. 
from  Monmouth  Court  House,  170  N. 
E.  from  W.  C,  and  16  miles  S.  E. 
from  Trenton ;  contains  about  20 
dwellings,  2  taverns,  2  or  3  stores, 
valuable  grist  and  saw  mills,  and  a 
Methodist  church  within  a  mile  of  the 
town.  The  country  around  it  is  le- 
vel; soil,  of  clay  and  sand.  The 
name  is  derived  from  the  excellent 
market  the  mills  formerly  afforded 
for  corn. 

New  England,  village  of  Fairfield 
t-ship,  Cumberland  co.,  near  Co- 
hansey  creek,  5  miles  S.  of  Bridge- 
ton;  contains  some  12  or  15  dwell- 
ings, scattered  along  the  road  within 
the  space  of  a  mile ;  near  it  is  a  Me- 
thodist church. 

New  England  Creelc,  a  small 
stream  of  Lower  t-ship,  Cape  May 
CO.,  flowing  into  the  Delaware  bay. 

New  Freedom,  small  village  of 
Gloucester  t-ship,  Gloucester  co.,  on 
the  road  from  Camden  to  Great  Egg 
Harbour  river,  18  miles  S.  E.  from 
the  former,  and  14  from  the  latter; 
contains  a  Methodist  meeting,  a  glass 
manufactory,  a  tavern  and  store,  and 
some  12  or  15  dwellings.  It  is  in 
the  midst  of  the  pines,  on  Inskeep's 
branch  of  Great  Egg  Harbour  river. 

Newfou?idland,  is  the  post-office  of 
Longwood  Valley,  17  miles  N.  W. 
from  Morristown,  245   N.   E.  from 


W.  C,  and  79  from  Trenton;  there 

is  a  Presbyterian  church  here. 

New  Gei-mantown,  p-t.  of  Tewkes- 
bury t-ship,  Hunterdon  co.,  on  the 
turnpike-road  leading  from  Laming- 
ton  to  Schooley's  mountain,  14  miles 
N.  E.  from  Flemington,  45  from 
Trenton,  and  211  from  W.  C. ;  con- 
tains about  30  dwellings,  1  tavern, 
3  stores,  1  Lutheran,  1  Methodist, 
and  a  Presbyterian,  church  and  an 
academy.  The  town  lies  near  the 
foot  of  a  spur  of  the  Musconetcong 
mountain,  and  is  surrounded  by  a 
rich  and  highly  cultivated  limestone 
soil,  in  which  there  are  masses  of  bres- 
cia  or  pudding  limestone,  which  are 
perhaps  equal  in  beauty,  to  that  in 
the  capitol  at  Washington. 

New  Hampton,  p-t.  of  Lebanon 
t-ship,  Hunterdon  co.,  in  the  N.  W. 
angle  on  the  S.  side  of  Musconetcong 
creek,  and  on  the  turnpike  leading  to 
Oxford  Furnace,  18  miles  N.  W. 
from  Flemington,  41  from  Trenton, 
and  200  from  W.  C. ;  contains  1 
grist  mill,  1  saw  mill,  2  stores,  3  ta- 
verns, and  from  20  to  25  dwelhngs. 

New  Hamburg,  post-office,  Ber- 
gen CO. 

Neio  Market,  village  of  Amwell 
t-ship,  Hunterdon  co.,  8  miles  S.  of 
Flemington;  contains  a  tavern  and 
store,  6  or  8  dwellings.  Snydertown, 
a  small  hamlet,  divided  from  it  by  a 
branch  of  Stony  creek,  contains  a 
grist  mill,  and  2  or  3  dwellings;  the 
surrounding  country  is  hilly,  stony, 
and  poor. 

New  Market,  formerly  called  Quib- 
blctown,  village  of  Piscataway  t-ship, 
Middlesex  co.,  7  miles  N.  of  New 
Brunswick,  on  the  left  bank  of  Cedar 
creek;  contains  a  grist  mill,  a  tavern, 
a  store,  and  some  20  dwellings,  in  a 
fertile  country  of  red  shale. 

New  Milford,  village  of  Hacken- 
sack t-ship,  Bergen  co.,  in  the  ex- 
treme N.  W.  angle  of  the  t-ship,  4 
miles  N.  of  flackensacktown,  upon 
the  Hackensack  river ;  contains  2 
mills,  some  half  dozen  dwellings,  a 
store  and  tavern;  surrounding  coun- 
try, level;  soil,  sandy  loam,  with  red 
shale,  well  cultivated  and  fertile. 


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198 


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New  Mills.     (See  Pemherton.) 

Netcport  Creek,  rises  on  the  con- 
fines of  Stow  creek  and  Greenwich 
t-ships,  Cumberland  co.,  and  flows 
westerly  about  6  miles  into  Stow 
creek,  forming  the  south  boundary  of 
the  first,  and  north  boundary  of  the 
second  t-ship. 

Neu'port,  or  Nantuxet,  said  to  be 
more  properly  called  "  Antvxef,''^ 
p-t.  of  Dover  t-ship,  Cumberland  co., 
on  the  Nantuxet  creek,  5  miles  above 
its  mouth,  10  miles  S.  from  Bridgcton, 
187  N.  E.  from  W.  C,  and  81  S.  of 
Trenton ;  contains  from  20  to  30 
houses,  1  tavern  and  store.  This 
place  is  noted  as  having  been  the  re- 
sort of  refugees  and  tories  during  the 
revolution. 

New  Prospect,  p-t.  of  Franklin 
t-ship,  on  the  Hohokus  creek,  241 
miles  N.  E.  from  W.  C,  74  from 
Ti-enton,  and  UN.  W.  from  Hack- 
ensack ;  very  pleasantly  situated  upon 
high  ground,  on  a  fertile  soil,  and  in 
the  centre  of  a  thriving  manufactur- 
ing settlement;  what  may  appropri- 
ately be  called  the  town,  contains  2 
taverns,  1  store,  2  paper  mills,  2 
grist  mills,  and  chair  manufactory, 
with  lathes  running  by  water,  and  se- 
veral  dwellings. 

New  Proindence  t-ship,  Essex  co., 
bounded  N.  E.  by  Springfield  t-ship ; 
E.  by  Westfield;  S.  by  Warren 
t-ships,  Somerset  co. ;  and  W.  and 
N.  W.  by  the  Passaic  river;  which 
separates  it  from  Morris  co.  Cen- 
trally distant  S.  W.  from  Newark, 
13  miles;  greatest  length  6,  breadth 
2^  miles;  area,  7680  acres  ;  surface 
hilly,  on  the  west  mountainous;  soil, 
clay  loam,  and  red  shale;  carbonate 
of  lime  is  found  on  the  east,  near 
Green  Brook,  in  which  are  metallic 
appearances  supposed  to  be  gold  and 
silver,  but  arc  perhaps  only  the  de- 
ceptive pyrites  of  iron  or  copper. 
Population  in  1830,  910.  In  1832, 
the  t-ship  contained  195  taxables,  45 
householders,  whose  ratables  did  not 
exceed  $30;  29  single  men,  3  mer- 
chants, 3  grist  mills,  .5  saw  mills,  1 
paper  mill,  13  tan  vats,  147  horses, 
and  503  neat  cattle,  above  3  years  old; 


and  it  paid  state  tax,  S97  43 ;  county, 
$254  92;  poor,  300;  road,  $702. 

New  Providence,  p-t.  of  preceding 
t-ship,  13  miles  S.  W.  of  Newark, 
218  N.  E.  from  W.  C,  and  52  from 
Trenton ;  contains  a  Presbyterian  and 
Methodist  church,  a  tavern,  store,  and 
several  dwellings. 

Netvton  t-ship,  Gloucester  county, 
bounded  N.  by  the  city  of  Camden ; 
N.  E.  by  Cooper's  creek,  which  sepa- 
rates it  from  Waterford  t-ship;  S.  E. 
by  Gloucester  t-ship;  S.  W.  by  Glou- 
cestertown  t-ship;  and  W.  by  the 
river  Delaware.  Centrally  distant  N. 
E.  from  Woodbury  6  miles ;  great- 
est length  E.  and  W.  6,  breadth  N. 
and  S.  less  than  4